Makkai, Sándor (Alexander) (Nagyenyed, now Aiud, Romania, 13 May 1890 - Budapest, 19 July 1951) – Bishop of the Reformed Church, theologian, writer. He completed his Theological Studies in Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), where he received a Ph.D. in Philosophy and became an honorary lecturer. He was influenced by the philosophy of Károly (Charles) Böhm. After serving as Pastor in Vajdahunyad (now Hunedoara, Romania) for two years, he was invited in 1918 to teach Practical Theology at the Reformed Theological Academy of Sárospatak, becoming in the same year Professor of Methodological Theology at the Reformed Theological Academy of Kolozsvár. In 1926 he was elected Bishop by the Transylvanian Reformed District (Erdélyi Református Egyházkerület), and served in this capacity until 1936. As a member of the Romanian Senate he fought for the political rights of Hungarians in Romania. Weary of the fights for minority rights, he left Transylvania and accepted a teaching position at the University of Debrecen in 1936. In his article: Not Possible(Nem lehet), he bitterly concluded about the life of minorities: “...it is humanly unfair and impossible to live without hope for change...”. He resigned for health and political reasons. During his 10 years as bishop, he built several hundred new churches, schools, orphanages, shelters, hospitals and children’s homes. He accepted the Professorship of Practical Theology in Debrecen and moved to Hungary. In 1938 he was elected President of the Hungarian Protestant Literary Society. He was a prolific author publishing numerous works on theology, philosophy, pedagogy and literature. The themes of his novels were taken from Hungarian history of old, and they were quite popular. His aim was national as well as Church renewal; he urged the build-up of Hungarian spirituality. His first far-reaching study: Destiny of the Hungarian Tree(A Magyar Fa Sorsa) was a sensation in 1927. His literary works include The Star of the Hungarians(Magyarok csillaga);Shaman King(Táltoskirály);Yellow Menace (Sárga veszedelem), and Witch-cart(Ördögszekér). As bishop and theologian he was one of the rousers, organizers and inspirers of the Reformed Church. His related major works are: Introduction to the Pedagogy of Personality (Bevezetés a személyiség pedagógiájába) (1912); Psychology of Religion (A vallás lélektana) (1914); The Mystery of Death (A halál misztériuma) (1918); Fight Between the Intellect and Faith (Az értelem és hit harca) (1919); Conscious Calvinism (Öntudatos kálvinizmus) (1925); Harvest (Aratás) (1926); Alone: the Spiritual Countenance of Gábor (Gabriel) Bethlen (Egyedül: Bethlen Gábor lelki arca) (1929); Hungarian Education, Hungarian Culture (Magyar nevelés, Magyar kultúra) (1937); The Missionary Work of the Church (Az egyház missziói munkája) (1938); Plan for the Education of the Nation(A nemzeztnevelés terve) (1939), and Poimenika. The Discipline of Personal Pastoral Care (Poimenika. A személyes lelkigondozás tana) (1947). He was the Editor for the excellent but short lived The Reformed Congregation (Református Gyülekezet), aperiodical on practical theology (1949-1950). Some of his works were translated into French, German and Turkish. B: 0911, 0883, 1257, T: 7617.→Makkai, László; Makkai, Árpád; Böhm, Károly; Ravasz László. Makláry, Zoltán (Budapest, 16 April 1896 - Budapest, 12 July 1978) – Actor. In 1914, he enrolled at the Acting School of Szidi Rákosi. In World War I, he was conscripted into the army and sent to the Russian front, where he fell into Russian captivity. Following his return four years later, he completed his studies in 1919. He worked in the Magyar Theater (Magyar Színház) (1920-1922), the Renaissance Theater (RenaissanceSzínház) (1922-1926), the Inner City Theater (Belvárosi Színház) (1925-1926), the Comedy Theater (Vígszínház) (1926-1935), and the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház) (1935-1969), Budapest. He was guest actor in a number of theaters. He retired in 1968. His major roles include Ficsur in F. Molnár’s Liliom; Menyhért Mosolygó in G. Csiki’s Proletárok (Proletariats); Kalmár in M. Vörösmarty’s Csongor and Tünde; Orgon in Molière’s Tartuffe; Tiborc in J. Katona’s Bánk bán, and Ivan Petrovich in Checkov’s Uncle Vanya (Ványa bácsi). There are 150 feature films to his credit including Hyppolit the Butler (Hyppolit a lakáj) (1931); Saint Peter’s Umbrella (Szent PéterEsernyője) (1935); Foothold (Talpalatnyi föld) (1948); The Sea Rose Up (Feltámadott a tenger) (1953); Land of Angels(Angyalok földje) (1962), and American Cigarette (Amerikai cigaretta) (1977). He was excellent in comic roles, as well as in dramas, representing tragicomical figures in his unique way. He was a Member of Parliament from 1962. He received the titles of Merited Artist (1951), Outstanding Artist (1955), and the Kossuth Prize (1854). – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7103.
