M macartney, Carlile Aylmer



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Murádin, Jenő (Eugene) (Harasztos, now Calarai, Romania, 23 November 1937 - ) – Art historian. He completed his higher studies, majoring in History and Philosophy, at the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) in 1963. He was Art Editor for the daily newspaper, Truth (Igazság) of Kolozsvár (1966-1988), and was Editor-in-Chief of the children’s literary paper, Sunshine (Napsugár) (1988-1990). Since 1990 he has been an associate of the paper. As a reader, starting from 1991, he lectures at the Ion Andreescu Academy of Fine Arts, Kolozsvár. His books and monographs include The Miklós (Nicholas) Barabás Guild (A Barabás Miklós Céh) (1978); The Ferenczy Family of Artists in Transylvania (A Ferenczy művészcsalád Erdélyben) (1981); István (Stephen) Nagy (1984); Nagybánya: Artists of the Painters’ Colony (Nagybánya, a festőtelep művészei) (1994) (Nagybánya now Baia Mare, Romania); Hundred Years of Nagybánya (Nagybánya 100 éve), co-author (1996), and the Schools of Fine Art in Transylvania (Erdélyi festőiskolák), (1997). – B: 1036, T: 7456.
Muraköz (now Medimrje, Croatia) – A triangular area of 730 km² between the Rivers Mura and Dráva. In the west, it is on the slopes of Alpine foothills, while on the east, it touches the Pannonian plains. The area has been inhabited since the Stone and Bronze Ages, but its original inhabitants are still uncertain. Subsequently, the Celts, Serets and Pannons inhabited it in the Iron Age. It became part of the Roman Empire; Strabo called it Insula intra Dravam et Muram (island between the Dráva and Mura Rivers). Various peoples owned this territory for a while, including the Huns, Visigoths and Ostrogoths. King István I (St Stephen) (997-1038) donated it to the Bishop of Veszprém; King Béla IV (1235-1270) gave the region to Dömötör (Demetrius) Csák, who built the Castle of Csáktornya (now Cakovec). The area belonged to Hungary with intermittent brief foreign control. From the time of Hungarian King László I (St Ladislas, 1077-1095), after decades of inner struggles, it was Hungarian territory for 800 years by “personal union” under the name “Land of the Holy Crown of St. Stephen”. Croatian statehood was preserved through a number of institutions, notably the Savor, the assembly of Croatian nobles, and the “Ban” or viceroy. Furthermore, the Croatian nobles retained their lands and titles. Most of the land belonged to the Zrinyi family. Miklós (Nicholas) Zrinyi (1620-1664), distinguished himself in fighting against the Turks. Muraköz was later sold to the Festetics family.

At the end of 1918 – the last year of World War I – irregular Serbian units unsuccessfully invaded Muraköz. During the last days of 1918, a larger, 4000-man “volunteer” army crossed the Dráva and accomplished the occupation of Muraköz; however, in 1919, the citizens drove the Serb occupying forces out, although the presence of the French army secured Serbian rule. On 3 March of that year, protest demonstrations took place in every village, demanding the return of the region to Hungary. The Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty (1920) ceded it to the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia). After breaching the Treaty with the Third Reich, signed on 25 March 1941, the German military forces overran Yugoslavia. As a result, Croatia was recreated and Muraköz returned to Hungary only on 9 July 1941, on the forceful demand of its people, and was under Hungarian rule between 1941 and 1945. After World War II, Muraköz became part of the restored Yugoslavia again. With it the oppression of Hungarians started. Eleven prominent Hungarians were executed, many imprisoned, and many more dispersed to other parts of Yugoslavia. Since Croatia regained its independence on 24 June 1991, Muraköz became part if it. Today, Muraköz has three major cities: Csáktornya, Muraszerdahely (now Murska Sredisčée) and Perlak (now Prelog), and 21 villages. A part of the traditional Muraköz today belongs to Slovenia (now Perkmurje). There are altogether 20 Hungarian settlements, among them towns and villages. Its center is Lendva (Lendava). In 1991, 7,696 Hungarians lived in the area, out of 8,493 Hungarians in Slovenia. Approximately the same number of Hungarians live in the Croatian side of Muraköz. – B: 0942, 1031, 1078, 1230, 1689, 7456, T: 7103, 7456.


