Magyar, Pál, BlessedO.P. (Paul) (Paulus Hungarus) (13th century) – A Hungarian monastic. He was Professor of Canon Law at the University of Bologna in the 1210s. In 1218 he became a member of the Dominican Order. Around 1220 he wrote the book Summa de paenitentia. Forty known copies of this manuscript can be found in different European libraries. In 1221 he was the Prior of the Dominicans of Bologna. Later, he returned to Hungary with four of his fellow monks and established the Dominican Order in Hungary. He set out for missionary work among the Cumans and Tartars. In 1241 he suffered martyrdom by the invading Tartars at Jászvásár, Moldova (now Iasi, Romania). – B: 1085, 1091,T: 7103.
Magyar, Zoltán (Budapest, 13 December 1953 - ) – Gymnast, veterinarian. He did his higher studies at the Academy of Physical Education, Budapest (1976-1979), then at the Veterinary School of the University of Budapest (1980-1985). From 1968 to 1980, he was competing for the Ferencváros Gymnastic Club (Ferencvárosi Torna Club), Budapest. He was champion twenty times. His sport career includes: two Summer Olympic Games, three World, three European and two World Cup titles. He won the Olympic Gold Medal in 1976, and 1980; World Championships: Gold Medal in 1974, 1978 and 1979; European championships: Gold Medal in 1973, 1975, and 1977, and World Cup: Gold Medal in 1975, and 1978. He was Hungarian Sportsman of the Year in 1974, 1978, and 1980. He retired following the 1980 Summer Olympic Games. Between 1986 and 1989 he was Vice-President of the Hungarian Olympic Committee (Magyar Olimpiai Bizottság – MOB), and he has been Honorary President of the Hungarian National Gymnastic Clubs’ Alliance (Magyar Országos Tornászegyletek Szövetsége) since 2001. He received the Hungarian Heritage Prize (1997). – B: 0878, 1030, 1050, T: 7103.
Magyari, István (Stephen) (? - Sárvár, 1605) – Pastor of the Lutheran Church, polemist and writer. He participated in the siege of Esztergom in 1594. He studied at Wittenberg. From 1599 he was Count Ferenc (Francis) Nádasdy’s Court Chaplain at Sárvár; from 1600 Dean of Sárvár. In his work The Causes of all the Decay of Countries (Az országokban való soc romlásoknac okairól) (1602), he attempted to explain Hungary’s downfall from a Protestant theological viewpoint: the Turkish occupation was God’s punishment for mankind turning away from God, the main blame for this was laid on the Catholics, and he used excerpts from the writings of Aventinus and Erasmus. He also voiced complaints against the people exploiting belligerent parties, the run-down conditions and the yearning for peace. The Archbishop of Esztergom, Cardinal Péter (Peter) Pázmány, answered his work at the request of the Bishop of Nyitra (now Nitra, Slovakia), Ferenc (Francis) Forgách. It resulted in the rise of the literature of Hungarian religious polemics. Cardinal Pázmány first became widely known in public circles by his answer to Magyari. Magyari also translated the famous consolatory booklet of the Wittenberg theologian Joachim Beust. His other works are Hand Booklet on Mastering Death Well and Happily(Kézbeli könyvecske az jól és boldogul való meghalásnak mesterségéről) (1600), and Funeral Oration at Nádasdy’s Burial(Nádasdy temetésén elmondott beszéd), 1604. – B: 0883, 1068, T: 7456.→Pázmány, Péter. Magyaródy, Szabolcs (Szolnok, 1924 -) – Engineer, historian, publisher. His family moved to Budapest where he completed his high school studies. He worked in the family business. After the Communist transformation of society started in 1949 with nationalization, arrests and internment, he moved to Canada in 1951, and worked as an electrician, then as a mechanic. He took courses in Accounting at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. He worked as draftsman, later as sales engineer, then project engineer. He retired in 1987. However, he is an active commanding officer of the Veteran Hungarian Boy Scouts Abroad, and leader of the Mátyás (Matthias) Hunyady Veteran Boy Scouts’ Workshop in Hamilton. They publish Hungarian history books and CDs in English, and run an extensive Hungarian Library in English at: www.corvinuslibrary.com website. – B: 1035, T: 7103.