Musica Antiqua Hungarica Ensemble – The Ensemle was founded in 1967 – first such one in the country. Their aim is to make known the music of the Medieval and Renaissance, and to popularize it by performing with contemporary musical instruments. The founder and leader of the Ensemble is György (George) Késmárki-Krisch, conductor and composer of the Bach Orchestre of Budapest. He not only researches this types of music but also makes music scores for them. The Ensemle has six members, occasionally completing it with soloists. The members are musicians of noted orchestras and music teachers. The place of their first performances was at the National Museum (Nemzeti Múzeum) in Budapest. They performed at the Spring Festival of Budapest, The Festival Weeks of Sopron, and the Renaissance Festival of Eger, etc. The Ensemble is a regular guest of the nation’ castles and museums. – B: 1031, T: 7103.→Musica Historica Ensemble; Schola Hungarica Ensemble; Muzsikás Hungarian Folkmusic Ensemble. Musica Historica Ensemble(Musica Historica Együttes) – The Ensemble was founded by István (Stephen) Csörsz Rumen in 1988 in Budapest. Beside classical music and antique instruments its members used folk music instruments as well from Hungary and East-Europe, which decisively formed their pereforming style. Their repertoire includes primarily Hungarian and Central-European music (11th-12th centuries), and Western European Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque and Turkish music (16th-18th centuries). They also perform both secular and ecclesiastic music. The are more than 1000 performances to their credit nationwide in concert halls, castles, museums, churches, schools, and at Renaissance-style weddings, as well as festivals. The Musica Historica is one of the most frequently performing antique music ensembles. – B: 1031, T: 7103.→Musica Historica; Schola Hungarica; Muzsikás Hungarian Folkmusic Ensemble. Music Notation Writing Machine – A rotating drum and writing gear fastened to the piano keys. When a key is pressed, it leaves a mark on the rotating drum. The length of the mark is proportional to the time for which the key is pressed. József (Joseph) Kliegl (1795-1870) invented the apparatus and it was tested by musicians like F. Liszt, F. Erkel, E. Ábrányi and M. Székely. The Hungarian National Museum bought the apparatus but later it was lost. – B: 1197, T: 7662.
Musnai György (George) (Second half of the 17th century) – Painter, carpenter. He worked at the Unitarian Church of Udvarhelyszék (now Scaunul Odorhei, Transylvania, Romania). In 1668 he painted the ceiling of the church in Énlaka (now Inlacem in Romania) with old Hungarian runic writing. Together with András (Andrew) Szász they painted the gallery (the gods triforium) of the church in Homoródszentmárton (now Martinis, Romania) in 1664. – B: 1144, T: 7653.→Hungarian Runic Script. Mussolini, Benito Amilcare Andrea (Predappio, Forli, Italy, 29, July 1883 - Giulino di Mezzegera, Italy, 28 April, 1945) – Italian politician, party leader, statesman. Mussolini was one of the founders of Fascism, and leader of the National Fascist Party. He became Prime Minister of Italy in 1922, and began using the title Il Duce by 1925. Mussolini also created and held the supreme military rank of First Marshal of the Empire, along with King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. Mussolini remained in power until he was replaced in 1943. Between 1924 and 1939, his program helped Italy. Among others: he improved job opportunities and made the Lateran Treaty between Italy and the Holy See. He is also credited with securing economic success in Italy’s colonies. Mussolini influenced, or achieved admiration from, a wide variety of political figures. Although he initially favored siding with France against Germany, in the early 1930s Mussolini became one of the main figures of the Axis powers. He was one of the key participants of the fateful Munich Agreement, corroborated and signed on 29-30 September 1938 by Chamberlain and Daladier, the English and French Prime Ministers respectively, as well as Hitler and Mussolini, Heads of State of Germany and Italy, which obliged Czechoslovakia to concede the Sudetenland with its three million ethnic Germans, to Germany. Mussolini was supportive of the amelioration of Hungary’s harsh Peace Dictate of Trianon, and supported the realization of the Vienna Awards I and II. Mussolini led Italy into World War II, on the side of Axis, on 10 June 1940. In 1943, Mussolini was deposed at the Grand Council of Fascism, prompted by the Allied Invasion. Soon after his incarceration began in the Hotel of Gran Sasso, Mussolini was rescued in the daring raid by a German commando. Thereafter, Mussolini headed the Italian Social Republic in the northern parts of Italy. In late April 1945, when Mussolini attempted to escape to Switzerland with a German military convoy, he was captured and executed by Communist Italian partisans near Lake Como. His body was taken to Milan for public viewing. – B: 1031, T: 7103.→Hitler, Adolf; Munich Agreement;Ciano, CountGaleazzo; Vienna Award I; Vienna Award II.