Muraközi Horse (Muraközi ló) – A heavy draft-horse, native to Hungaryungary.. Its breeding was centered in Muraköz along the River Mura in Southern Hungary, at the end of the 19th, the beginning of the 20th century. The foundation stock was native Hungarian mares (known as Mur-Insulan), Ardennais, Percherons (from Belgium), Norikers (from Austria), and some Hungarian half-bred stallions, and this produced a quick-moving and alert horse. The Muraközi horse was very popular with farmers and was used extensively by the army in both world wars. Today, it is still used on the land, although its numbers have dwindled. This breed is classified as cold-blooded. There are two types of the Muraközi. One is a heavy horse that stands 16 hands high or more. The second is a lighter, more active, general type of horse. The color of this breed is usually a chesnut coat with a flaxen mane and tail. Muraközi horses have a compact and very powerful physical structure. The horse's tail is set low, and the hind quarters are very round and muscled. These horses usually mature early on in life. Their temperament is calm and even. Muraközi horses are bred in Hungary, in Poland, and in the former countries of Yugoslavia. – B: 0942, 2043, T: 7103.
Muraközy, Gyula (Julius) (Budapest, 13 May 1892 - Budapest 31 August 1961) – Minister of the Reformed Church, poet and writer. He studied Theology at the Reformed Theological Academy of Budapest (1910-1914), and at the University of Montauban, France (1910-1911). He was in France again in 1919, in 1923 at Montpellier, as well as in the USA in 1928. He served as Assistant Minister in the Calvin Square Church, Budapest (1915-1918), Minister in Kecskemét, (1918-1932), and at the Calvin Square Church, Budapest (1932-1955, 1957-1961). He retired due to political pressure in 1955, but resumed his ministry in the Calvin Square Church after the 1956 Revolution, from 1957 until his death. he also served as General Secretary of the Ecumenical Council of the Hungarian Churches (1957-1961). He was Editor of the Reformeds’ Paper (Reformátusok Lapja), Kecskemét; Editor of Reformeds’ Life (Református Élet) from 1933 to 1944; the Reformed Observer (Református Figyelő), and from 1945 that of the Life and Future (Élet és Jövő). He edited the periodical Theological Review (Theológiai Szemle). He was Editor-in-Chief of the bilingual lithographed ecumenical periodical, Church Press, from 1957. Muraközy was an excellent orator and a prolific writer. His most notable works are: Life and Death (Élet és halál), meditations (1915) Human Life (Emberélet) (1917); Evening in the Forest (Este az erdőn) poems (1921); Socialism, the Jewish Question, Catholicism, and the Hungarian Future (Szocializmus, zsidókérdés, katholicizmus és a magyar jövő) studies, lectures, sermons (1922); The Book of the Preacher (A prédikátor könyve) (1929); The Problems of the Reformed [Presbyterian] Hungarians (A magyar reformátusság problémái) (1929); Midnight Talks (Éjféli beszélgetések) poems (1932); The Triumphant Life (A diadalmas élet) (1933); The Invisible Church (A láthatatlan templom) (1933); The Awakening Earth (Az ébredő föld) novel (1933); On Mount Zion (A Sionnak hegyén) prayers and meditations (1935), numerous editions; Shouting Word (Kiáltó Szó) studies, lectures, sermons (1936); Solution of the Crisis (A válság megoldása) sermons (1938); When Angels Arrive (Ha megérkeznek az angyalok) (1939); the Secret (Titok) short novels (1940); and a Prayer Book (with several editions), and Tragedy and Predestination (Tragikum és predestináció) (1941). He edited the Radio Sermon series. Muraközy was one of the well known and prolific ministers of his Church in the mid 20th century.– B: 0883, 0910, T: 7103.→Ravasz, László.

