M macartney, Carlile Aylmer

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Mályusz, Elemér (Elmer) (Makó, 22 August 1898 - Budapest, 25 August 1989) – Historian. Between 1916 and 1920 he studied at the Arts Faculty of the University of Budapest, where he obtained a Ph.D. in History in 1920. He conducted archival research in Vienna and, from 1922 to 1930 he worked for the Hungarian State Archives. In 1925 he became an honorary lecturer at the University of Budapest. From 1930 to 1934 he was Professor of History at the University of Szeged and, between 1931 and 1935, he edited with Sándor (Alexander) Domanovszky the leading Hungarian historical journal, Centuries (Századok). From 1934 to 1945 he was Professor of pre-1526 Hungarian History at the University of Budapest. In 1945 he was forcibly sent into retirement for political reasons. He was archivist of the Hungarian Lutheran Church (1947-1954), and from 1954 until his retirement in 1968, he was a correspondent for the Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He became a member of the Academy (corresponding 1930, regular 1941-1949, renewed in 1989). His research touched on almost all sections of Hungarian history. He achieved outstanding results in the medieval and 18th century Hungarian History in studying the problem of the feudal system and its Estates. He also dealt with aspects of Hungarian cultural and church history. His vast literary output includes The History of Ethnicity (A népiség története) (1931); “Mediaeval Hungarian Ethnic Policy (A középkori magyar nemzetiségi politika), published in the journal Centuries (Századok) (1939); Geschichte des ungarischen Volkstums von der Landnahme bis zum Ausgang des Mittelalters (1940); The Reign of King Sigismund in Hungary (Zsigmond király uralma Magyarországon) (1984, also in German, 1989), and The Transylvanian-Hungarian Society in the Middle Ages (Az erdélyi magyar társadalom a középkorban) (1988). He was honored with the Award of the Academy (1973). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Mandics, György (George) (Temesvár, now Timişoara, Romania, 4 January 1943 - ) – Teacher, journalist, mathematician, writer. He studied at the University of Temesvár and obtained an Education Degree in Mathematics and Physics. He also studied journalism in Bucharest in 1977. Between 1967 and 1972 he taught at Újvár (now Uivar, Romania) and Zsombolya (now Jimbolia, Romania). Between 1972 and 1984 he was an editor at the Torch Publishers (Fáklya Kiadó) at Temesvár and, since 1984, he has been a journalist at the Hungarian language journal, New Word (Új Szó) of Temesvár.Later, his interest turned to science fiction. His books include Wonderful Roots (Gyönyörű gyökerek) (1968); The Discovered Mother Earth (A megtalált anyaföld), poems (1976); Third-play (Harmadjáték) (TV, 1977); Iron Worlds (Vasvilágok), science fiction (1986); The Book of Mysterious Writings (A rejtélyes írások könyve) (1987); The Golgotha of Temesvár (Temevári Golgota), novel (1991); Temeswar – ein Symbol der Freiheit, (Munich, 1992); UFO-history (Ufótörténelem) (under the pen name George M. Dick) (1993); Encíclopedia fiinţelor extraterestre, studies i, ii (1996, 1998), and The Manipulated Revolution (A manipulált forradalom) (2009). He also made literary translations. He is a member of learned societies at home and abroad. He is a recipient of numerous distinctions, including The Prize of Romanian Writers’ Association (1978), the Gold Meteorite Prize (1987), as well as Prizes of the Hungarian Writers’ Association (1977, 1986, 1987, 1988). – B: 1036, T: 7456.
Mandl, Lajos (Lázár) (Louis, Lazarus) (Pest, December 1812 - Paris, 5 July 1881) – Physician. He studied Arts, Theology, and later Medicine at the Universities of Pest and Vienna, and earned a Doctorate in Medicine from the University of Pest in 1836. He settled in Paris and soon became widely known, and was the favorite doctor of the socially well-to-do of the city. He prepared anatomical demonstration specimens at the Medical Faculty of the University of Paris in 1845. He dealt mainly with microscopic anatomy. He lectured on that subject, especially on its biological and pathological significance at the Medical School. From 1862 he also lectured on the illnesses of the human speech organ. He edited the French journal, Archives d’Anatomie generale et de physiologie in 1846. His works include Anatomie microscopique, I-II (1835-1858), Mémoires concernant la pathologie et la thérapeutique des organs de la respiration (1855), and Traité pratiques de maladies de larynx et de pharynx (1872). He received the French Cross of the Legion of Honor, as well as the First Prize of the French Academy. – B: 1730, 0907, T: 7456.
