M macartney, Carlile Aylmer

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Makai, Imre (Emeric) (Hajdúböszörmény, 1 June 1920 - Budapest, 12 November 1995) – Translator of literary works. In 1938 he completed his high school studies in his native town. In 1943 he obtained a Bachelor of Arts Degree, majoring in Greek and Latin and, in 1944, a Ph.D. in Arts at the Eötvös College of the University of Budapest. He also worked as a trainee between 1942 and 1944, in the Secretariat of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; and in 1945, in the Directorate of the National Museum, Budapest. From 1946 to 1948 he was a correspondent for the paper, New Word (Új Szó), and from 1947 to 1952, he was a correspondent for the Institute of Russian at the University of Budapest. Between 1952 and 1954, as an assistant professor, he headed the Department of Literary Translation of the Lenin Institute, Budapest. He was Editor for the Europe Publishers from 1972, and the Kossuth Publishers from 1974. He retired in 1983. From 1945 he translated classical and Soviet literature, among them about half of all the works of Dostoyevski, such as The Idiot (A félkegyelmű) (1960). His other translations include Gorky’s Mother (Az anya) (1963); Tolstoy’s War and Peace (Háború és béke) (1954); Solzhenitsyn’s Limbo (A pokol tornáca) (1990); Chekhov’s The Seagull (A sirály) (1952), and Gogol’s short story, The Mysterious Portrait (Az arckép) (1949). He received a number of prizes, among them the Attila József Prize (1955, 1964), the Gorkij Prize (1979), and the Middle Cross of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (1995). – B: 1257, 1439, 0878, T: 7456.
Makai Nyírő, János (John) (17th century) – Printer. He was Manager for the Gáspár Heltai Printing House in Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). He worked there for a few years, even after Heltai’s death, until 1623. A Calendar published in 1620 still bears his name. Twelve printed publications are known to be his work. – B: 1078, T: 3240.→Heltai, Gáspár.
Makay, Gusztáv (Gustavus) (Pécs, 12 March 1910 - Budapest, 2 December 1984) – Literary historian, critic. He studied Hungarian and French at the Arts Faculty of the University of Budapest (Eötvös College) and, in 1933, he obtained his Degree in Education. For a year, he studied on a scholarship in the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. Following his return to Hungary, he taught in the High Schools of Eger and Pécs. From 1941 he taught at the Trefort Street High School, Budapest, until his retirement in 1975. As a professor he also gave lectures on Methodology of Specialization at the University of Budapest. In his youth, he wrote essays and critiques. He authored numerous textbooks on the Hungarian Language and Literature, as well as French Methodology (some co-authored). He wrote books on Gyula (Julius) Illyés (1940), Attila József (1941), Mihály (Michael) Babits (1941), and Árpád Tóth (1967). He also wrote about the Teaching of Literature (Irodalomtanitás) (1964). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.→The persons listed have their own entry.
Makay, Margit (Margaret) (Miskolc, 4 August 1891 - Budapest, 6 November 1989) – Actress. After finishing the Academy of Performing Arts, Budapest, she received a contract from the city of Miskolc. In 1910 she became a member of the Comedy Theater (Vígszinház), Budapest and, for 25 years, she was one of its leading actresses. In 1935 she acted at the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest, and she was a professor at the Academy of Dramatic Art. After 1945 she was involved in the management of the Madách Theater (Madách Színház), Budapest. Her more significant roles were in Chekhov’s The Three Sisters (Három nővér) and Cherry Orchard (Cseresznyéskert); F. Molnár’s The Devil (Az ördög); Molière’s Tartuffe; Sophocles’ Oedipus the King (Oedipus Rex); Shakespeare’s Hamlet; O'Neill’s Morning Becomes Electra (The American Electra), and Ibsen’s When We Dead Awaken (Ha mi holtak feltámadunk). Her film roles include Bitter Love (Keserű szerelem) (1912); Bercsényi Hussars (Bercsényi huszárok) (1940); A Woman Sets off (Egy asszony elindul) (1949); Erkel (1952); Relatives (Rokonok) (1954); The Sons of the Stone-hearted Man (A kőszívű ember fiai) (1965); Cat’s Play (Macskajáték (1974); A Virtuous Night (Egy erkölcsös éjszaka) (1977), and Bye-bye Chaperon Rouge (1989). She was an outstanding artist of great versatility. At first she played comic roles, later women of complex characters and tragic heroines. Her interpretations were unusually realistic; she could make artistic adjustments to tragic characters. Her presence created a tense atmosphere on the stage and her beautiful Hungarian diction was exemplary. She received the titles of Outstanding Artist (1962), Merited Artist (1969), she was also made Life Member of the National Theater of Budapest. – B: 0871, 0883, 1719, T: 7684.