Muranyi, Joe (Martin’s Ferry, OH, USA, 14 January 1928 - ) – Jazz musician. His parents emigrated from Hungary to America. He first played in a Balalaika Ensemble and in various Dixieland groups. He studied classical music at Columbia University, New York. For 17 years he played clarinet and saxophone in the Roy Aldridge Orchestra. From 1967 to 1971 he played in Louis Armstrong’s All Stars Orchestra; he was its only white member. He is a globetrotter musician and returning guest to many festivals all over the world. He is one of the flag-bearers of classical jazz. He is Music Editor for some leading recording companies. In Hungary, he recorded with the Benkő Dixieland Band and visited the country several times. He is the last surviving member of the Louis Armstrong All Stars. – B: 1037, T: 7103.
Muráti, Lili (Nagyvárad, now Oradea, Romania, 22 July 1912 - Madrid, 17 April 2003) – Actress. She studied at the Szidi Rákosi Dramatic Art School, Budapest. Artúr (Arthur) Bárdos discovered her acting talent. In 1932 she was with the Artist Theater (Művész Színház), with the Inner City Theater, (Belvárosi Színház) (1932-1934), at the Hungarian Theater (Magyar Színház) (1934), with the Comedy Theater (Vígszínház) (1934-1941), with the Pest Theater (Pesti Színház), and with the Andrássy Boulevard Theater (Andrássy úti Színház), Budapest (1943-1944). She left Hungary with her husband, János (John) Vaszary in 1945. In 1947 they settled in Spain. Lili Muráti soon became a prominent actress in Spain as well. She was announcer for the Spanish Radio’s Hungarian broadcast (1948-1950). Between 1950 and 1963 she appeared in various Spanish towns with her own Theater Company. In 1966 she was guest artist in Argentina. Lili Murati gave the modern, boyish, sporty, independent-minded woman type to the Hungarian stage. She played the young female roles of modern dramas with great ability, also individual humor and charm. In Spain, she also scored success in character roles and comic lines. She played in a number of Hungarian and Spanish films. Her roles include Mariet in L. Zilahy’s Firebird (Tűzmadár); Irene in Th. Tagger, F. Bruckner’s Fatal Youth (Halálos ifjúság – Krankheit der Jugend); Cili in F. Molnár’s Miracle in the Mountains (Csoda a hegyek között); Elisa in G.B. Shaw’s: Pygmalion, and Mária in J. Vaszary’s The World Is Only One Day (Egy nap a világ). She has 40 feature films to her credit, among them are Heathens (Pogányok) (1937), Yes or No? (Igen vagy nem?) (1940)é Late (Késő) (1943)é La Momia Nationale (1981), and Tres palabras (1993). – B: 1445, 1178, 1031, T: 7456.→Vaszary, János (2).
Murmelius Lexicon – Originally Lexicon Joannis Murmelii seu Latina rerum vocabula cum Germanica et Hungarica interpretatione. It is a Latin glossary; Joannes Murmelius, a Dutch scholar published it in Krakow (1533). The German as well as the Hungarian meanings are listed next to the Latin words. This is the earliest foreign language glossary with Hungarian interpretation. The only extant copy is in the Library of the Franciscan Monastery in Schwaz, Austria. – B: 1136, T: 7617.→Codex Literature.
Museums in Hungary – Count Ferenc (Francis) Széchenyi established the first Museum in Hungary (1802), when he set up the National Széchényi Library. Széchenyi’s wife donated a mineral collection to it the next year, and other public donations led to the establishment of the Hungarian National Museum. In 1843, the Museum moved to its permanent place. It played an important role at the outbreak of the 1848 Revolution. At present there are 50 museums in Budapest, including the Natural, Ethnographic, Technical and Music Museums, as well as the Jewish Museum, the Terror House Museum, the Aquincum Museum, and the National Gallery. There are 127 museums in the counties’ major towns, and even villages, including such important ones as the Déry Museum (Debrecen), the Ferenc Móra Museum (Szeged), the István Dobó Museum (Eger), the Ottó Herman Museum (Miskolc), and the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Museum (Sopron). The historical Churches also have their own museums. Almost every town and village has one. – B: 1154, 1031, T: 7103.→National Museum.