Mándy Ignác Károly (Ignatius Charles) (? - 4 June 1871) – Hungarian (Honvéd) Military officer, American Brigade-General, serving under the pseudonym General Mundee. He came to Hungary in 1848 as a lieutenant with the Lenkey Hussar Regiment, using the name Ignác Mándy. After the Battle of Bábolna, General Artur Görgey appointed him Brigade Commander. At the end of the War of Independence (1848-1849), he was already a Colonel. Following the capitulation at Világos, he went to Viddin, then to the Internment Camp of Sumen in Turkey (now in Bulgaria). There he converted to the Islamic religion and married a Turkish woman in Istanbul. In 1850 he served in the European Turkish army as a Captain, then after the Crimean War he went to the New World. He reappeared in California among the gold-diggers as Ignác Károly (Ignatius Charles) Mándy. In the Civil War, he began his military service on 24 August 1861, in the Kansas Regiment as Captain and Regimental Adjutant. A year later he was made Major for his distinguished service in the battles of Winchester, Fisher’s Hill and Cedar Creek. For the heroism he displayed in the decisive Battle of Petersburg on 2 April 1865, the Congress in Washington promoted him to the rank of Brigadier-General. – B: 1143, 1020, T: 7456.
Mándy, Iván (Budapest, 23 December 1918 - Budapest, 6 October 1995) – Writer. He studied at the Lónyai Street Reformed High School and the Madách High School in Budapest, from 1928; but he gave up his studies. After 1945 he joined the young authors of the magazine, New Moon (Újhold). Between 1950 and 1954 he was a correspondent for the Adult Education College while, from 1954 to 1961, he was a freelance writer. After a long period of inactivity (while he was sentenced to silence by the political regime), he became a member of the Editorial Committee of the magazine, Paraphernalia (Holmi) in 1989. From 1990 he was President of the Board of Trustees of the György (George) Rónay Prize and, from 1991, a member of the Body of Magistrates of Budapest. From 1992 he was President of the Széchényi Literary and Arts Academy. The Magvető Publishers (Magvető Kiadó) published his works annually from 1984 on. The environment of the infamous Teleki and Mátyás Squares of Budapest, the little world of the men-in-the-street, the failed ones, and society’s outcasts influenced the atmosphere of his writings. In his short stories, a curious human mixture prevails: gypsies, hooligans, loners, the defenseless, and all those who are longing for human contact and love. The old cinemas, espresso bars, swimming pools and football fields form his “Mándy Universe” In the 1960s, a new orientation gave him the Vera short stories; in its center stands a young girl, the typical representative of the beat generation, e.g. What Happened to Vera? (Mi van Verával?) (1970). Dream often formed the basis of his short stories, e.g. A Man’s Dream (Egy ember álma) (1971). From the end of the 1970s he treated solitude, isolation and anguish of the modern large cities, the grotesque, yet continued struggle of the lonely heroes with reality, reminding us of the moral duty of faithfulness and compassion. He authored several volumes of radio plays, and a musical: Deep Water (Mélyviz). His children’s books are classics, such as Csutak in Front of the Microphone (Csutak a mikrofon előtt), youth novel (1961); The Tram (A villamos) (1981); Legends of Budapest (Budapesti legendák) (1994), and The Fly Hunter (A légyvadász), short story (1996). He received the Baumgarten Prize (1948), the Attila József Prize (1969), the Kossuth Prize (1988), the Getz Corporation Prize (1991), and the Life Achievement Prize of the Soros Foundation (1992). – B: 1257, 1030, 1091, T: 7456.
Manga, János (John) (Pereszlény, 24 June 1906 - Budapest, 2 September 1977) – Ethnographer and museologist. He completed his high school studies in Ipolyság (now Šahy, Slovakia), then he obtained a Degree in Education at the Teachers’ College of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) At first, he worked as a teacher in the schools of Szécsénke and Pozsonyligetfalu. In 1940 he became Principal of the School at Ógyalla. While he obtained a Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Budapest in 1942, he worked as a research fellow at the Ethnographic Museum of Budapest from 1941 to 1949. After 1945 he left Slovakia and settled in truncated Hungary. He was director of the Palóc Museum of Balassagyarmat from 1949 to 1959; thereafter, from 1960 to 1963, he was Deputy Director of the Ethnographic Museum of Budapest and, until his death, he was a research fellow of the Ethnographic Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, for a few years also acting as Section Head. His main fields of research were folk customs, folk music, musical instruments, and folk art. Even earlier, while he was in Slovakia, he carried out some fundamental research in these fields. His talks in the Hungarian broadcasts of Radio Pozsony proved significant. His works include Ethnography of the Returned Felvidék (A visszatért Felvidék néprajza) (1939); Festival Customs at Menyhe in County Nyitra (Ünnepi szokások a nyitramegyei Menyhén) (1942), and Palóc Land (Palócföld) (1979). – B: 1890; T: 7456.→Vienna Award I.