Müteferrika, Ibrahim (Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 1674 - ? 1753) – Interpreter, publisher, printer, courtier, diplomat, man of letters, astronomer, historian, historiographer, Islamic scholar and theologian and sociologist. He was an impecunious student in Kolozsvár in Transylvania and, while studying to become a priest, he also gained experience in the printing trade. He was still a student in 1692, when the Turks captured him, took him to Turkey and sold him on the slave market. His original Hungarian name is unknown. During 23 years of slavery, he learned the Turkish language and became acquainted with the Turkish people. In 1715 he converted to the Mohammedan faith, while he completed his book: Discourse on Islam(Értekezés az Izlámról), in which, anonymously, he gives a florid account of his life. Through this publication, he came to the attention of Pasha Ibrahim, Grand Vizier, with a Western education, who appointed him “Müteferrika” (interpreter, diplomatic liaison-officer) in Belgrade where, at that time, the refugee forces of Ferenc (Francis) Rákóczi II, Prince of Transylvania were assembling. The Sultan sent Müteferrika to serve Rákóczi for a while. Then Müteferrika, with the support of Pasha Said, submitted a plan for a printing press to the Grand Vizier. The idea was favored and Müteferrika received the necessary financial support. They imported letter cutters, type casters and printers from Vienna. He was the first Muslim to run a printing press with movable Arabic type, also called the “Turkish incunabula”. In the beginning the printing press was operated from Müteferrika’s house in Istambul. Then, in 1727, the plant was moved to the residence of the Grand Vizier, where it operated until the Grand Vizier's murder in 1732. Müteferrika’s press published its first book in 1729, and by 1743, issued 17 works in 23 volumes (each having between 500 and 1,000 copies). Müteferrika also taught at the Galip Dede monastery of the “whirling dervishes”. He is buried in the monastery garden. He is still remembered in Turkey with pride, honor and respect. A statue of Müteferrika can be found just outside the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul. In 1918, Károly (Charles) Kós found 20 books in Istanbul that were printed in Müteferrika’s printing shop. – B: 1020, T: 7617.→Kós, Károly.
Mutilated (Truncated) Hungary – The one-thousand-year-old Hungarian Kingdom was drastically dismembered by the Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty in 1920. Two thirds of its historical territory was ceded to the neighboring states. Transylvania (Erdély) was passed to Romania, the Upper Hungary (Felvidék) to the newly formed Czechoslovakia and the Southern part (Southern Hungary, Délvidék) was added to Serbia-Yugoslavia; even Austria received a part, the western strip along the common border. With these territories, 3.5 million ethnic Hungarians fell under foreign rule, without a plebiscite (with the exception of Sopron). This was tantamount to Collective Punishment of the whole Hungarian nation.
Between the two World Wars, the Hungarian nation fought, by political means, for the peaceful reinstatement of the historic borders, but to no avail. Finally after nearly twety years the so-called “Vienna Awards” settled the Hungarian border question with the interested parties in a peaceful way.
The First Vienna Award, signed on 2 November 1938, returned to Hungary those border territories of the Felvidék (Upper Hungary, then Czechoslovakia) that were populated by the largest number of Hungarians. At the disintegration of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1939, the Hungarians retook Kárpátalja (Sub-Carpathia, or Ruthenia).
The Second Vienna Award on 30 August 1940 gave back to Hungary the mostly Hungarian populated northern part of the Partium (the easternmost strip of the Great Hungarian Plains) and the northern part of Transylvania (Erdély) from Romania.
In 1941, after Germany occupied Yugoslavia, Hungarian troops regained the mostly Hungarian populated part of the lost territories in the former South Hungary (Bácska region, between the rivers Danube and Tisza, and the Baranya triangle) especially since the Hungarian population was ravaged by Yugoslav partisans.
At the time of these agreements, Hungary was not involved in World War II. However, the Peace Treaty of Paris on 10 February 1947 annulled the Vienna Awards and some other agreements by reinstating the 1 January 1938 borders of Hungary with the addition of three villages on the right side of the Danube to be annexed to the re-vitalized Czechoslovak Republic, while Ruthenia or Sub-Carpathia was ceded to the Soviet Union. It is now part of the Ukraine by “inheritance”, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. – B: 1020, T: 7668.→Hungary, History of; Modern Hungary; Atrocities against Hungarians.