Makovecz, Imre(Emeric) (Budapest, 20 November 1935 - Budapest, 27 September 2011) – Architect. He received his Degree from the Budapest Polytechnic in 1959. From 1959 to 1977 he worked for the Design Studios; from 1977 to 1981 at the Pilis Forestry, and as leading architect of the Makona Architectural Studio. Since the 1950s he was active in various parts of Europe. He became one of the most prominent representatives of organic architecture. Frank L. Wright and Rudolf Steiner, as well as traditional Hungarian art, strongly influenced his style. His works include the Cápa (Shark)Restaurant in Venice (1963); the Gyulavár Restaurant (1969); the Visegrád Sports Hall (1985); the Lutheran Church, Siófok (1986); the Holy Spirit Church, Paks (1987); the Theater Lendva (1991); the Onion House Theater, Makó (1995); the Roman Catholic Church, Csíkszereda (now Mircurea Ciuc, Romania) (2001), and the famous Hungarian Pavilionfor the World Fair in Seville, Spain that made him famous internationally (1990). Since 1981 he was a professor at the Academy of Applied Art, Budapest; since 1987 he was also a professor at the International Architectural Academy, and since 1992, President of the Academy of Hungarian Art. He was also active in patriotic politics. He was the master of organic architecture, and he achieved international fame. He had an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Dundee. He received a number of awards and prizes, among them the Miklós Ybl Prize (1969), the Kossuth Prize (1990), the Grand Golden Prize of the Architectural Academy of France (1997), Honorary Fellowship of the Royal Institute of British Architects (1998), the Corvin Chain (2001), and the Prima Primissima Prize (2003). – B: 1031, 1669, T: 7103.
Makrai, Benedek (Benedict) (1383-1421) – Medieval scholar. He studied at the University of Prague between 1383 and 1387, where he obtained a Master of Philosophy Degree. In 1390 he lectured on astronomy at the University of Vienna; and in 1398, in Paris. In 1401 he studied Law in Padua, and earned a magisterial grade in Canon Law. He was appointed to a teaching position in Roman and Canon Law at Óbuda. In 1403 he participated in a conspiracy against King Zsigmond (Sigismund of Luxembourg, 1387-1437). Makrai was captured and jailed in 1406. On the request of the students of Paris University, he was freed in 1408. Thereafter, he not only became a trusted advisor of King Zsigmond, but also accompanied him to Italy in 1413, and later to Spain, France and also to England. In 1415 he took part in the Council of Constance. In 1421 he was Governor in the Diocese of Eger. – B: 1078, 0883, 1257, T: 7675.→Zsigmond, King. Makray, László (Ladislas) (Vizszentgyörgyi and Felpestesi) (Széplak, 15 March 1815 - Felpestes, 30 March 1876) – Honvédarmy officer, politician. He was a descendant of a landowning family. Already in his childhood, he studied at the Military School of Kézdivásárhely (now Targu Secuiesc, Romania) and, from 1833 to1844 he served in the Transylvanian infantry regiment of the Imperial-Royal Army, where he reached the rank of second lieutenant. In 1844 he left the army, got married, and ran his estate at Felpestes. In April 1848 he took part in organizing the National Guard of Dés (now Dej, Romania) in Transylvania and, as a captain, he was Commander of the Cavalry National Guard of County Inner-Szolnok and Doboka. In August 1848 (during the Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence against Austrian oppression), his cavalry troop, the “Kossuth-Knights”, joined the later 15th Hunyadi Cavalry Regiment. With his military formation, he participated in the battles of Szamosújvár (now Gherla, Romania) (13 November) and Szamosfalva (now Someseni-Cluj, Romania) (16 November). Makray fought all along in General Bem’s Transylvanian campaign. On 3 February 1849 he was promoted to the rank of major. On 8 April he received the decoration of the Hungarian Military Order Class III. General Bem made him a lieutenant colonel, and he took over the command of a regiment. At the end of the War of Independence, with the remnants of the north-Transylvanian army corps, he joined the division of Lajos (Louis) Kazinczy on 20 August and, on his command he went to the camp of Lieutenant General Grotenheilm to discuss the details of the surrender. After the surrender at Zsibó (now Jibou, Romania), he was kept prisoner at Arad (now in Romania), where the