M macartney, Carlile Aylmer

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MAORT Affair, The – The Hungarian-American Oil Industry Ltd. (MAORT – Magyar Amerikai Olajipari Rt.) owned the Lispe oilfields. When World War II ended, the Americans sent two representatives to Hungary to reorganize production in cooperation with Simon Papp, a university professor, who was also the Chief Executive Officer of MAORT. To prevent the investment of more American capital, and to assist in the nationalization of foreign owned businesses, a charge of sabotage was brought against them on the basis of a report by the ÁVH (Államvédelmi Hatóság – State Security Authority). The two Americans were expelled, and Simon Papp was sentenced to death. However, since there was no other person to operate the oil fields, his death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. For nearly six years Simon Papp oversaw the already nationalized Lispe oil fields from prison, where he was given a private cell, better food and the privilege of monthly correspondence with his wife. In the meantime, his wife became seriously ill but she did not want to further worry her husband, so she kept her illness a secret. When she died, a professional graphologist, working for the State Security Police (Államvédelmi Hivatal – AVH), continued corresponding with him in her name, because the AVH was worried Simon Papp would stop working for them if he found out about his wife’s death. – B: 1020, T: 7665.→Papp, Simon; State Security Police.
Maps of Hungary – The first significant world map was made in England around 1000 AD in illuminated manuscript form. It had Latin place names with dates and descriptions. The Anglo-Saxon Map in Cotton M.S. (manuscript) is now in the British Library. This map includes the names of Pannonia and Tracia and, between them: Hunorum gen., that is: territory of the Huns around 1000 AD. This “Hun Nation” may indicate the area of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania); but the inscription may also designate the environs of Esztergom in Western Hungary. This appears to be the first map to show Hungary. It includes the area occupied by the Huns (Hungarians) around 1000 AD. Maps of the Carpathian Basin were already made early in medieval times. Among them are the ones connected to the most famous Claudius Ptolemaeus School. They surveyed the Roman Empire, the paved roads, fording places and settlements of the times, including the area of today’s Hungary. A large number of Hungarian settlement names appear on the map of Al-Idrisi, the Arabic cartographer, drawn in 1154. There is a well-detailed description of surveying methods in the 12 July 1379 letter of the Nyitra Chapter (now Nitra, Slovakia) dealing with disputed properties, although this is not a map.

A series of maps of Hungary started with the work of the German Nicolaus Cusanus, in the middle of the 15th century. Those maps, printed in 1491, are already considered modern. Roselli, an Italian cartographer living in Buda during the era of King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 1458-1490) followed Cusanus (also called Cusa) in the middle of the 1470’s. He prepared a correct Ungaria-map. In it Septemcastrum Transvlvania (Erdély of Seven Castles) was delineated with its rivers, mountains and settlements. On it the Danubius (Danube) as well as the Scames (Szamos), Drana (Dráva) and Uag (Vág) rivers are denominated. Only 50 of the larger Hungarian settlements are on Roselli’s map. Not only the first panoramic depiction of Buda can be seen in the famous Scheidel World Chronicle (that had several editions following 1493), but it also includes simplified versions of Cusa's map sheets.

The first Hungarian cartographer known by name dates only from the 16th century, due to the activities of Lázár (Lazarus) scribe, secretary to Archbishop Tamás (Thomas) Bakócz. The very first Hungarian map may have been drawn between 1500 and 1510, the first of its kind that is not only part of a world atlas but it also shows Hungary separately. The first Ingolstadt edition (1528) was found only about 120 years ago. This map was published in Venice (1553), in Vienna (1556), and in Rome (1559). János (John) Zsámboki, Count Marsigli, Louis Ferdinand and astronomer, Miksa (Maximilian) Hell are the great names of old Hungarian cartography. Sámuel (Samuel) Mikovinyi was the great reformer of map design.

Also famous are Pál (Paul) Vásárhelyi, waterways regulator, and Demeter (Demetrius) Görög, the first map publisher. The name of Ferenc (Francis) Karács emerges as the best map engraver. The series of county maps began with County Pozsony in 1735. A full series of Hungary’s County maps was completed in 1811. Pál (Paul) Kitaibel prepared the world’s first earthquake map in connection with the 1810 earthquake in Mór. The first model and firmament hemisphere with Hungarian inscriptions was prepared for 150 schools under the direction of Károly (Charles) Nagy in 1840.