Mangalica pig (or Mongolica)A breed of pig in Hungary; its name is of Serbo-Croat origin. It is a relatively small-bodied pig with thin bones; its body is covered with curly, mostly blond bristles, its earlobes hanging down. It is bred for its fat content, e.g. for lard (zsírsertés; in German Fettschwein); compared with other pig breeds, its fat is richer in oleic-acid; the evenly distributed, marbled fat-content in its meat has favorable consumer value in flavour, juiciness and tenderness; on the whole, an excellent characteristic for steak. The world fame of the Pick and Hertz Salamis, and the Csabai and Gyulai Sausages is founded on the Mangalica. As a breed, it has been crossed repeatedly over the centuries in the fallows of the Great Plain and Transdanubia, to produce a characteristic Hungarian breed, fully acclimatized. It is fastgrowing, fairly prolific, and hardy by nature, well known also for its resistance to disease. Early in the 20th century, it was considered to be the best pig in Europe; since then it has been surpassed by other, higher meat-producing breeds, so that, by 1990, the Mangalica breed was on the verge of extinction: its individual numbers reduced to between 100 and 500. To save this pig breed, state protection has been introduced in Hungary since 1976. Now the Mangalica is bred in farms abroad as well. In the past, a famous place for this breed was the estate of Prince Joseph at Kisjenő (Chişineu-Criş, in County Arad, now in Romania), where the boars were bred for breeding. In 1999, in Germany, this breed was selected to be the pig of the year. It has been considered a national treasure. – B: 1068, 1816, 1966, T: 7456.
Manhattan Project – In the summer of 1939, two Hungarian-American physicists, Leo (Szilárd), Ph.D., and Ede (Edward) Teller, Ph.D., decided to ask Albert Einstein to use his international reputation to call Roosevelt’s attention to the fact that, by the use of the uranium from the Czech mines, German scientists would be in a position to develop an atomic bomb. Teller translated Einstein’s letter, written in German, into English and personally delivered it to the White House. A few weeks later, Roosevelt called a secret meeting at the White House, where the decision was made to begin atomic research, under the code name: Manhattan Project. The leader of the research group was the Italian, Enrico Fermi; but the rest of the five-member research group were Hungarians: János (John) von Neumann, Ph.D., Leo Szilárd, Ph.D., Ede Teller, Ph.D. and Pál Jenő (Paul Eugene) Wiegner, Ph.D. Allegedly, Einstein made the remark: “Those people are from Mars…when they talk among themselves in Hungarian”. The project was successful and the first atomic reactor was created, making feasible the manufacture of an atomic bomb. When the group found out that the American military leadership was preparing to use the atomic bomb against Japan, several of them sent a letter to President Truman, protesting its use; but their letter failed to have any result – B: 1290, 1020, T: 7665.→Einstein’s Letter; Szilárd, Leó; Teller Ede; Wiegner, Jenő; Neumann, von János.
Manlius, Johannes (János, John) (Johann Mannel) (? 1540 - Németkeresztúr, now Sopronkeresztúr, 1605) – Traveling printer. Due to his Protestant affiliation he had to flee Austria, and settled in Upper Hungary (Felvidék, now Slovakia). With the help of Boldizsár (Balthasar) Batthyány, he established a printing workshop in the Fort of Németújvár (now Güssing, Burgenland, Austria) in 1582, but he moved frequently. His first work was the book on István (Stephen) Beythe, a preacher in Németújvár, entitled: A Short Version of Christian Knowledge (Köröszténi Tudománnak rövid summája). In 1583 he published the Latin-Hungarian Dictionary of Plants in the Pannon (Transdanubian, Dunántúl) Region, compiled by the celebrated European botanist, Clusius. With the help of Count György (George) Zrinyi, he established his printing shop and worked in Mogyorókerék (now Eberau, Burgenland, Austria), between 1587 and 1592. He published the first Hungarian newspaper, the Neue Zeitung aus Ungarn. During his five years in Mogyorókerék, he published 13 books, of which 7 were in Hungarian, 4 in German, and 2 in Latin. Between 1598 and 1605, he was working, with the help of the Nádasdys in Németkeresztúr, where he published 11 books. He was the printer for the Protestant Clergy. – B: 0883, 1020, 1257, T: 3240.