→Press of the Hungarian émigrés. Magyars’ Alliance (Magyarok Szövetsége – MSZ) – It had its beginnings at the Asian kindred folks’– Madjars - Magyars – Program and Meeting held at Bösztörpuszta near the town of Kunszentmiklós in August 2008, during the VII. Hungarian World Congress (VII. Magyar Világ Kongresszus). More than 70,000 took part in the event. It resulted in the formation of the Börzsöny National Council (Börzsönyi Nemzeti Tanács), in which 232 organizations participated. On 28 November 2008, at the Kúnszentmiklós Conference, they adopted their present name: Magyars’ Alliance. The unfurling of the Flag ceremony took place on 21 March 2009, on Heroes’ Square in Budapest, during which they initiated the founding of the Magyars’ Alliance as a national civil movement. The Alliance’s aims were the creation of a genuine political change and the revitalization and survival of the Hungarian nation. For this purpose they drafted an all-encompassing program based on the historic Hungarian Constitution of 1222 (Golden Bull – Aranybulla) and on the principles of the Holy Crown Doctrine. The members of the Alliance consist of the general public and members of social organizations who were exasperated with the ineptitude of the political “elite” steering the nation’s future in the wrong direction. The Magyars’ Alliance wishes to remain a civil movement rather than become a political party. The Alliance was already a stronger civil force in number at its conception than the entire membership of the parliamentary representatives. The Alliance elected as its leader Major Ferenc Vukics, Assistant Professor at the Miklós Zrinyi Military College, where he excelled in the instruction of the ancient Hungarian martial art style, the “Baranta”. In 2007 Vukics took part in an expedition to the kindred Uyghur people, who live in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the Peoples’ Republic of China. In one year the Alliance established 1200 local organizations in Hungary, some even outside the country. The 21-23 August 2009, “Kurultaj” or “Meeting” held at Böjtörpuszta was attended by 250,000 people not only from Hungary, but also from Hungarian-populated regions of the Carpathian Basin. At this meeting a Proclamation was issued in the name of the Alliance calling upon the Head of State, the Parliament and the Government to restore constitutional order by 23 October 2009, otherwise the Alliance will proclaim civil disobedience. – B: 2010, T: 7617.→Holy Crown Doctrine;Golden Bull;Uyghurs. Magyary-Kossa, Gyula (Julius) (Debrecen, 8 January 1865 - Budapest, 21 June 1944) – Physician, pharmacologist, medical historian. He completed his medical studies at the Medical School of the University of Budapest in 1888. The following year, he became a Demonstrator, and later Assistant Lecturer in the Department of Pharmacology. In 1894 he became an honorary lecturer in Toxicology and, from 1896, full Professor of Botany and Pharmacology at the Veterinary School of the University of Budapest. He carried out research on the effect of morphine and poisonous plants, the diagnostics of poisonings, and the effectiveness of pharmaceuticals. He also carried out fundamental medical historical research, his source-supplying volumes, the Hungarian MedicalMemorials, vols. i-ivand v, (Magyar orvosi emlékek I-IV) (1929-1940), and Vol. V (1996), served as the basis for later research work; his other works are: The Effect and Medical Use of the Domestic Medicinal Plants (A hazai gyógynövények hatása ésorvosi használata) (1926); Ungarische medizinische Erinnerungen (1935), and On Old Hungarian Midwives (Régi magyar bábákról) (1938). He was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1920). – B: 1730, 1078, T: 7456.
Magyi Codex – A manuscript collection of miscellaneous subjects written between 1476 and 1490. Its original owner was János (John) Magyi, a cleric at the Church District of Eger and, in 1476, a writer to the Secretary of Óbuda’s Chapter. The quarto size Codex is comprises 28 booklets and 536 pages. It also contains religious script fragments, quotations from classical authors, some improper verses by nameless poets, different Hungarian and Latin notes, as well as János Magyi’s Regula Juris in verse form written in 1484, an important language relic. For a period of time, this Codex was erroneously attributed to Tamás (Thomas) Nyirkállói. – B: 1150, T: 3240.→Codex Literature. Mahler, Gustav (Kalischt, now Kalište, Bohemia, 7 July 1860 - Vienna, 18 May 1911) – Composer, conductor. Now celebrated for his symphonies and songs, he was one of the most important conductors of his day. He studied in Vienna with Fuchs and Krenn, and first held positions in Kassel (1883-1885), Prague (1885-1886), and Leipzig (1886-1888). In Leipzig (1888), he successfully performed Weber’s unfinished Die drei Pintos. From 1888 to 1891, he was Conductor and Director of the Budapest Opera House, producing excellent performances, including the Ring of the Nibelung Cycle by Richard Wagner, then conducted the Hamburg Opera (1891-1897). During his years as Director of the Vienna Court Opera (Hofoper, 1897-1907), he introduced a new approach to the presentations of Mozart and Wagner operas, adding to his repertoire even modern radicals like Schönberg. His harsh rehearsal methods and dealings with musicians, his personal life, his ten-year marriage to Alma Schindler (which nearly led to divorce), his Jewish background (though formally he converted to Roman Catholicism), all made him a