Music of the Hungarians – Systematic folk music collecting in Hungary began relatively late, only at the end of the 19th century. However, Béla Bartók initiated the recording of melodies on wax-cylinders, with the support of the Department of Ethnography of the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest in the early years of the 20th century. Together with Kodály, they took on the arduous task of collecting music in the villages from the peasantry.

As research into the roots of Hungarian folk music gathered momentum, it became more and more evident that its pentatonic (five-note) structure and other elements pointed more to the music of the Turkic, rather than that of the Finn and other Finno-Ugric peoples, such as the Siberian Obi-Ugors, whose music is based, with very few exceptions, on the 7-note scale However, closer relationship can be demonstrated with the music of the Chuwash and Cheremiss people living along a narrow strip on the Chuvash-Cheremiss border in the Volga-Kama region of Russia, where the so-called transposed fifth type melodies have survived. This is the neighborhood where the Hungarian Dominican monk Julianus found a Hungarian-speaking settlement in the 13th century. Although the Mongol invasion wiped out most of these people, some must have survived, who then passed on these melodies to the Turkic Chuvash and the Finno-Ugric Cheremiss folk.

In the old days Hungarian folk songs had so-called dialects according to regions and regional settlements. Ethnomusicologists identify four, or rather five different musical dialects, namely those of Trans-Danubia (Dunántúl), Northern Hungary (Upland, Felvidék, now Slovakia), the Great Hungarian Plain (Nagyalföld) and Transylvania (Erdély now in Romania); and also those of the Transylvanian and Moldavian Csángó people, Hungarian minority groups living in what is now Romania, and in Moldavia.

Hungarian folk songs can be classified into the following eight groups: (1) working songs (harvest, spinning, etc.); (2) dance songs; (3) “pairing” or wedding songs; (4) dirges; (5) “regős” or epic songs; (6) children's play songs; (7) popular church hymns for feast days sung in the vernacular (such as Christmas, New Year, Easter, Pentecost, etc., of which there is a rich collection); and (8) other songs, such as ballads, cradle-songs, mocking and jesting songs. These melodies are based on the pentatonic (five-note) scale system.

The Hungarian pentatonic scale is a melodic minor scale without half tones, from which the second and sixth notes are missing. It is important to note however that it is not the pentatonic scale that is significant, but rather the style, the melodic and rhythmic structure, the phrasing, and the proportions and forms of the music built on it. There are three basic types of Hungarian pentatonic songs.

The first type is a simple melody based on whole tone intervals, characteristic of the most ancient songs.

The second type is a pure whole-tone melody with a line transposed by a fifth, i.e. in the second line the melody is repeated note-to-note a perfect fifth lower. In fact, the transposed fifth-type melody forms such an integral part of Hungarian folk music that it held its own against foreign influence:

The third type, the most characteristic of Hungarian folk songs is a broad, sweeping, descending four-line melody, usually with the 3rd or 4th line transposed by a fifth.

Little over a hundred years after the settlement in the Carpathian Basin, the first Christian king, Stephen I (997-1038, later St. Stephen) made Western, i.e. Roman Christianity the state religion. The youthful Hungarian church did not simply adapt Gregorian church music, but absorbed it organically into itself, as is most clearly proved by the fact that even an individual Hungarian idiom developed. Also, it should be remembered -- as Kodály too has pointed out – that the Hungarians, before settling in the Carpathian Basin, lived in the vicinity of the very region where the first Eastern Christian states were established early in the 4th century A.D., namely Armenia, Georgia and Byzantium; so it is highly probable that they were exposed to Christian liturgical music long before their conversion to Christianity.