Pál (Paul) Gönczy was the master mapmaker-draftsman of the 19th century. His first school wall map (1866) was followed by new county maps of Hungary in the 1890’s. During the Habsburg era, all military maps were prepared in Vienna. The development of military cartography is connected to colonel Ágoston (Austin) Tóth (active after 1869). The detailed topographic maps appeared only after World War I, at the Royal Hungarian State Cartography Institute. In the first part of the 20th century, the Hungarian Geographic Institute accelerated map making. This is largely synonymous with the name of Manó (Emmanuel) Kogutowic.

Outstanding Hungarian cartographers were János (John) Honterus (1498-1549), János (John) Zsámbori (1531-1584), Gábor (Gabriel) Hevenesi (1656-1715), Mátyás (Matthias) Béla (1684-1749), János (John) Korabinszky (1740-1811), Miklós (Nicholas) Vay (1756-1824), Demeter (Demetrius) Görög (1760-1833), Ézsaiás (Isaiah) Budai (1766-1841), János (John) Lipszky (1766-1826), Lajos (Louis) Schedius (1768-1847), Ferenc (Francis) Karacs (1770-1838), János (John) Lakatos (1776-1843), Károly (Charles) Mártony Kőszeghy (1783-1848), László (Ladislas) Vörös (1790-1870), Ágoston (Austin) Tóth (1812-1889), Pál (Paul) Gönczy (1817-1892), Manó (Emmanuel) Kogutowicz (1851-1908), Jenő (Eugene) Cholnoky (1870-1950), Pál (Paul) Teleki (1879-1941), László (Ladislas) Irmédi-Molnár (1895-1971), István (Stephen) Turner (1900-1974), József (Joseph) Takács (1901-1986) and Kálmán (Coloman) Bakonyi (1919-1994). – B: 1138, 1020, 1671, T: 7675.→Honterus, János; Zsámboki, János; Hevenesi, Gábor; Budai, Ézsaiás; Schedius, Lajos; Karacs, Ferenc; Gönczy, Pál; Kogutowicz, Manó; Cholnoky, Jenő; Teleki, Count Pál.