Mannheim, Károly (Charles) (Budapest, 27 March 1893 - London, UK, 9 January 1947) – Sociologist, one of the founders of the Sociology of Knowledge Movement. He pursued his Philosophy and Sociology studies in Budapest, Freiburg, Paris and Heidelberg. Between 1930 and 1933, he was Professor of Sociology in Freiburg. Later he taught at the London School of Economics and Political Science, and at the Institute of Education, University of London. Although Mannheim wrote widely on sociological and political topics, he returned again and again to the problems of knowledge and of ideology. He proposed a sociological perspective that viewed all mental structures (with the exception of the natural sciences) as context-dependent. For him, the Seinsverbundenheit (existential alliance) of human knowledge is rooted in the social existence of competing human groups. When investigating worldwide ideologies, one needs to take into account not only the classes but also the status of groups, generations, military, cultural, political and economic elites, professions and many other groupings. His significant works are Ideologie und Utopie (Bonn, 1929); Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction (London, 1940); Freedom, Power and Democratic Planning (London, 1951); Systematic Sociology (London, 1957), and Ideology and Utopia (Ideológia és utópia) (1996). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7617.
Manninger, Jenő (Eugene) (Rácbóly, 30 October 1918 - Budapest, 3 October 2008) – Surgeon. His university studies were completed at the University of Pécs in 1942. He started working at the local Pathological Clinic. From 1944 he served at the war-front, became a POW, and worked in Soviet military hospitals. After his release from captivity, he worked at the Anna Koltói Hospital, Budapest from 1948, and continued working there until his death, when the Hospital was transformed into the National Traumatology Institute, where he was Director from 1978 to 1989. He received several scholarships to study the modern methods of hand and hip surgery, which he introduced into Hungary. He succeeded in creating a hand surgery school of international fame. His surgical method is now applied in Western Europe. He wrote and co-authored 227 books, chapters, articles in Hungarian and in other languages. His lifework’s monograph was published in English as well as in German, in 2005 and 2007 respectively. He was a member and honorary member of a number of professional societies in Hungary and abroad. He received the Batthyány-Strattmann and Semmelweis Prizes, and the Middle Cross of the Order of Merit of the Repuiblic of Hungary, as well as the title of “Pioneer of Hand Surgery” from the American Hand Surgery Society. – B: 1031, 1880, T: 7103.
Manninger, Rezső (Ralph) (Sopron, 7 July 1890 - Budapest, 4 February 1970) – Veterinarian. He obtained his Veterinary Degree in 1912, and his Doctorate in 1914, from the Veterinary School, University of Budapest, where he was a demonstrator in the Institute of Epidemiology from 1912 to 1921, then an assistant lecturer and, in 1918, an honorary lecturer in Immunology. From 1921 he was Professor of Immunology and Institute Director. From 1928 to 1943 he was Director of the National Institute of Animal Health, and in 1940 and 1941, became its Dean. In 1947-1948 he acted as Vice-Chancellor of the University of Agricultural Sciences. Between 1933 and 1963 he was the Hungarian representative of the International Bureau of Animal Health. From 1953 to 1956 he was President of the Agriculture Section of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, corresponding member (1927) and regular member (1939). He was a member and Honorary Doctor of several Hungarian and international veterinary societies. His research encompasses the whole field of pathology and therapy of domestic animals; he also did work in Bacteriology, Microbiology and Immunology. He wrote a number of books and articles in Hungarian and other languages. He reworked with János (John) Mócsy (until its 11th German edition, 1939), the renowned textbook of Ferenc (Francis) Hutÿra, and József (Joseph) Marek, entitled Spezielle Pathologie und Therapie der Haustiere, vols. i,ii,iii (1905, 6th edition 1922), in Hungarian: Állatorvosi belgyógyászat, (1894-1898), This work was an international success, translated into English, Italian, Spanish, Russian and Chinese, and published in several editions. He also published Infectious Diseases of Domestic Mammals (A házi emlősök fertőző betegségei) (1939). He received the Kossuth Prize twice. There is a memorial medal and a memorial plaque in his honor. – B: 1068, 1582, 1730, 1031, T: 7456.→Hutÿra, Ferenc; Mócsy, János; Marek, József.
