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Macrobiological Hazards

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Kelman, I. 2012. Macrobiological Hazards. Version 11, 1 December 2012 (Version 1 was 7 July 2004). Downloaded from
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Environmental phenomena often interact with vulnerable human beings to result in a disaster. One such environmental phenomenon is large animals and plants, also termed macrobiology in order to contrast them with microbiology including viruses, bacteria, and rickettsia. This document lists illustrative examples where human beings or society have had difficulties with macrobiological creatures which are then termed macrobiological hazards. Macrobiological hazards should not be confused with their possible antithesis, macrobiotics.

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Ilan Kelman
Macrobiological Hazards

General 2

Alligators 2

Ants 3

Bats 5

Bears 7

Birds 9

Bison / Buffaloes 15

Caiman 16

Cats 17

Cat and Mouse 17

Cattle (Cows and Bulls) 17

Cattle, Dead 21

Cheetahs 22

Cougars / Mountain Lions 23

Coyotes 23

Crocodiles 24

Deer 25

Deer, Dead 28

Dogs 29

Dolphins 31

Elephants 32

Elk 39

Fish 39

Frogs 42

Giraffes 43

Goats 44

Goblins 44

Hedgehogs 45

Hippopotamuses 46

Horses 46

Hymenoptera (e.g. Bees and Wasps) 47

Kangaroos 47

Komodo dragons 52

Lions 56

Mice 57

Monkeys 58

Moose 60

Moose, Drunken 64

Musk Ox 65

Octopus 65

Pelicans 66

Pigs 67

Possums 69

Scorpions 70

Sea Lions 72

Seaweed, Invasive Mutant 72

Sharks 74

Sheep 74

Snakes 75

Squirrels 79

Sting Rays 80

Swans 81

Tigers 82

Whales 83

Whale Exploding 84

Wombats 85


CDC’s National Ag Safety Database, entries related to “Animals”

Gautret, P., E. Schwartz, M. Sha, G. Soula, P. Gazin, J. Delmont, P. Parola, M.J. Soavi, E. Matchett, G. Brown, and J. Torresi for the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. 2007. “Animal-associated injuries and related diseases among returned travellers: A review of the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network”. Vaccine, vol. 25, pp. 2656-2663.
Human Dimensions of Wildlife An International Journal,
MMWR. 2004. “Nonfatal Motor-Vehicle Animal Crash--Related Injuries --- United States, 2001--2002”. MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), vol. 53, no. 30 (5 August 2004), pp. 675-678,
Russell, F.F. 1974. “Prevention and Treatment of Venomous Animal Injuries”. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 8-12.
Taylor, D.M., K. Ashby, and K. D. Winkel. 2002. “An Analysis of Marine Animal Injuries Presenting to Emergency Departments in Victoria, Australia”. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, vol. 13, pp. 106-112.
Treves, A. and L. Naughton-Treves. 1999. “Risk and opportunity for humans coexisting with large carnivores”. Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 36, pp. 275-282.


Last Updated: Friday, 12 May 2006, 10:34 GMT 11:34 UK
Alligator kills jogger in Florida
An alligator killed a woman whose dismembered body was found floating in a canal in Florida, a US medical examiner has concluded.
The body of Yovy Suarez Jimenez, 28, was found in the town of Sunrise on Wednesday - a day after she disappeared while jogging near the canal.
"The alligator attacked her... bit her... and pulled her into the water," medical examiner Dr Joshua Perper said.
A hunt was under way to find and kill the reptile, local officials said.
Dr Perper - who performed the autopsy - said that the alligator "basically amputated" the woman's arms, and bit her on the leg and back.
"She died extremely fast. By the time she was pulled into the water she was already dead," the medical examiner at Broward County said.
No-one is believed to have seen the attack, but some people saw a woman matching Ms Jimenez's description dangling her feet over the canal's edge, reports in the local media say.
The alligator is estimated to be up to 10ft (three metres) long, based on the woman's injuries.
There have been 25 fatal alligator attacks in Florida since 1948, according to Florida's wildlife officials.

Canadian killed by alligator in Georgia

11/10/2007 8:56:47 PM

An 83-year-old Canadian woman has been killed by an alligator in Savannah, Georgia.
A couple found the body of Gwen Williams floating in a lagoon Saturday afternoon, Savannah-Chatham police confirmed in a press release.
Williams was missing her left arm, right hand and right foot.
An autopsy conducted on Tuesday found that the wounds were "consistent with those of an alligator attack."
It also concluded that Williams died from blood loss.
Meanwhile, the eight-foot-long reptile was trapped and killed Tuesday.
"The animal's stomach contents confirmed it as the gator that caused Williams' death," said the press release.
Williams was reportedly house-sitting for a relative. Police don't know where exactly in Canada Williams is from.
A wildlife biologist with the Georgia Department of Natural resources told The Associated Press that Williams is the first person known to have been killed by an alligator in the state since 1980.
The couple that discovered the body was walking on a golf course near the home where Williams was staying. Williams was last seen Friday afternoon.
With files from The Associated Press

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