Muzsikás Hungarian Folkmusic Ensemble – A music ensemble formed more than three decades ago, in order to combine traditional music with the classical compositions of Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály, György (George) Kurtág and György Ligeti. Its current members are: Mihály (Michael) Sipos, violin, zither, voice; László (Ladislas) Pénteki, violin, lute, tambourine, voice; Péter Éri, violin, mandolin, flute, voice; and Dániel Hamar double base, cello, drum, voice. Their associates include Mária Petrás, singer; Zoltán Farkas and Ildikó Tóth, choreographers and earlier, Márta Sebestyén, singer, and many other soloists and orchestras. The ensemble also participated in folk, folkmusic and world-music events, and they are not averse to performing alternate music, including jazz, Celtic or Jewish (Klezmer) music. They have toured all over the world, including nearly every European country, in addition to North-America, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. They have appeared at the most prestigious concert halls of the world, such as the Royal Festival Hall, Royal Albert Hall, Barbican Center and Queen Elisabeth Hall in London; Théatre de la Ville, and Cité de la Musique in Paris, Santa Cecilia Academy in Rome, Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, and Carnegie Hall in New York. Their released records include Living Hungarian Folk Music I. MUZSIKÁS;Márta Sebestyén and Muzsikás;Blues for Transylvania;Maramaros, the lost Jewish music;The Bartók Album and Live at Liszt Academy. The Ensemble received the following distinctions: Pro Hungarian Art Prize, Ferenc Liszt Prize, Kossuth Prize, Hungarian Heritage Prize, Prima Primissima Prize, and the prestigious WOMEX Prize in 2008. Muzsikás is the most renowned and popular Hungarian folk-music ensemble worldwide and in their home country. – B: 1031, 2053, T: 7103.→Kaláka Ensemble; Kecskés Ensemble; Sebő Ensemble; Kormoran Ensemble; Musica Antiqua Hungarica Ensemble; Musica Historica Ensemble; Schola Hungarica; Bartók, Béla; Kodály, Zoltán; Kurtág, György; Ligeti, György; Sebestyén, Márta;
Muzslay IstvánS.J. (Stephan Muselay)(Bajót, 9 January 1923 - Leuven-Heverlee Belgium, 14 May 2007) – Jesuit friar, economist, sociologist. He entered the Jesuit Order in 1942, and left Hungary in 1948, after his religious order was disolved. . He was ordained in Holland, in 1951. He did his Economy and Sociology studies at the University of Tilburg in the Netherlands. In 1955 he moved to Leuven, where he established the Mindszenty House and the Collegium Hungaricum Lovaniense for expatriate Hungarian youth. In 1961 he became Professor of Economy and of Hungarian Literature at the Catholic University of Leuven and, in 1962, he organized the Central European Research Institute within the University. In 1963 he started the periodical, Documentation sur l'Europe Centrale, and he was its Editor for 20 years. The Research Institute was merged with the Leuven Institute for Central and East European Studies. Following his retirement in 1983, he became Principal of the Collegium Hungaricum. From 1990 on he lectured at different Hungarian universities. His works appeared in French and Flemish, mostly in the periodical he edited. His main works are Menselijke verhoudingen II (F. J. Th. Ruttennel, Bussum 1957), and Economie en welvaart van Hongarije (Antwerp 1967). He was one of the outstanding members of the Hungarian emigrant society, and one of the main patrons of Hungarian youth abroad. He had an important role that the Leuven Codex returned to Hungary in 1982, which contains the Ancient Hungarian Maria Lament. The King of Belgium made him a baron and decorated him with the Leopold Order of Merit. Pope John Paul II appointed him Member of the Papal Academy of Sociology. He received the Hungarian Heritage Prize, and the Officer’s Cross of Merit of the Repblic of Hungary (2005). – B: 1672, 1728, 1030, T: 7103.→Maria’s Lament, Old Hungarian.
Muzsnai, László (Ladislas) (Maroskeresztúr, now Cristeşti, Romania, 31 October 1897 - Budapest, 10 September 1983) – Minister of the Reformed Church, theologian, philosopher, philosopher of religion. He went to school in Marosvásárhely (now Targu Mureş, Romania), studied Theology at the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) (1916-1920), in Montpellier (1922), in Geneva (1923), at Princeton (1926), and in Montreal (1927). He obtained the Degree of Sacrae Theologiae Magister from Princeton University (1926), his Doctorate in Theology from the University of Montreal (1927), and became an honorary lecturer in Theology (1933) at the University of Kolozsvár. He worked as an Assistant Minister teaching Religion in Kolozsvár (1920-1927), in Budapest (1927-1936), then in Budapest again (1937-1953), and worked in various congregations in Budapest as an assistant minister until his retirement in 1971. Between 1934 and 1937 he lectured on Philosophy at the Reformed Church’s Training Seminar for Ministers in Losonc (now Lučenec, Slovakia). He dealt mainly with the Psychology of Religion, and published many papers, although some remained in manuscript, like his book, The Logic of the Bible (A Biblia logikája). His works include The Mental Evolution (1925); The Doctrine of Sin (1926); The Psychology of Religious Consciousness (1927); The Mysterious World of the Soul (A lélek rejtelmesvilága) (1928); Spiritual Problems (Lelki problémák) (1933), and Hungarian Metaphysics and Logic (Magyar metafizika és logika) (1943). – B: 0883, 1031, 1908, T: 7456. Muzsnay, Jenő (Eugene) (Musnai) (Medgyes, now Mediaş, Romania, 1911 - ?) – Writer. He received his basic education in Csíkszereda (now Mercurea Ciuc, Romania). His family was forced to escape from Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania) in 1920, and he continued his secondary education and university studies in Budapest, where he received a Degree in Law in 1935. In 1956 he left for Switzerland and settled in the town of Aarau. He began his literary activities in the 1950s. Ancient history and the great migration period were the topics of his articles. They appeared in German and Hungarian periodicals in Switzerland. In 1957 he began to research Swiss relics of Hun origins. He published two books (1978, 1980) on the inhabitants of Hun origin of the Val d’Anniviers region of Switzerland. A recent French language Swiss book refers to his assertions and confirms them. – B: 1020, T: 7617.→Eifischtahl, Hun Runic Writing at; Hungarian Runic Script. Mythology, Hungarian→Hungarian Mythology.