Main Idea: By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln expanded the goals of the war to include the ending of slavery. Vocabulary: emancipate – to set free
Emancipation Proclamation –President Lincoln’s 1863 declaration freeing slaves in
54TH Massachusetts Regiment– African American unit in the Union Army Fort Wagner – South Carolina fort, the site of an attack by the African
American 54th Massachusetts Regiment in 1863
desert – to leave without intending to return in violation of a duty
motive – a reason for doing something
regiment – a unit of ground, battle forces Setting the Scene: John Finnely heard the news first thing in the morning: Ten slaves had run off the night before. Finnely, a twelve-year-old slave on a plantation in Alabama, had a pretty good idea were the escapees had gone. Most certainly, they had headed for Union troops camped a few miles to the north—and freedom. Finney, too, began to “think and think about gittin’ freedom.” At last, with mixture of hope and fear, he decided to make the break: John Finnely, 86, was born a slave to Mr. Martin Finnely, who owned John's parents with about 75 other slaves and a large plantation located in Jackson Co., AL. Mr. Finnely being a hard taskmaster, had 10 of his slaves escape. Their success caused John Finnely to attempt escape and he also was successful. He joined the Federal Army and met all the other runaways in the service. He was commended by Vice Pres. Andrew Johnson, who later became President after President Lincoln's demise. At the war's termination, John engaged in farming. He later came to Texas and farmed until he went to work in the Fort Worth packing plants in 1917. Old age caused his death in 1930. He married in 1875 and reared 11 children. His wife died July 10, 1936. He lived at 2812 Cliff Street, Fort Worth, Texas, and his sole support was a $17.00, monthly pension received from the State of Texas. At first, the Civil War was not a war against slavery. But as thousands of slaves like John Finnely rushed into the arms of Union troops with the hope of freedom, some northerners began to rethink the aims of the war. Lincoln’s Goal The Civil War began –– to restore the Union, not to end slavery
Lincoln tried to make this clear in a letter he wrote,
“If I could save the union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves , I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving the others alone, I would also do that.”
Abraham Lincoln, August 22, 1862 quoted in Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln Carl Sandburg (1878 – 1967)
was an American writer and editor, best known for his poetry. He won two Pulitzer Prizes, one for his poetry and another for a biography of Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln’s reason for handling the slavery issue so cautiously; 4 slave states remained in the Union
He was careful not to cause these states to shift their loyalty to the Confederacy
Resources of the 4 border states might allow the South to turn the tide of the war The Emancipation Proclamation Mid–1862, Lincoln believed he could save the Union only by broadening the goals of the war
He decided to emancipate enslaved African Americans living in the Confederacy
Two parts to his decision:
1st part – in the four loyal slave states, slaves would not be freed
2nd part–slaves would not be freed in Confederate lands already occupied by the Union, like the city of New Orleans
This was meant to punish the rebel states
Motives and Timing
Lincoln had practical reasons for his emancipation plan
3 million working slaves in the Confederacy
The slaves helped grow the food that fed the Confederate soldiers
Rebel states were not under Union control; no slaves actually gained freedom January of 1863
Emancipation Proclamation changed the purpose of the war
Save the Union and NOW end slavery
The proclamation was greeted with JOY! by opponents of slavery
In Boston, abolitionist Frederick Douglass witnessed an emotional celebration “The effect of this announcement was startling… and the scene was wild and grand… My old friend Rue, a negro preacher, expressed the heartfelt emotion of the hour, when he led all voices in the anthem, ‘Sound the loud timbrel o’er Egypt’s dark sea, Jehovah hath triumphed, his people are free!”
Fredrick Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass The South saw the proclamation as a “fiend’s act”
Europeans, especially the working class, supported the proclamation
The South would most likely NOT receive any aid from Britain or other European countries *** this was a huge blow to the original plans of the Confederacy, they were anticipating aid and recognition African American Contributions
200,000 African Americans fought for the Union; 40,000 lost their lives Act of Bravery
The most famous African American Union unit was the 54th Massachusetts Regiment
Frederick Douglass was a recruiter for this unit and two of his sons fought with this group of black soldiers
The courage of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment helped win respect for the African American soldier
Sergeant William Carney, of the 54th, was the 1st of 16 African American soldiers to receive the ‘Medal of Honor’ Secretary of War Edwin Stanton told President Lincoln, these men had “proved themselves among the bravest of the brave”
Behind Confederate Lines
African American slaves in the South also helped the Union
This act weakened the South’s war effort *** How did this act really weaken the Confederate Army ?
__________________________________________________________________________________ When Union troops were victorious, the slaves in that area would be free; this created HOPE!
Whenever a Union Army appeared, slaves would flee the plantations and the ‘former’ masters
By the end of the Civil War, one out of four, 1/4 , of the enslaved population had escaped to freedom ¿¿ How did African Americans contribute to the Union effort ?
In the North - ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
In the South - _________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
What was Lincoln’s primary goals (4) during the war ? 1.____________________________________________________________________________________2.____________________________________________________________________________________3.____________________________________________________________________________________4.____________________________________________________________________________________.
What were the effects of the Emancipation Proclamation ?