figure of controversy in Vienna’s anti-Semitic world. When his five-year old daughter died, he had a psychoanalytical discussion about his married life with Sigmund Freud. To escape from the Viennese environment he went to New York as a guest conductor. Soon he was celebrated everywhere as the greatest conductor of the early 20th century; he set conducting standards that have become legendary. His Metropolitan debut in Tristan und Isolde on 1 January 1908 was praised as “strikingly vital”, though some found his interpretations self-indulgent. He also directed Don Giovanni, Fidelio, Figaro, Walküre, Siegrfried, Bartered Bride and Queen of Spades. He wrote ten symphonies; the last one is incomplete. Among them are the Symphony No. 1 (The Titan) (1888), No. 2 (Resurrection) (1894), No. 5 (The Giant) (1902), No. 8 (Symphony of a Thousand) (1910). Following Bruckner in the Viennese symphonic tradition, Mahler added folk elements and expanded the form in length, emotional contrast and orchestra size. He also wrote songs and song cycles. The song cycles, mostly with orchestral accompaniment, include The Song of the Earth (Das Lied von der Erde) (1907-1908), an orchestral song cycle, Songs of a Wayfarer(Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen) (1883-1885), Songs on the Death of Children (Kindertotenlieder) (1901-1904) and Des Knaben Wunderhorn (TheYouth’s Magic Horn) (1888). His health failed (blood infection), and he returned to Europe in February 1911, seeking medical help, but none was possible and he died the same year. – B: 1068, 1693, 1694, T: 7456.
Majláth, Julia (Budapest, 20 January 1921 - Budapest, 11 October 1976) – Composer. In 1940, due to her infantile paralysis (Polio) she had to discontinue her piano studies. She studied musical composition under the direction of Rezső (Rudolph) Sugár and Rezső Kókai in the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest. In 1948, and again in 1968, she won the hit competition of the Hungarian Radio. She was a successful composer of light music. In addition to her radio operetta, All Hands Aboard (Mindenki a fedélzetre), some of her dance songs achieved popularity, such as the Gingerbread (Mézeskalács);The Carts are Taking Hay (Szénát hordanak aszekerek), and I Won’t Wait until Tomorrow (Nem várok holnapig). She composed the music for László Tabi’s comedy The Country is Playing Sports (Sportol az ország). – B: 0883, 1160, T: 7456.→Tabi, László; Mikes, Éva. Major, Máté (Matthew) (Baja, 3 August 1904 - Budapest, 14 April 1986) – Architect, art historian. He obtained his Degree in Architecture at the Budapest Polytechnic. From 1927 to 1936 he worked in private positions, and independently designed a number of well-known apartment blocks in Budapest. Between 1936 and 1944 he was Engineer, then Chief Engineer of the National Institution of Community Insurance (Országos Társadalombiztositási Intézet –OTI). From 1946 to 1949 he held leading positions at different ministries. Between 1949 and 1971 he chaired the Committee of Building History at the Budapest Polytechnic, dealing with the more recent basic principles and objectives of architecture, as well as the architectural trends of the 20th century. Between 1946 and 1951 he was Editor for several architectural journals. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1949, ordinary 1960). His works include History of Architecture vols. i,ii,iii (Épitészettörténet, I-III) (1954-1960), and TheNew WorldofArchitecture(Épitészet új világa) (1969). He received the Kossuth Prize (1949), the Ybl Prize (1960), and the Herder Prize (1977). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Major, Nándor (Ferdinand) (Verbász, now Vrbas, Serbia, 13 June 1931 - ) – Writer. He studied in Szabadka (now Subotica, Serbia), where he obtained a Degree from the Teachers’ Training College of Újvidék (now Novi Sad, Serbia). From 1950 he was a correspondent for the weekly paper, The Voiceof Youth (IfjúságSzava) and, from 1957 to 1962, he was Editor-in-Chief for the paper, Bridge (Híd). From 1962 he edited the paper Hungarian Word (Magyar Szó), and later became Editor for the Publishing Firm, Forum Publishers (Forum Könyvkiadó). Until 1988 he also filled leading political posts. In 1989, he was expelled from the Yugoslav Communist Council. His literary career began with neo-realistic short stories. His leading heroes are gray everyday figures who are turned into real individuals through the psychological illumination of the author. His prose often dwells on problems of existence and philosophy, while, in his essays, he deals with social and political questions. His works include Waves (Hullámok), novel (1969); Evening Hours (Estiórák), essays (1968), and Dialogue with Reality (Párbeszéd a valósággal), studies, articles, interviews (1988). He received the Híd Prize (1959). –B: 1257, 1091, T: 7456.