Makay, Miklós (1) (Nicholas) (Orsova, now Orşova, Romania, 8 October 1921 - Budapest, 17 February 1977) – Minister of the Reformed Church, writer. He completed his studies at the Reformed Theological Academy in Budapest. He furthered his studies on a scholarship in Strasbourg and in Montpellier. Following his return to Hungary, he worked as an assistant minister. In 1931 he studied sociological problems at the International Institute of Practical Christianity of Geneva. Between 1935 and 1939 he headed the Committee of Hungarian Ecumenical Youth, and organized the Ecumenical Youth Conference of the Danube Basin in Budapest. In 1944 he obtained a Ph.D. from the University of Debrecen. In the early 1940s he organized a letter of protest against the anti Jewish laws. In 1951 and 1952 he worked at the Press Section of the Reformed Church’s Convent. Until his retirement in 1966, he was a parish minister and was involved in the ecumenical movement. He published numerous studies as the first representative of this movement in Hungary. His publications include The Global Movement of Practical Christianity (A gyakorlati keresztyénség világmozgalma) with a foreword by the eminent Bishop László (Ladislas) Ravasz, (1932); Ecumenical Shorter Catechism (Ökumenikus kiskáté) (1941), and Christ’s Church and Social Questions (Krisztus egyháza és a szociális kérdések) (1947). – B: 0883, 0911, T: 7456.→Ravasz, László.
Makay, Miklós (2) (Nicholas) (Makkay) (Lugos, now Lugoj, Romania, 30 August 1900 - Los Angeles, CA, USA, 6 February 1978) – Chemical engineer, politician. He worked at the Nitrokemia Plant in Balatonfűzfő. In 1938 he was commissioned to organize an explosive manufacturing plant in Brazil. While in Hungary, he participated in the works of the March Front (Márciusi Front), and opposed the first anti-Jewish Act (1938). He was an important figure in the Anti-Fascist Resistance Movement, and the National Uprising Liberation Committee (Nemzeti Felkelés Felszabaditó Bizottsága) that usually met in his office. He sheltered Endre (Andrew) Bajcsy-Zsilinszky, the hunted leader of the Hungarian Resistance; for that Makay was arrested on 22 November 1944 and sentenced to death; but later, the sentence was commuted to ten years in the Sopronkőhida Prison. He escaped on 28 March 1945, became a member of the Smallholders’ Party and a Member of Parliament of the Provisional National Assembly, from June 1945. In 1946, he left Hungary for Brazil and became Manager of Nitrokemia’s sister firm in Brazil. Later, he established his own firm and retired in 1947 to California, USA. – B: 1699, T: 7103.→Bajcsy-Zsilinszky, Endre.
Makk Family – A renowned family of artists from Hungarian stock, who lived and worked in Africa, Europe and in the Americas.

Makk, Éva (Eva Holusa) (Hawas, Ethiopia, 1 December 1933 - ) – Painter. She was born into a noble Hungarian family. Her father was a coffee plantation owner in Ethiopia and advisor to Emperor Haile Selassie. She learned several native languages and attended private school in several African countries. Due to political unrest in Africa, the family moved to France and she studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Paris. Having completed her studies, she moved to postwar Rome for further studies at the Academy of Fine Arts, where she met her future husband, Americo (Imre) Makk. When her father resolved to leave war-ravaged Europe for South America, Americo joined the family; they were married in Brazil.  The couple started their work of murals for cathedrals and government buildings. In the cathedral of Manaus, Brazil, they painted the Coronation of the Virgin, the world’s largest single theme painting. Éva Makk was a professor at the Art Academy in Sao Paulo. Eventually, they moved to the USA, and painted murals in churches in Dayton, Ohio, and Cornwall, N.Y. For these works, they were recipients of the American Ecclesiastical Award. In December 1967, they left New York for Hawaii and set up a studio in Honolulu. Her works have been presented in over 60 major exhibitions; she has won many prizes, and nine Art Academies and Art Societies have elected her as a member. Most of her major works are in Brazil.