imperial courtmartial sentenced him to death; later this was commuted to a 16-year imprisonment in a fortress. He received a pardon and was freed in June 1850, after which he ran his landed property in retirement from active life. However, from the early 1860s, he took an active part in the public life of County Hunyad. After the 1867 Compromise with Austria, he became a member of the Honvéd Association of County Hunyad. In 1866 he was elected a Member of Parliament, representing the town of Déva (now Deva, Romania), an office he held until 1875. In 1870, he edited and published the memoirs of major Lajos (Louis) Bauer, his fellow officer. – B: 1031, T: 7456.→Bem, József;Kossuth, Lajos;Freedom Fight of 1848-1849. Maksay, Albert (Sopron, 7 June 1897 - Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 22 June 1971) – Minister of the Reformed Church, theologian, writer, poet and literary translator. After attending the University of Kolozsvár as a medical student, he enrolled in the Reformed Theology program (1920–1922). Besides being a student of Divinity, he was also a language scholar in Greek and Hebrew. Maksay went on a study tour in the USA (1923-1925), beginning at the University of Chicago’s Faculty of Arts, where he pursued Arab and Egyptian studies. He obtained a B.A. in Theology Louisville (1924), an M.A. from the Westend Theological Seminary, Holland, Michigan (1925), a qualification of an honorary lecturer (privatdozent) at Kolozsvár (1926), and a Ph.D. from the University of Debrecen in 1948. He was Professor of New Testament Studies at the Reformed Theological Academy of Kolozsvár (1926-1959). He was involved in the creation of the United Protestant Theological Institute’s Degree program at the University of Kolozsvár (1949). Many of his poems, short stories, literary translations and essays on literature and fine arts were published in periodicals, such as the Transylvanian Review(Erdélyi Szemle) Kolozsvár, (1928-1944); Shepherd’s Fire(Pásztortûz) (1921-1944); Reformed Review(Református Szemle), and Transylvanian Helicon(Erdélyi Helikon) (1928-1944). He became member of the Romanian Writers’ Association in 1946. His major works include The Songs of Silence(A csend dalai), poems (1927); Sándor Kőrösi Csoma’s Scientific Activities in Tibet from the Standpoint of Linguistic and Religious Studies (Kőrösi Csoma Sándor tibettudományi munkássága nyelvészeti és vallástudományi szempontból) (1935), and Foreign Shores(Idegen partok) (1935). – B: 0883, T: 7657.→Kőrösi Csoma, Sándor. Male Dances – Some folk dances are the privilege of males in Hungarian lands. While there are solo dances for men all over Hungary, women never dance alone. This interesting phenomenon is also evident in mixed pair dances. Male dancers often let their partner go and they dance alone, as if “making the point”, as it is called. Male dancers use varied steps, sudden turns and leaps in a virtuoso manner, showing off in an almost competitive way. While the male dances display richer movements, the female dances are simpler; they use small steps in an almost stationary way in the background and do not even continue the steps they would use in dancing with a partner.
There are vague traces of the male round dance in the Hungarian folk dance tradition. Most of them are somewhat connected to the Sun and Fire cults. There are written descriptions of blazing wheels, fire waving, and jumping over the flames in some areas, where men do these alone; and other areas, where men and women do them together. These are rare today and the element of a circle was only preserved by some women’s dances, although there is a lot of walking around; and some group dances even form a circle, when the male dancers hold on to each other; however, this is just a brief segment of the dance.
The herdsmen’s dance has the same elements but only following their solos. The origin of the herdsmen’s round dance is easy to follow. It comes from the pair dance but it is not individual or self-serving. In the herdsmen’s dance, men at first dance alone for a while, then they dance together in pairs. Improvisation has a major role in these dances.
The recruiting dances with their more polished and westernized circular movements are not only fitting into the long chain of Hungarian peasant dances, but they are the end product of a long process from the first simple opening walk of the peasants’ and herdsmen’s dances.