When the Hungarian Christian kingdom was established, Western Europe had already been forged into a powerful spiritual Christian unity. Within this well-organized religious life the system of Monastery schools in Hungary became firmly established and proceeded to flourish. By the 11th century the Royal Basilica of Fehérvár (Alba Regia, now Székesfehérvár) – then the Royal seat – had a reputable school and choir. A 12th century Antiphonal, or plainsong collection, the Codex Albensis, compiled for the Basilica of Székesfehérvár, contains the first reference to Hungarian saints, among them a hymn to King St. Stephen. This is one of the oldest surviving Hungarian – indeed Central European – hymnbooks.

Some church hymns had folk song versions as well. An interesting example of this is the Transylvanian folk song set in the Doric church mode: Szivárvány havasán (On a snowy peak under the rainbow). This song not only has a Hungarian, a Cheremis, a Chuvash, a Mordvin and an Uygur folk song variant, but also a Latin Gregorian chant version: Beata vir..., as well as a Jewish (Hebrew) hymn version. Who gave it to whom, where and when is now impossible to tell. But it could have been an itinerant song that originated with one of the above-mentioned early Christian communities, which inherited some of the melodies of the Jewish psalmody; from there it found its way into the folk music of the various regions.

Archaic Hungarian epic songs are called regös, for they tell a story, or rege. The regös singers accompanied their songs with pipes and the koboz, a plucked string instrument similar to the lute. When Christianity became state religion, the Church made every effort to suppress the regös songs and vigorously persecuted the regös singers. Many of these songs survived however; some of them were even endowed with Christian symbolisms.

The 16th century was the age when independent Hungarian music composed and written down came into existence. The regös songs metamorphosed into the most representative art form of the age, the verse-chronicle, or chanson de geste (históriás ének), the stylistic features of which influenced Hungarian music of the period. Their art consisted of the lyric poetry current at that time and which was created by the stormy historical and political events of 16th century Hungary. Verse-chronicles had a publicizing feature as well, for they immortalized and made the names of the military heroes well known throughout the country; they were in fact vocalized history. They flowered again during Prince Rákóczi’s insurrection against Austrian oppression at the beginning of the 18th century in Kuruc lyric poesy and songs. A Hungarian woodwind instrument called tárogató became the favorite instrument of the Kuruc forces – as the Hungarian rebels were called. (The sound of the tárogató is similar to that of the oboe.) The post-Second World War communist regime wanted to destroy them as “reactionary, fascist instruments”; but Kodály managed to prevent it.

Two publications of great importance have preserved the majority of verse-chronicles. One of them is the Hofgreff Collection of Songs, which appeared in 1553 in the Transylvanian town of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) and contains 17 songs, the works of several composers. The other is the publication of Sebestyén Tinódi (ca.1510-1556, also called Lantos, i.e., lutenist), the greatest figure of the verse-chronicle. The volume, entitled Cronica, appeared in 1554, also in Kolozsvár. It contains 24 songs.

Another notable document is the 15th century Szalkai-Codex, a compilation by Bishop László Szalkai (1475-1526). The manuscript dates to 1489-1490 and contains the rudiments of the relative solmisation system. This system was ultimately revived and utilized in the 20th century by Zoltán Kodály.

Sacred music played an important part in the life of the nation in the post-Mohács period. With the advent of book printing, as well as the wider use of the Hungarian language – the direct result of the Reformation – church music became richer and more colourful. This type of music culture can be characterized as vocalized theology.

The establishment of the Calvinist colleges from the middle of the 16th century on was a turning point in the history of Hungarian music, because the teaching carried on in them created a demand for the cultivation of secular music and song among the general public. These colleges became famous for their choirs, called Kántus.

One of the masters of polyphonic music of the period was Bálint (Valentinus) Bakfark (1507-1576), the Transylvanian-born composer and lute virtuoso. Bakfark traveled throughout Europe and became known as the Orpheus Pannoniae (Hungarian Orpheus). In 1565, Bakfark published his work Harmonium Musicarum.

The Age of Chivalry produced an art song form, the love song, sung by the troubadours of France, the trovatori of Italy and the Minnesänger of Germany. In Hungary it produced a specifically Hungarian idiom, the flower-song (virágének), akin to pairing-songs or wedding songs. Later this art song form developed into love songs based on lyric poetry. One of the finest exponents of the love song was Bálint Balassi (1554-1594), the first world-class lyricist in the Hungarian language. These, in turn, can be termed vocalized literature.