Major, Ottó (Budapest, 4 April 1924 - Budapest, 22 February 1999) – Writer. He obtained an Arts Degree from the University of Budapest in 1948. He worked chiefly as a journalist. He was one of the founders of the journal, New Moon (Újhold), and correspondent for the magazines, Creation (Alkotás), Contemporary (Kortárs) and Hungarians (Magyarok). In 1946-1947 he was a correspondent for the Illustrated Week (Képes Hét), and People of Kossuth (Kossuth Népe). In 1948-1949 he worked for the editorial office of the paper, Freedom (Szabadság). From 1950 to 1952 he was a freelance writer. Between 1953 and 1964 he was Night Editor for the magazine, Mirror (Tükör) and, from 1964 until his retirement in 1976, Night Editor for the New Mirror (Új Tükör). He continued working and became Cultural Editor and Correspondent for the Pester News (Pesti Hírlap), from 1976 until 1990. He authored a serialized novel: the Hungarian Atlantis(Magyar Atlantisz), consisting of three parts: On theScreen of Times (Idők rostáján) (1955), The Soil Turns Autumnal(Megőszül a föld) (1956), and The Seventh Seal (A hetedik pecsét) (1958), presenting all the changes experienced by the fate of several generations, starting with the historical scene of millennial Hungary (1896), ending with the years of the Second World War (1939-1945), featuring heroes from a great number of different social classes. He also wrote a historical trilogy reaching into antiquity, the ThreeApocrypha (Három apokrif) (1970), studying the human desires as they are spread amid the possibilities of historical necessity. He regularly wrote short stories, critiques and studies, some compiled in one volume, such as Playing with the Mirror (Játék a tükörrel) (1962). He received the Attila József Prize twice (1952, 1956) and the Small Cross of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (1994). – B: 1257, 1091, 0878, T: 7456.
Major, Tamás (Thomas) (Újpest, 26 January 1910 - Budapest, 13 April 1986) – Actor, theater manager, director. He completed his studies in 1930 at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest, and worked first on a scholarship and then as a full member at the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest. In the 1930s he appeared in Trade Union performances. His contact with laborers and Communists shaped him as a revolutionary. He took part in the Resistance Movement during World War II, and he became Director of the National Theater, Budapest, in 1945, and leading that Theater for 18 years. From 1962 he was its main producer. As an actor he started in episode roles and played his first major role in Molière’s Tartuffe in 1943. He liked grotesque roles. In comedies he often used rough methods. As a theater producer, he played a significant role in producing Soviet and new Hungarian dramatic works. J. Racine's Andromache and The Litigants(A pereskedők) were his first stage managements. Later, he produced J. Katona’s Bánk bán, Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream (Szentivánéji álom), and I. Madách’s The Tragedy of Man (Az ember tragédiája). After the World War II, his productions were based on Stanislavsky’s work. In later years, he became a follower of Bertold Brecht’s art. He enjoyed great success also as a poetry recitalist. From 1947 he was professor at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest. He received the Kossuth Prize twice (1948, 1955), and the Merited Artist title (1950). – B: 0871, 1445, T: 7684.