Marácz, László Károly (Ladislas Charles) (Utrecht, 19 May 1960 - ) – Linguist. He is a second generation Hungarian, born in Holland. His higher studies were at the University of Groningen (1978-1984). He started to work as a scientific associate at the Linguistic Institute of the University of Groningen (1984-1990); from 1990 to 1992 he was on a Niels-Stenson scholarship at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris. From 1992 he has been teaching at the East European Institute of the University of Amsterdam. His field of research is Hungarian Syntax, the relations between Hungary and the West, and the origin of the Hungarian language. His works include Hungarian Revival - Political Reflections on Central Europe (1996), also in Hungarian translation: Magyar újjászületés. Politikai elmélkedések Közép Európáról (2008), and Legal Culture in Five Central European Countries, co-author (2000). He translated into Dutch the novel by Ferenc (Francis) Sánta, entitled: The Fifth Seal (Az ötödik pecsét). He is a recipient of the Bocskai Prize (1996). – B: 0874, 1945, T: 7103.
Márai, Sándor (Alexander) (Grosschmid) (Kassa, now Košice, Slovakia, 11 April 1900 - San Diego, CA, USA, 21 February 1989) – Writer, poet. He was born into a well-to-do Saxon family. At the age of 18, he was already writing for the newspaper, Budapest Diary (Budapesti Napló). He studied Philosophy in Budapest, Frankfurt, Berlin and Paris, and Journalism at the University of Leipzig. Between 1919 and 1923, he lived in Germany and, between 1923 and 1928, in France. He worked for several newspapers, including the Frankfurter Zeitung and the Prager Tageblatt, as well as for French papers. His writing career began as a poet. He also translated, wrote novels, essays, travel articles and plays. From 1928 he lived and worked in Hungary for 20 years. He left his country for the West in 1948, and lived in Switzerland, Italy and the United States, and was a correspondent for Radio Free Europe for a short time. He was a prolific writer and published almost 50 books between 1918 and 1949; many of his plays were presented on Hungarian stages. His prose was noted for its beautiful language, wise elucidations and clear expressions. The Funeral Oration (Halotti Beszéd), which became his most significant poetic work, was written in 1951. At first, it circulated informally until it was officially published, following the political changes in Hungary. He perfected 20th century Hungarian essay writing and his style became de rigeur in Hungarian prose. Even at the dawn of the new era, he devoted himself to the historically declining bourgeois lifestyle and its literary views, though, in his younger years, he had rebelled against it. Although he lived for several decades in a different linguistic milieu, he was able to retain the beauty, clarity and elegant style of his mother tongue. Márai ended his life by his own hands. A selection of his works: Confessions of a Citizen (Egy polgár vallomásai), novel (1934, 1990); Sinbad Goes Home (Szindbád hazamegy), novel (1940, 1992); The True Gentleman (Az igazi úr), novel (1941, 1992); Sea-Gull (Sirály), novel (1943); Diary 1943-1944 (Napló, 1943-1944), (1945, 1990); The Sister (A nővér), novel (1946); Kidnapping of Europe (Európa elrablása), accounts of a journey (1947); The Dolphin Looks Back (A delfin visszanéz), selected poems (1982), and Thirty Pieces of Silver (Harminc ezüstpénz), novel (1983). Some of his plays are: Adventure (Kaland), and Citizens of Kassa (Kassai polgárok). He also wrote plays for radio and television. In spite of spending most of his life in exile, he actually became one of the most influential Hungarian writers, with growing international fame in the second half of the 20th century. His works are undergoing a renaissance in Hungary, with fast growing popularity all over Europe. His books have been translated into a number of languages and have achieved several editions. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1941, regular 1945-1948, posthumous 1989). He was posthumously awarded the Kossuth Prize (1990). – B: 0873, 0883, 1257, 1672, T: 3240.
Máramaros (now Marmures, Romania) – A region of the Carpathian Basin situated partly in Ruthenia (Carpatho-Ukraine, now in Ukraine) and partly in northernmost Transylvania (now in Romania), in the area of the Northeastern Carpathian Mountains and their foothills. Before 1920 (the Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty), it had been a county, as a part of Historic Hungary since about 900 AD. The River Tisza divides it into two. The earliest extant records are from 1199. It was a sparsely populated royal hunting area; however, due to its salt-mines, it had significance from the earliest times. The power center of the one-time county was Huszt (now Khust, Ukraine). The chartered (politically and administratively privileged) nature of some of its settlements and towns, the so-called royal free boroughs and the medieval basic Saxon stratum of some settlements played an important role in the development of its Hungarian folk culture. In the time of King Károly I (Charles, 1307-1342), Hosszúmező (now Campulung la Tisa, Romania), Máramarossziget (now Sighetu Marmatiei, Romania), Técső (now Tyachiv, Ukraine), and Visk (now Vishova, Ukraine) enjoyed the rights of the royal free towns. The coat-of-arms of the county – in wooded surroundings at the mouth of an open salt-shaft, stand two miners holding a salt-cutting pick-axe – established in 1748, refers to the basic occupation of its population. On it the four undulating fesses symbolize the four rivers of the County: Nagyag, Talabor, Tisza and Visa. Ruthenians migrated into the county from the north, Romanians from the south. The 1920 Peace Treaty of Versailles-Trianon split the area into two parts: the northern part was ceded to Czechoslovakia (now part of the Ukraine) and the southern part to Romania. – B: 1134, 1031, T: 7456.
March 15 – The “Ides of March” is a national day commemorating Hungary’s War of Independence of 1848-1849. In the spring of 1848, following the revolutionary events in Vienna and Paris, the young radicals of Budapest (Márciusi ifjak; Youth of March), led by Sándor (Alexander) Petőfi and Pál (Paul) Vasvári, organized a large demonstration, joined by the workers and the bourgeoisie. The demands of the Hungarian nation were outlined in Twelve Points, and Petőfi’s “National Song” (Nemzeti Dal) was recited by the poet on the steps of the National Museum, printed without censorship, and distributed among the demonstrators. The popular meeting in front of the National Museum in the afternoon pressured city officials to accept their Peace Committee for the defense of public order. Then they freed Mihály (Michael) Táncsics from his prison in Buda. The events of this day enabled Lajos (Louis) Kossuth, Leader of the Opposition, to secure the fundamental laws of a semi-independent bourgeois Hungary in the Imperial Court at Vienna, which Austria and the Diet in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) were forced to endorse. However, the Clique of the Court, the so-called Camarilla, undermined the reforms by inciting the national minorities against Hungary, and a Croatian army, under the leadership of the Ban (viceroy) Josip Jellasic, invaded Hungary. Thus began the War of Independence (1848-1849). This has been commemorated throughout Hungary since 1860. While its observance was prohibited during the Soviet occupation following World War II; however, on 10 March 1957, by government decree No. 16/1957, and following the demise of the Communist Regime in 1989, it again became an official National Holiday. – B: 1230, 1138, T: 3240.→March’s Youth; Kossuth, Lajos; Táncsics, Mihály; Freedom Fight of 1848-1849.
March 1848, 12 Points – The demands, listed in twelve points by the civic revolution of March 1848. While Lajos (Louis) Kossuth was in Vienna negotiating with the Habsburg Government, dramatic events took place in the Hungarian Capital. On behalf of the opposition of the last Diet in the history of the nation, József (Joseph) Irinyi formulated the list of demands on 12 March 1848. Prior to that Kossuth made an epoch-making speech at the Diet in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) on 3 March, in which he demanded sweeping reforms in Hungary.