Hungarian musicians – trumpet players, lutenists, drummers and percussionists – were in great demand at European courts. Especially the Hungarian kettledrums (üstdobok or tabourins) attracted a lot of attention. They were played on horseback and were suspended on either side of the saddle in front of the rider. Henry the VIII of England ordered several “Hungarian drums” for his court. Another Hungarian instrument, the cimbalom – similar to the dulcimer but larger – is first mentioned in the 16th century. It is a wooden box strung with metal strings and struck with two wooden hammers. Later it was made popular by Hungarian Gypsy bands.

During the Turkish wars a specifically Hungarian dance was developed by restless, wandering Hajdú (Heyduck) soldiers: the Hajdú-dance (Heyducker Tanz). The Baroque period produced a variety of dance movements of a more or less national character, such as the French courant, the German allemande and the Italian padovana (pavane). Later the lure of the exotic led Europe to take an interest in its eastern neighbors and created Polish and Hungarian dance forms, the polacca and the ungaresca. Around the middle of the 18th century the ungaresca and Hajdú-dance developed into a new, romantic dance music known as the verbunkos, which was originally a recruiting dance. This in turn evolved into the now internationally known Hungarian dance, the csárdás.

Prince Pál (Paul) Esterházy (1635-1713) was a cultured patron of the arts and a noted amateur musician. The Prince founded a musical ensemble in 1674 at his stately residence in Kismarton (now Eisenstadt, Austria). He composed a cantata cycle called Harmonia Caelestis, which was published in 1711 in Vienna, and contains 55 short cantatas.

The name of the Franciscan monk János Kájon (1629-1687), an excellent organist and organ builder, is associated with an important manuscript written in Transylvania between 1634 and 1671. This collection, known as the Kájon-Codex, contains not only Hungarian, Italian and German church music but also a number of Hungarian secular songs and dances in a simple two-part arrangement for virginal, with organ tablature notation.

A characteristic product of the 19th century was the huge collection of 450 songs compiled in 1813 by the poet Ádám Pálóczy Horváth (1760-1820). It contains his own verses as well as folk songs, and goes by the title Ötödfészáz énekek (Four-and-a- half hundred songs).

Western European-style musical life began to develop in Hungary in the 1830s. The period also ushered in national romanticism both in music and in literature. One of the greatest musicians of the century was the Hungarian pianist and composer Ferenc (Franz) Liszt (1811-1886). Many of his compositions are based on Hungarian themes, among them the 19 Hungarian Rhapsodies.

The two outstanding Hungarian composers of the 20th century were Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. Bartók is held to be one of the most original and forceful musical figures of the last century.

Kodály devised a system for the musical training of young children, which is basically very simple. It is a solfège, or ear training method that teaches first to recognize, and then to sing the intervals between the notes. The Kodály-school also devised hand signals for each of the notes, based on the solfège names: doh-re-me-fah-soh-lah-te-(doh). This is an excellent way to train young children, for by the time they learn to read and write music they have mastered the ability to sight-read. Nowadays the Kodály-method is used all over the world in schools and music conservatories.

The other noteworthy pianist and composer was Ernő (Ernst von) Dohnányi who, after World War II emigrated to the United States and became a celebrated teacher and performer in Florida. – B:&T: 7617.→Bakfark, Bálint; Tinódi Lantos, Sebestyén; Hoffgreff, György; Csángó; Kuruc; Koboz; Cimbalom; Regős; Csárdás; Verbunkos; Tárogató; Pentatonic Music; Esterházy, Prince Pál; Pálóczy Horváth, György; Liszt, Ferenc; Bartók, Béla; Kodály, Zoltán; Kodály Method; Dohnányi, Ernő; Vikár, Béla; Lajtha, László; Balla, Péter; Kálmán, Lajos; Codex Literature.



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