Majtényi, Erik (Mann) (Temesvár, now Timişoara, Romania, 19 September 1922 - Bucharest, 22 January 1982) – Poet, writer. In his early youth, he earned his living by manual labor. Toward the end of World War II, he found himself in a concentration camp due to his anti-fascist activity. After 1945 he was a journalist; in 1952 he became Editor for the journal Forwards(Előre). He was a member of the editorial board of the paper, TrueWord(Igaz Szó), in Marosvásárhely (now Targu Mureş, Romania), and a correspondent for the paper BanatWritings(Bánsági Irás). His first poems appeared in a poetry anthology Fifty Poems(Ötven vers) in 1950, followed by a series of other poems, concluding with WhiteBird (Fehér madár) (1967). These political works later on embraced a stringent self-criticism in his volume of poems, OnePoem Alone (Egy vers egyedül). He dealt with the ideas and activities of his generation with law-abiding severity, often ironically colored. He translated the works of Romanian writers, among them Eugen Jebeleanu, Emil Isac, Virgil Teodorescu and Maria Banus into Hungarian. His works include an assorted collection of poems in Send-off (Útravaló), 1962) and a collection of articles, Playing Back (Visszajátszás) (1981). He received the State Prize (1954). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Majtényi, Mihály (Michael) (Markovics) (Nagybecskerek, now Zrenjanin, Serbia, 21 July 1901 - Újvidék, now Novi Sad, Serbia, 7 July 1974) – Writer, journalist, translator. After graduating from high school, he worked as a clerk, then as a journalist from 1927 until his retirement in 1973. He worked first in Zenta (now Senta, Serbia), then in Zombor (now Sombor, Serbia), as Editor for the paper, Latest News(Új Hírek) between 1929 and 1937. After World War II he became a correspondent for the paper, Hungarian Word(Magyar Szó) of Újvidék (now Novi Sad, Serbia), then, from 1949 to 1955, he was Editor for the literary journal, Bridge (Híd), and finally Literary Editor for Radio Újvidék, where he produced a number of radio plays. His first short stories appeared in the 1920s. He was a significant representative of Hungarian prose writing in the Banat area (now called Voivodina, Serbia). In the interwar years, he painted a realistic picture of the Voivodina scenery and society. He wrote a number of stage plays, such as the prize-winning Outcast(Száműzött). His novel, The Canal of the Emperor (A Császár csatornája) (1943), features the modern history of the formerly Bácska region of the southern part of Historic Hungary (now Backa in Serbia). In the post-war years, he published mainly short stories and also translated some works of Serbian novelists into Hungarian. His works also include the novel, It Could Also Happen this Way(Így is történhet) (1968). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Makad Cemetery, Wooden Grave Pots of – The 1200 inhabitants of the town of Makad by the River Danube, immediately south of Budapest, are mainly Protestants and, in their cemetery, most of the gravesites are marked by wooden grave-markers. Unfortunately the generations of carving masters are dying out. A few of these grave-markers are exquisite creations of folk art. They are relatively uniform, each ends in a star and its above-ground height is about 160-180 cm. The cross sections are of rectangular shape; the written text with the carved pattern decoration is on their wider side. The inscription is currently done in capital letters that seem to be hardier. The decorations do not distinguish between male and female but color does refer to the genders, as most of them are painted. Several colors (yellow, blue, white, brown, green or black) refer to the deceased’s age as well. In 1990, the villagers placed a grave-marker in the cemetery in memory of the thirteen generals executed in Arad on 6 October 1849, at the end of the War of Independence (1848-1849). – B: 1020, T: 7648.→Grave Posts, Wooden; Freedom Fight of 1848-1849; Arad, Martyrs of. Makai, Emil (Makó, 17 November 1870 - Budapest, 6 August 1901) – Poet, playwright, literary translator. As a son of a rabbi, he also planned to become one; thus, from 1884, he studied at the Rabbinical Seminary of Pest and, from 1889, at the College of Rabbinical Studies; he also studied at the Department of Art of the University of Budapest. At first, he wrote religious poems and translated from the works of medieval Hebrew poets. Later, changing career, he became a journalist: was correspondent for the Pester Journal (Pesti Napló) (1892-1894), the Metropolitan Papers (Fővárosi Lapok) (1894-1997), and was Deputy Editor for the paper, The Week (A Hét) (1897-1900). He was a member of the Petőfi Society from 1898. His poems express the experiences of city folks in the form of rich, refined, song-like form (e.g. Andrássy-út). His poetic personality is characterized by hopeless self-seeking and ironical impersonation of self. His poetic language often cites the forms and expressions of the social intercourse of city life, e.g. in words like bók, vallomás, üzenet, csevegés, levél, pletyka (compliment, confession, message, chat, letter, gossip). He also liked to use fashionable words of foreign origin. From 1892 he worked for the theaters for nearly a decade, in which more than a hundred plays were staged, which had been translated or adapted by him. His plays are relatively significant works from the end of the 19th century: Robinsons (Robinzonok) (1898), a comedy setting against each other the modern and the old way of life; and Scholarly Professor Hatvani (Tudós professzor Hatvani) (1900). As a typical figure of the 18th century enlightenment, Professor Hatvani showed the courage of a man fighting against superstition and the fallibility of the abstract, speculative reasoning. Makai’s works were compiled in two volumes, with introduction written and published by Géza Molnár (1904). – B: 1257, 1031, 1091, T: 7456.→Hatvani, István.