The Revolution in Vienna was an encouraging event for the Hungarian radical youth in Pest, since it supported Kossuth’s demands for Hungary, and the Austrians demanded similar rights for themselves. Metternich was dismissed and fled to save his life. On the morning of 15 March, a group of young intellectuals (the Pilvax Circle) assembled in the Café Pilvax of Pest, later to become known as the Youth of March (Márciusi ifjak). With their leaders, Sándor (Alexander) Petőfi, Mór (Maurice) Jókai and Pál Vasvári, they decided that they would realize the freedom of press; thus they went to the Landerer & Heckenast Printing workshop and seized control. Without prior permission from the censors, the twelve demands and the great poet Petőfi’s National Song were printed. They called a huge meeting in the afternoon at the National Museum, at which some 10,000 people were present. Mór Jókai the grest novelist spoke first. He read a proclamation outlined in 12 points:

1. Freedom of the press with the abolition of censorship. 2. Appointment of a Hungarian Ministry. 3. Annual Diet in Buda-Pest. 4. Equality of all in the eyes of the Law. 5. Formation of a National Guard. 6. Collective taxation. 7. Abolition of feudal rights in agriculture. 8. Elected juries for criminal cases. 9. Creation of a national bank. 10. Creation of a national army. 11. Liberation of political prisoners. 12. Union of Hungary and Transylvania

All the points were followed by thunderous applause. Then the great lyric poet, Petőfi, with his powerful poetry stepped forward and declaimed his National Song (Nemzeti Dal) starting with Talpra magyar:

Rise Hungarians, your country calls!

The time is now, now or never!

Shall we be slaves, or free?

This is the question, choose!

Then the revolutionary leaders went to the Municipal Council of Pest and to the Viceregal Council, and forced them to grant their demands outlined in the 12 points. They also succeeded in obtaining the release from prison of Mihály Táncsics, a radical politician with socialistic writings representing the peasants. The evening became a festive occasion, when József Katona’s great drama, Bánk bán (blacklisted by the Habsburg government), was performed at the National Theater, the great novelist, Jókai, playing the leading role and the famous actress, Róza Laborfalvi, playing the leading female part. This concluded the Bloodless Revolution of the Hungarians in Buda-Pest. A few days earlier, the Crown was forced to retreat: Emperor-King Ferdinand V promised Austria a new Constitution. The Revolution was victorious. In futrure, 15 March became a National Day in Hungary. – B: 0883, 1031, 1068, 1105; T: 7456.→Irinyi, József; Petőfi, Sándor; Jókai, Mór; Tácsics, Mihály; Katona, József; March Youth; Pillwax Café House; Laborfalvi, Róza; Heckenaszt, Gustav; Freedom Fight of 1848-1849.

Marchland (Borderland, gyepűelve) – After the 896-900 settlement of the Carpathian Basin, a largely uninhabited area at the time, carried out by the Magyar tribal confederation, led by Khagan Árpád, the western border was established inside the legal limit for defensive purposes and was called the gyepű (marchland). The line was drawn from Moson through Kapuvár and Sárvár up to Vasvár. The western limit of the gyepű was the actual border of the country. It was an inaccessible fortified no-mans-land, and crossing was permitted at certain designated points. Certain clans and tribes were settled nearby to maintain and defend the marchland. Those were the tribes that had joined the Magyars, such as the Khabars (Kabarok), Petchenegs (Besenyők) and the Szeklers (Székelyek). The border zone was patrolled and the gate-guards secured the entrance gates. They used their own weapons and sustained themselves without pay but in turn received all the privileges of the other free tribes. Their commander-in-chief was the head-guard delegated by the King. In front of the marchland – beyond the border – the boundary was also an uninhabited strip of land. Thus in the west a doubly guarded border protected Hungary in the Middle Ages. In the 11th century, right behind the marchland, a chain of earthen fortifications (földvárak) was erected with forts like Csákány, Ikervár, Sárvár, and Vasvár. This line of defense slowly moved toward the west during the 12th century. Within the marchland region some forts were erected, like the Benedictine cloister (founded in 1157) that was transformed into a permanent fortification by King Béla III (1172-1196). Right after the Mongol invasion (1241-1242) a chain of stone castles and forts became the backbone of the western defense system of Hungary. The border guards continued their duty after that transformation but their significance diminished in time. – B: 1132, 1143, 0945, T: 3233.→Borderland; Gyepű.
March Youth – The radical writers, intellectuals and university students, most of the members of the group Young Hungary (Fiatal Magyarország), who initiated the 15 March 1848 uprising against the oppressive policies of the Habsburgs. Their leaders were: Dániel Irányi, József (Joseph) Irinyi, Mór (Maurice) Jókai, Sándor (Alexander) Petőfi and Pál (Paul) Vasvári. On the request of the Opposition Circle (Ellenzéki Kör) they drafted the famous 12 points (demands). – B: 1136, 1231, T: 7665.→March 15; Pillwax Café House; March’s 12 Points; Petőfi, Sándor; Irinyi, József; Jókai, Mór; Vasvári, Pál; Freedom Fight of 1848-1849.