Makk, Imre (Emeric, Americo) (Pannonhalma, 24 August 1927 - ) – Painter. He was born into an intellectual family. His father was a respected executive at the ancient Pannonhalma Abbey. Imre was educated at the St. Benedict High School. His higher studies were at the Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest and, after that, he continued his studies on a scholarship in Rome, where he met his future wife Éva Holusa. They moved together to Brazil, got married, and she became a professor at the Art Academy in Sao Paulo. They received government contracts to paint frescos in churches and cathedrals. In 1967, they moved from New York to Hawaii, where they are still living and working. Their portrait of Cardinal József (Joseph) Mindszenty is in the Vatican Museum, and four portraits of U.S. Presidents, among them Ronald Reagan and Jimmy Carter, are in the White House in Washington. Other portraits they have painted hang in foreign palaces, at the Grand Ol’ Opry, in corporate boardrooms and private homes all over America and abroad. They exhibited under the sponsorship of the United Nations and at the Carnegie International. Exhibitions of their work were held in Europe, South America and most of the United States. Imre Makk participated in more than 70 major exhibitions. Twenty-two of his major works have gained universal recognition. His art works are in various museums and art collections all over the world. He is a member of ten Art Academy and Art Societies. Gold medals were awarded for excellence to both Imre and Éva from Italy, Monaco and various organizations in the United States, to be added to those already earned in South America.

Makk, Americo Bartholomew (A.B.) (Sao Paulo, 1951 - ) – Painter. Son of Imre Makk and Éva Holusa. He was born in Sao Paulo at the beginning of his parents’ careers. First, he learned painting from his parents. They spent a year researching the Indians of the Amazon jungle when he was only seven years old. In New York, A. B. was enrolled in formal studies. Soon he joined his parents’ team and they became a triumvirate of artists.

The internationally renowned artists Americo and Eva Makk were awarded a permanent home for their collection of historical paintings in the Museum of Hungarian Military History, a national museum in Budapest. The large, detailed paintings depict crucial events that occurred throughout 1,000 years of history in Hungary of the Carpathian Basion. – B: 2012, T: 7103.→Mindszenty, József.

Makk-Gál Conspiracy – After the defeat of the Hungarian War of Independence (1848-1849), Hungarian, Romanian, and Polish émigrés were convinced that Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania) was ripe for another armed uprising. Colonel József (Joseph) Makk and a few of his fellow officers were the first to volunteer to organize a revolt. In 1851 they met with Lajos (Louis) Kossuth in Turkey and received his assent. One of the conspirators’ secret centers was in Bucharest. Their emissaries were sent to Transylvania, where their attempts to organize a resistance were successful in the Szeklerland (Székelyföld). The Szeklerland organization, designed to serve as a bridgehead, was the work of János (John) Török, a teacher of the Marosvásárhely Reformed College (Marosvásárhely now Targu Mures in Romania). The movement also included women. The initial objective was to train some 4,000–5,000 insurgents in the mountainous regions, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Imperial authorities, and disarm the garrison troops; then, in the next phase, civil servants would take over the local administration and organize a popular army. However, they had already been betrayed in the autumn of 1851, and the Austrian police was on their tracks. The organization's military leader was Sándor (Alexander) Gál, who expected a continent-wide outbreak of Revolution in 1852. The Szeklers would rise up, followed, it was hoped, by the Romanians; they were to seize Nagyszeben (now Sibiu, Romania), and Gyulafehérvár (now Alba Iulia, Romania), thereby taking effective control of Transylvania. However, the conspirators were soon arrested and executed in late 1851 and early 1852. On New Year's Eve 1852, the police raided Makk's hideout in Bucharest; he managed to escape, but his documents fell into Austrian hands. The imperial authorities launched a systematic uprooting of the conspiracy. In January 1852, more than sixty people, including some women, were arrested and imprisoned. After a two-year investigation, Török, Gálfi and Horváth were sentenced to death and executed in Marosvásárhely. Although a fifty-man guerrilla unit had been formed to free the condemned, the Austrians captured its leader József (Joseph) Váradi and twelve others, who received the death sentence; however, eight of them had their sentence commuted to detention in a fortress. Sixty other members of the movement were punished with five to ten years’ hard labor in Austrian prisons. – B: 1091, 1031, T: 1091, 7103.→Kossuth, Lajos; Makk, József; Török, János; Freedom Fight of 1848-1849.