The Hungarian male folk dances are composed of dances with the stick, barn dance, Hajdú-dance,soldier dance, Hungarian solo dance, herdsmen’s dance and the best-man dance. Besides the Csángós archaic Hungarian-speaking inhabitants of Moldova (in Romania) Hungarians only use spurs. This and other characteristics, such as posture, clearly indicate the boot-wearing, horse riding origin of Hungarian dances. – B: 1020, T: 3240.→Dance; Dance House Movement; Hajdú. Maleczky, Oszkár (Oscar) (Budapest, 6 February 1894 - Budapest, 22 February 1972) – Opera singer (baritone). He studied at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest, (1925-1927). He started in composition; later he changed over to voice. The Municipal Theater (Városi Színház), Budapest, engaged him first. Between 1927 and 1966, he was the soloist in the buffo style in the Opera House of Budapest. From 1931 to 1962 he also taught stage acting at the Academy of Music. His singing roles embraced almost the entire baritone repertoire, particularly excelling in humorous and cynically dramatic, intriguing roles. His repertoire includes Pizarro in Beethoven’s Fidelio; Scarpia in Puccini’s Tosca; Uncle Marci in Kodály’s Háry János; Bartolo in Rossini’s The Barber of Seville (A szevillai borbély), andBeckmesser in Wagner’s The Mastersingers of Nuremberg (A nürnbergi mesterdalnokok). He received the Kossuth Prize (1957), and the distinction of Outstanding Artist title (1966). – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7456.
Maléter, Pál (Paul) (Eperjes, now Prešov, Slovakia, 4 September 1917 - Budapest, 16 June 1958) – Army officer. He studied Medicine in Prague; in 1939 he joined the army. Between 1940 and 1942, he was trained at the Ludovika Royal Hungarian Military Academy, Budapest. In 1944, as a second lieutenant, he was taken prisoner on the Russian front. After 1945 he resumed his military service, rapidly advanced in rank as far as the General Staff. In 1956 he took an active part in the Revolution; Prime Minister Imre (Emeric) Nagy appointed him Minister of Defense on 2 November, as the only Minister outside the Communist Party. The following day, Maléter conducted the negotiations of the withdrawal of the Soviet forces from Hungary, and the cancellation of the Warsaw Pact. On 3 November, he went to negotiate with Soviet military representatives at the Soviet High Command in, Tököl, Hungary; he was arrested at once and detained, later accused of high treason. In the Imre Nagy trial, he was sentenced to death on a charge of attempting to overthrow the Hungarian People’s Republic. He was executed on the same day as Imre Nagy, in the Budapest prison on 18 June 1958. In 16 June 1989, on the anniversary of their deaths, Imre Nagy, Pál Maléter and three others who died in prison, together with an empty sixth coffin, symbolizing all those who had died, were formally reburied in Budapest with full honors. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7456.→Ludovika Royal Hungarian Military Academy; Freedom Fight of 1956; Nagy, Imre. Maliga, Pál (Paul) (Tótkomlós, 10 May 1913 - Budapest, 16 February 1987) – Gardening engineer, fruit improver. He completed his gardening studies at the Gardening College in 1936. Thereafter, he studied the Grape and Viticulture Course and graduated from the Department of Agriculture of Budapest Polytechnic. In 1946 he obtained his Ph. D. from the University of Agricultural Sciences, and became a teacher in the Horticultural Gardener-Training School of Baja. From 1939 he gave lectures on gardening at the University of Agricultural Sciences and, from 1956 until his retirement he continued his well-known research and fruit improving work, which extended over all parts of the Carpathian Basin. He studied the possibilities of developing the Morello or sour cherry (meggy) cultivation on a large scale and, as a solution, he produced new improved types. The types known all over Hungary are: Meteor, Favorit, Korai Pipacs meggy, Érdi jubileumi, and the Érdi bőtermő, which became known world-wide. At present, more than one-third of the Morello-growing orchards in Hungary belong to the type Érdi bőtermő. His works include Fruit-growing 2 (Gyümölcstermesztés 2), with Iván Okályi (1956); Cultivation of Cherry and MorelloSour Cherries(Cseresznye- és meggytermesztés), with Mátyás Mohácsy (1956), and Handbook on the Pruning of Fruit Trees(A gyümölcsfák metszésének kézikönyve) with Mátyás Mohácsy and Pál Gyúró (1968). His work was recognized by the Ferenc Entz Commemorative Medal, and an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Horticulture. – B: 0883, T: 7456.