Marczali, Henrik (Marcali, 3 April 1856 - Budapest, 23 July 1940) – Historian. He studied abroad in Vienna, Paris and Berlin. From 1878 he was a teacher at the grammar school at the Teachers’ College of Budapest. From 1895 to 1919 he was Professor of Hungarian History at the University of Budapest. He was engaged in almost every period of Hungarian history. Because of his progressive approach, after the fall of the Soviet Council Republic of 1919, he lost his position. His wide-ranging, positivistic literary works embraced equally the older and more recent themes of Hungarian and world history. From 1898 he edited (and partly wrote the recent history, 3 vols.) the Great Illustrated World History series. He was the first to treat 18th century history of Hungary in more detailed studies, covering also economic, social and cultural aspects, with much appreciation of the Habsburg rulers. Marczali played an important part in the development of Hungarian history and he was a significant representative of the civic historical approach. He was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (from 1893). His works include Sources of Hungarian History of the Arpadian Era (1880); Hungarian History of the Era of Joseph II, vols. i,ii,iii (Magyarország története II. József korában I-III) (1882-1886); Maria Theresa (1891); History of Hungary from Charles III to the Congress of Vienna 1711-1815 (1896); Die Nationalität vom historisch-philosophischen Standpunkt (1905), and History of Transylvania (1935). He also published The Handbook of the Sources of Hungarian History (1902); Hungary in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1910) and Ungarisches Verfassungsrecht (Tübingen, 1911). – B: 0883, 1068, 1257, T: 7456.
Marczis, Demeter (Demetrius) (Ostoros, 20 November 1931 - Budapest, 28 April 2008) – Opera singer (bass). He studied at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest, and at the Academia di Tito Schipa, Rome. He was a member of the Hungarian Radio Choir. In 1958 he was awarded 2nd Prize at the Munich International Song Competition; in 1959 he received 1st Prize at the Song Competition of the Academy of Music, Budapest. Between 1959 and 1988 he was lead singer and founding member of the Opera Company of the National Theater of Pécs (Pécsi Nemzeti Színház), and also the Director of the Opera Company (1984-1988), and from 1990, its life member. From 1988 to 1994 he was a guest artist of the Budapest Opera House. Between 1995 and 1997 he was a permanent Guest Singer at the German Theater of Szekszárd (Szekszárdi Német Színház). There are 60 roles in his repertoire, among them: Ozmin in Mozart’s Il Seraglio (Abduction from the Seraglio – Szöktetés a szerájból); Sarastro in The Magic Flute (Varázsfuvola); Giovanni and Leporello in Don Giovanni; Figaro in The Marriage of Figaro (Figaró házassága); Don Alfonzo in Cosi fan tutte (Woman are Like that – Mindenki így csinálja); Rocco in Beethoven’s Fidelio; Basilio in Rossini’s Barber of Seville (A szevillai borbély); Ramphis in Verdi’s Aïda; Mephisto in Gounod’s Faust; Tiborc in Erkel’s Bánk bán, and Bluebeard in Bartók’s Bluebeard’s Castle (A kékszakállú herceg vára). His most memorable roles were in Mozart operas. He also appeared as a Lieder (song) and oratorio singer. His bass roles include 40 oratorios, e.g. by Händel, J.S. Bach and J. Haydn. He has appeared in Europe, the USA, Canada and Asia on 75 occasions. He received the Ferenc Liszt Prize (1965), the Artist of Merit title (1974), the Janus Pannonius Prize (1981) and the Officers’ Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary. He was an Honorary Citizem of Budapest, and that of Ostoros. – B: 1445, 1762, 1031, T: 7456.
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