Mansfeld, Géza (Budapest, 26 February 1882 - Geneva, 11 January 1950) – Physician, physiologist. He completed his Medical studies at the University of Budapest in 1905, then, for two years, he pursued further studies at the Universities of Vienna and London. From 1907 he was a demonstrator in the Department of Pharmacology; in 1920, honorary lecturer of experimental pharmacology; in 1916, he became an assistant professor; from 1918, he was Professor of Pharmacology and Pathology at the University of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), and later on, at the University of Pécs. In 1944 (when Hungary came under German occupation) he was carried off to the Auschwitz Concentration Camp. After World War II, he returned to Hungary and, between 1946 and 1950, was Professor of Biology at the Medical School at the University of Budapest, and Director of the Biological Institute. His medical work covered almost the entire field of Pharmacology; he also did important work in Immunology. Among others, he was occupied with the diseases of the thyroid gland, the functioning of the endocrine glands, the problems of blood circulation, the temperature control of the system and diabetes. His work includes: Pharmacology (Gyógyszertan) (1912) co-authored with Z. Vámossy and B. Fenyvessy; Die Hormone der Schilddruse und ihre Wirkungen (1943), and New Pathways of the Physiology of Infection and Immunity (1949). – B: 1730, 1160, T: 7456.
Mansfeld, Péter (Budapest, 10 March 1941 - Budapest, 21 March 1959) – Student of industry, one of the kids of Pest, the youngest martyr of the 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight. When he was four, the invading Soviet Russian troops took away the male members of his family for forced labor (malenki robot) in 1945. His grandfather did not return. His father was a barber. In the early 1950s, his parents were divorced; he remained with his mother and his elder and younger sisters. After completing the primary school at Medve Street, Budapest, he became an industrial student, specializing in turnery at the Mátyás Rákosi Industrial School on Csepel Island (southern, industrial suburb of Budapest). In 1956 he was transferred to the State Railways Engineering Works (MÁVAG). During the Revolution in 1956, he joined the resistance group led by “Uncle Szabó” at Széna Plaza, on the Buda side. At first, he was almost sent away, being considered too young, since he was only 15 at that time, but then he became the vehicular connecting link (liaison), though he did not have a license to drive a car. He stayed with the resistance fighters until 4 November. Thereafter, he was collecting weapons (some of them from the villa of the Former Minister of the Interior, László Piros), hiding them and intending to use them, if the Revolution were to break out again. While actively organizing this, he and his companions were arrested. He was sentenced to death for participating in the 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight. Since he was still a minor, they waited until he turned 18 and, a few days after his birthday, he was executed. His grave is in plot 301 of the New Public Cemetery (Köztemető in District XIX, Budapest). There is a street named after him in Budapest, and the Theater of a School bears his name. His statue in the Veronika Park in Budapest was dedicated in 2004; a film on him entitled: From a Higher Point of View (Magasabb szempontból) was made in 2006. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7456.→Boys of Budapest.
Mányoki, Ádám (Szokolya, 1673 - Dresden, Germany, 6 August 1757) – Painter. He was born into the family of a Minister of the Reformed Church. First, he studied Art in Hamburg and in Hanover, where he was a student of A. Scheitz until 1703; and between 1703 and 1707, he was at the Prussian Court in Berlin. After he had painted the portrait of Reigning Prince Ferenc (Francis) Rákóczi II, he returned home to be the official court painter. Beside his artistic work, he served the Reigning Prince in a diplomatic capacity as well. In 1709, Rákóczi sent him to the Netherlands, then to Danzig. In 1713 he went to Warsaw, in 1714, to Dresden, and later to Berlin. He painted the portrait of the favorite mistress of the King of Poland, as well as the portraits of many member of the court. In 1717, he became the Court Painter of the Saxon Prince; but later in 1724, following a trip to Vienna, he returned to Hungary. He went to Berlin and Leipzig once more and finally settled in Dresden, in the Court of the Saxon King, where he worked until his death. His art works had a great influence on Central European culture. His portraits are famous all over Europe. Several portraits, among them the Portraits of Prince Ferenc Rákóczi II (II Rákóczi Ferenc arcképei) (1708, 1712), and another portrait of the Prince of 1724, are in the National Gallery, Budapest. His other works include Self-portrait (Önarckép) (1711), also in the National Gallery; The Countess of Dörrhoff (Dörrhoff Grófnő) (1713), and Portrait of Judit and János Podmaniczky (Podmaniczky Judit és János képmása) (1724). He is one of the most recognized, talented and renowned Hungarian baroque portrait painters. – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7653.→Rákóczi II, Prince Ferenc.
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