Málnási, Ödön (Edmund) (Brassó, now Braşov, Romania, 28 June 1898 - Vienna, 17 February 1970) – Historian, populist writer, politician. During the time of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919, he served as a lieutenant in the Red Army; later, he joined the Horthy-led National Army. After the completion of his studies in 1924, he obtained a Ph.D. in Art and, finally, he obtained a Degree in Law. Starting in 1926, he did archival research in a number of countries and went on study tours to Bulgaria and Turkey. He became a history teacher at the Catholic Teachers’ Training College of the Archbishopric of Eger. In the fall of 1937, he joined the Hungarist Movement of Ferenc (Francis) Szálasi, and became one of its leading ideologists. He wrote a historical work, The True History of the Hungarian Nation (A magyar nemzet őszinte története) (1937, Munich, 1959, 2nd ed., 1987 3rd ed.). In it he condemned the contemporary political-social system on national-socialist grounds. His views led to a prison term in Szeged. In 1942 he carried on anti-Szálasi propaganda in Germany; on his return, it resulted in the suspension of his party membership, whereupon Málnási resigned from the Party. From the fall of 1942, he managed the publishing office of the Hungarian People (Magyarság) and, after the occupation of Hungary by the German forces on 19 March 1944 he became a member of the Volksbund. After the Hungarist coup d’etat on 15 October 1944, he again joined Szálasi’s party. In the spring of 1945, he fled to the West. The American authorities arrested and deported him back to Hungary. The people’s court sentenced him to 10 years of forced labor. He was freed during the 1956 Revolution and went to Austria, later to the USA, but was deported back to Austria, where he became one of the leaders of a political faction called Hungarian Union (Magyar Unió). His works include Geo-Military Condition of Truncated Hungary (Csonka-Magyarország katonai-földrajzi helyzete) (1925), and Life and Age of Cardinal Count Imre (Emeric) Csáky(Gróf Imre Csáky bibornokélete és kora) (1933). – B: 1257, 0883, 1672, T: 7456.→Hungarian Council (Soviet) Republic;Horthy, Miklós;Szálasi, Ferenc. Malonyai, Dezső (Desider) (Pest, 3 May 1866 - Budapest, 22 April 1916) – Folklorist, art-writer, critic. He obtained a Ph.D. in Education in Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). From 1892 he taught in Kolozsvár and, from 1897, in Budapest. In the meantime he visited some foreign countries, and spent an extended period in France. In Paris he worked as a secretary for the renowned painter Mihály (Michael) Munkácsy and wrote the life story of this great Hungarian artist, published in 1898l. He also published novels at that time. He was enterprising and a good organizer; he not only established a workshop but also worked successfully with its members for a considerable length of time. His name was immortalized with the publication of his greatest work in five volumes, The Art of the Hungarian People (A Magyar Nép Művészete), issued between 1907 and 1922. His other works include Dramas of Vörösmarty (Vörösmarty drámái), study (1891); The Coward (A gyáva), novel (1893); The Last One (Az utolsó), novel (1896), and Daughter of Nobody (Senki lánya), drama (1904). He also published studies on some of the contemporary Hungarian painters e.g. Károly (Charles) Ferenczi, Béla Grünwald, etc. Due to his brilliant writing style, his deep Hungarian feelings became effectively expressed through the vast material he collected. His works were ahead of his time, for official research turned to folk artistry only in the 1930s. His opus is still the most important source material for specialists in the field of Hungarian folk ornaments. – B: 1150, 1134, 1257, T: 3240.→Munkácsy, Mihály, Ferenczy, Károly; Grünwald, Béla. Malta, Knights of →Knights of Hospitaller. Mály, Gerő (Greg) (Székudvar, now Socodor, Romania, 1 August 1884 - New York, USA, early days of 1952) – Actor. He was from Armenian lineage. Against his father’s wishes, he studied acting in the theater company of György (George) Kárpáthy in 1903. In Budapest, he worked in the Comedy Circle (Vígszínkör), theEnglish Park (Angolpark), theApollo Cabaret (Apolló Kabaré), theCity Theater (Városi Színház) (1921),the Inner City Theater (Belvárosi Színház)(1923, 1929, 1931-1932), the Comedy Theater (Vígszínház) (1924, 1928-1935), the Hungarian Theater (Magyar Színház) (1927, 1930, 1932), and the Pest Theater (Pesti Színház) (1936-1937). In 1946 he emigrated to the US, where he supported himself by manual labor. In the end, this outstanding Hungarian character actor died suddenly as a broken man. His main roles include Epihodov in Chekhov’s Cherry Orchard (Cseresznyéskert); Vinaigre in Sardou’s Madame Sans-Gêne (A szókimondó asszonyság); Csuli in Zs. Móricz’s Gentry’s Fun (Úri muri), andBartender in F. Molnár’s Delilah. There is a number of feature films to his credit, such as The Blue Idol (A kék bálvány) (1931); The New Landowner (Az új földesúr) (1935); Be Good Unto Death (Légy jó mindhalálig) (1936); Europe Does Not Answer (Európa nem válaszol) (1941); One Skirt, One Pair of Pants (Egy szoknya, egy nadrág) (1943), and his last one, Judge Sarah (Sári Biró) (1943). He was a popular comedian in Hungary. – B: 0883, 1445, 1031, T: 7103.