Main Idea: As a result of the Mexican war, the United States expanded its borders to the Pacific Ocean

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US History

Fort Burrows

13.4 -- The Mexican War

READ pgs 394 – 397
Main Idea:
As a result of the Mexican war, the United States expanded its borders to the Pacific Ocean.
Bear Flag Republic nickname for California after it declared independence from Mexico in 1846
Chapultepec fort outside of Mexico City that was the site of an 1847 battle between the US and Mexico during the Mexican War
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo an 1848 treaty in which Mexico gave up California and New Mexico to the US for $15 million
cede to give up
Mexican Cession Mexican territory of California and New Mexico given to the US in 1848
Gadsden Purchase a strip of land in present-day Arizona and New Mexico for which the US paid Mexico $10 million in 1853
Setting the Scene:
American troops marched off to war with Mexico in 1846. Many of them proudly sang new words to the popular tune, “Yankee Doodle”: They attacked upon our land / And crossed our river too, sir / Now show them all with sword in hand / What Yankee boys can do, sir.”

The bloody Mexican War would last 20 months. When it ended, the US had expanded its borders to the Pacific Ocean. In the end, the war helped the US achieve its dream of Manifest Destiny.
War Clouds Over Oregon and Texas
1845, James K Polk takes the office of President

American citizens wanted to ‘expand’ the lands of America

War with Britain! Again ?

Dividing Oregon

☺ To avoid war in 1846, Polk agreed to the 49◦N Latitude

☺ The US took land to the South and Britain took the land to the North

☺ Oregon Territory became the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho
Annexing Texas

☺ Once again the US would not annex Texas

☺ The Senate was fearful of causing a war with Mexico

☺ Daddy Sam Houston played a bluff card

☺ Houston pretended that Texas was going to ally itself with Britain

☺ The US did not want Britain to get a foothold in Texas

☺ 1845, Congress quickly passes a joint resolution to annex Texas making it the 28th State in the Union
The United States and Mexico Clash
Mexico was MAD; they continued to believe that Texas was their land

When the US annexed Texas, Mexico began worrying about California and New Mexico

America was MAD because Polk offered $30 million for California and New Mexico and was rejected

Mexico stood in the way of Manifest Destiny

War Begins

☺ Rio Grande ? Nueces River ? Which was the Southern boundary of Texas ?

☺ 1846, General Zachary Taylor begins to build forts along the Rio Grande

☺ Mexican soldiers cross North over the Rio Grande; blood is shed on both sides

☺ 1st Battle is at Palo Alto ( 5 miles from Brownsville )

☺ Polk told Congress that Mexico invaded the US and killed Americans

☺ Congress quickly declared war; Mexican American War!

¿¿ How did the war between Mexico and the Unites States begin ?

Americans Respond

☺ Americans from the South (always looking for a fight; against anybody) and

West were eager to fight; they wanted more of someone else’s land

☺ Northerners opposed a war; they saw it as a way for the South to increase the

number of slave states

☺ Henry David Thoreau refused to pay taxes and was sent to prison

☺ Most Americans wanted war; thousands of young men volunteered
Fighting in Mexico
US attacks at several locations

#1 - General Taylor crosses the Rio Grande and faces Santa Anna at the Battle of Buena Vista; Santa Anna retreats

#2 – General Winfield Scott captures the port at Vera Cruz

#3 – Scott takes Mexico City; Mexico’s Capital

Revolt in California

☺ Americans in the North began revolting 1st ; they declared California an independent republic on June 14, 1846 – The Bear Flag Republic

☺ General Stephen Kearny captured Santa Fe without firing a shot

☺ By 1847, he had control of Southern California

The Final Battle

☺ 1847, Battle of Chapultepec (chah POOL tuh pehk)

☺ Mexico lost
Peace Brings New Lands
1848, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

Southern border of Texas is Rio Grande River

Ceded the lands of California and most of New Mexico Territory to the US

Called the Mexican Cession

US gave Mexico $15 million and a ‘promise’ to treat the Mexicans living in the

area with respect

1853, US buys the remaining land in New Mexico and a strip of Arizona

This $10 million purchase was called Gadsden Purchase

$25 million ( $5 million less than the US first offered )

This completed Manifest Destiny
¿¿ What new territories did the United States gain after the Mexican War ?

A Mix of Cultures
Americans brought democracy way of government

Mexican Americans taught how to mine silver, irrigate crops in the desert

Mexican words – stampede, buffalo, tortilla, soda, tornado

White man cheated, once again, used the court system to steal land

In the Southwest, Americans kept one Mexican law; men and women owned property jointly, together

In the rest of the US, women could NOT own land

¿¿ What aspects of Mexican-American culture became part of the US culture ?


1. How did the United States gain Oregon and Texas ?


2. What were the causes and results of the United States war with Mexico ?
Causes - __________________________________________________________________


Results -__________________________________________________________________


3. How did a mix of cultures shape California and the Southwest ?


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