Makk, József (Joseph) (Buda, 1814 - Wilmington, USA, 27 August 1868) - Hungarian (Honvéd) Colonel. He served in the Imperial Austrian Army for 18 years. In 1848, as an artillery sergeant, he was teaching at the School for Non–Commissioned Officers in Pest, while his No. 5 Artillery Regiment was stationed there. He became known for his published articles on the badly needed Hungarian National Guard and the need for Hungarian Staff for the Artillery Section of the joint Imperial Army. He volunteered for the independent Hungarian Army, took part in the organization of the artillery and, as a lieutenant, he became one of the trainers of the Artillery Section of the Army, at the same time serving as Commander of the First Hungarian battery. In this capacity, he served in the Battle of Pákozd, where the gunners decided the outcome of the battle, whereupon Lieutenant General Móga made him a captain on site. In the lost Battle of Nagyszombat (now Trnava, Slovakia), he played an important role, together with Richard Guyon, in protecting the withdrawal. He went to the encircled Fort of Komárom and took over the organization of the artillery for the defense. After the surrender of Komárom, he did not receive safe conduct. Together with artillery colonel Zsigmond (Sigismund) Thaly he went to Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania) to join the irregular troops of General Sándor (Alexander) Gaál, who were still fighting in the War of Independence. They were captured and handcuffed, dragged from town to town in the Szekler area of Transylvania but managed to escape. Then, in April 1850, they were captured again only to escape once more. On 21 June 1851, Makk visited Lajos (Louis) Kossuth in Kütahya, Turkey, who authorized him and Fülöp (Philip) Figyelmessy to organize an uprising and, on this basis, an anti-Habsburg movement started in the Szeklerland of Transylvania. He left Hungary during the mass arrests of January 1852. At first, he fought in the Hungarian Legion in Italy; and finally, after emigrating to the USA, he took part in the American Civil War as an artillery captain. He established the first Engineering Military College in the USA. – B: 1078, 1230, 0883, 1143, T: 7456.→Makk-Gál Conspiracy; Figyelmessy, Fülöp; Guyon, Richard; Freedom Fight of 1848-1849.
Makk, Károly (Charles) (Berettyóújfalu, 23 December 1925 - ) – Producer. He did his higher studies at the University of Budapest, reading Art and History, Esthetics and Hungarian Literature (1943), then continued his studies at the University of Debrecen (1945). Between 1946 and 1952, he studied Stage Management at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest. In 1944 and 1945 he worked for the Hunnia Film Industries as an assistant and, in 1946, he was a cameraman at the Sarló Newsreel. In 1947 he was Assistant Director of the internationally acclaimed feature film, Somewhere in Europe (Valahol Európában). He worked as a tractor-driver in Váchartyán and Szentendre at the beginning of the 1950s. Between 1952 and 1954 he was co-producer, and from 1954 producer at the Mafilm Studio. From 1951 he lectured at the Academy of Dramatic Art, and was a university professor from 1975 to 1999. From 1991 he was a member of the City Council of Budapest. Between 1991 and 1995 he was spokesman of the Democratic Charta. In 1994 and in 1998 he was Parliamentary Representative of the Alliance of Free Democrats (Szabad Demokraták Szöveztsége – SZDSZ). Since 1992 he has been a member of the Széchenyi Art Academy. He has produced more than 40 feature films, including Liliomfi (1954); No. 9 Ward (9-es kórterem) (1955); House Under the Rocks (Ház a sziklák alatt) (1958); The Lost Paradise (Elveszett paradicsom) (1962); Dear Friends (Drága barátok) (German TV, 1969); Love (Szerelem) (French TV, 1974); Cat’s Play (Macskajáték) (Oscar nominee, 1974); The Silly Girl (A bolond lány) (Hungarian-American, 1981); Hungarian Requiem (Magyar rekviem) (1990); The Player (A játékos) (1997), and Carousel (2003). He is one of the popular and successful Hungarian filmmakers of the latter part of the 20th century. He received a number of prizes and medals, including The Best Film Prize of the San Francisco Festival (1958), the Merited Artist title (1970), the Kossuth Prize (1973), the Outstanding Artist title (1982), the Main Prize of Figueira da Fox (1982), the Life Achievement Prize (1994), the Best Film Prize of the Film Festival of Pescara (1998), and the Middle Cross with the Star of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (2005). He is an Honorary Citizen of Budapest (2004). – B: 0874, 1031, T: 7103.→Krencsey, Mariann.
Makkai, Ádám (Budapest, 16 December 1936 - ) – Poet, literary translator and linguist. His father was János (John) Makkai, journalist and politician, and his mother was Rózsa (Rose) Ignácz of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania), the renowned writer and actress. His uncle was Sándor (Alexander) Makkai, writer and Bishop of the Reformed Church in Transylvania. The Communist regime regarded his family as politically incorrect, and they had a hard time. Following the crushed Revolution of 1956, Ádám, as a university student, left Hungary and joined his father in exile. After completing his French and Russian studies at Harvard University, he spent two years teaching in Hawaii. Following that, he obtained a Ph.D. from Yale University with his dissertation the Idiom Structure in English (Az angol nyelv kifejezésmódjának szerkezete), which became a basic book of the English language, and made him well known. He taught at some of the elite Universities of the US, and also taught for years in Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia. Besides speaking English and Hungarian, Makkai is fluent in German, French, Russian, Sanskrit, Latin and Indochinese languages and other languages, such as Kalenji in Kenya. Adam Makkai is co-author of the Webster Encyclopedia. His dictionary of American Idioms (Amerikai idiómák) reached several editions. He is the founder and five times President of LACUS, the Linguistic Association of USA and Canada. He became one of the outstanding ambassadors of the Hungarian culture in the West. His great work is the two-volume anthology of Hungarian poetry, entitled In Quest of the Miracle Stag (A Csodaszarvas nyomában), which presents Hungarian poetry from its beginning to our times. His Hungarian volumes include Thirst and Vinegar (Szomj és ecet), poems 1952-1966, (1966); K2=13 (K Squared Equals Thirteen, K a négyzeten egyenlő tizenhárommal), poems 1967-1971, (1971); Jupiter szeme (The Eye of Jupiter) poem, 1952-1990, (1990); Úristen, engedj meghalni! Petőfi Sándor pokoljárása és megüdvözülése (Lord, let me die! Sándor Petőfi’s Ascent into Hell and Subsequent Salvation), a parody type novel with poems (2002); Az Erő (The Force), autobiography (2003); Jézus és a démonok imája (Jesus and the Prayer of the Demons), collected poems (2005) and Scorched Stones (Kormos kövek), Fifty-Six Poems about '56. (56 English translations of 56 Hungarian poems by Michael A. Kannas, bilingual edition) (1998). Makkai’s poetry extends from tender elegy to extravagant poetic plays. He is a master of the language together with his own philosophical and anthropological theories. He is the recipient of a number of distinctions, including the Pro Cultura Hungarica Award (1996), Gold Cross of Merit of the Árpád Academy, Cleveland (1996), the Grand Gold Medal of the Mikes Kelemen Society of the Netherlands (1997), the Presidential Gold Medal from the President of Hungary (1999), the Harold Witter Bynner Award for poetry translation, (2000-2001 and 2002-2003), the George Washington Award of the American Hungarian Foundation (2003), and the Kossuth Prize, Budapest, Hungary (2011). – B: 0878, 2121, T: 7103.→Ignácz, Rózsa; Makkai, Sándor.

Makkai, László (Ladislas) (Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca Romania, 10 July 1914 - Budapest, 1 December 1989) – Historian, theologian. His father was Sándor (Alexander) Makkai. He did his higher studies at the Reformed College and the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), and the University of Budapest. He settled in Budapest and obtained his Ph.D. in Art from the University of Budapest in 1936. Between 1936 and 1940 he worked at the National Széchényi Library; in 1940 and 1941 he was a clerk in the Prime Ministerial Office, and from 1941 to 1945, a teacher in the Transylvanian Scientific Institute at Kolozsvár. In 1946 he became an honorary lecturer at the University of Budapest and, from 1949, he was a correspondent for the Historical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and, from 1976 Scientific Advisor. He obtained a Ph.D. in historical scholarship. From 1971 he was Professor of Church History at the Reformed Theological Academy of Debrecen. From 1974 he was President of the Hungarian Reformed National Collection of Artifacts. From 1964 to 1984 he was Editor for the journal, World History (Világtörténet). From 1977 he was the Acting President of the Reformed Confessio periodical. From 1982 to 1988 he was the President of the Hungarian Historical Society. Earlier in his career, he mainly studied the Medieval and Modern History of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania), and the Hungarian-Romanian history connections. From 1949 on, the 16th-17th Century History of Ideas and Society became the center of his historical research, as well as Protestant Church History and Cultural History. He was successful in evaluating the 17th century English-Hungarian historical connections, and exploring Gábor (Gabriel) Bethlen’s era. His many publications include The History of Romanians, with Special Regard to the Transylvanian Romanians (A románok története, különös tekintettel az erdélyi románokra), co-author, Editor László (Ladislas) Géldi (1941, in German 1942); History of Transylvania (Erdély története) (1944); Hungarian-Romanian Common Past (Magyar-román közös múlt) (1948, 1989); Die Geschichte Ungarns, co-authored (1971); A History of Hungary, co-authored (1973), and History of Transylvania, vols. i,ii,iii (Erdély története, I.II.III), with others (1986). He was member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1985, regular 1987). He received the Golden Merit of Labor (1979), and the Banner Order of Merit of the Peoples’ Republic of Hungary (1984). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.→Bethlen, Prince Gábor; Makkai, Sándor.
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