Mundzuk (Mundiochos, Munduguz, Bendeguz, 5th century) – Hun Reigning Prince, youngest son of Prince Balambér, ruler of the eastern branch of the Huns, who played a less significant role in the historical events than his brothers Oktar and Rua. His sons were Buda (Bléda) and Attila. According to the Illustrated Chronicles, and Thuróczy’s Chronicle of the Magyars, the returning Csaba, the youngest son of Attila, also known as Irnik, found him aged but in good health. – B: 0942, 1020, T: 7658.→Attila; Buda. Munich Codex (also called Jászay Codex after its first copier, Pál Jászay) (Tatros, now Târgu-Trotuş, Transylvania, in Romania) – The earliest complete section in Hungarian of the Hussite Bible Text in Bastarda script on paper and parchment, with 125 letters of 200x135 mm size, containing the Hungarian translation of the four Gospels, presumably for the use of the local Hungarian Hussite congregation. The so-called “wheel calendar”, at the front covers the years from 1416 to 1435; the first number indicates the approximate beginning of the translation. According to the Codex the manuscript was translated by György (George) Németi in the Moldovan town of Tatros in 1466. In the volume, apart from his handwriting, the work of two further hands may be recognized. At the beginning of the Codex, the very first Hungarian-language calendar may be seen, valid for the years 1416 to 1435. The first sheet, which contains the calendar, is parchment, but the rest of the Codex is written on paper. The Munich, Viennese and Apor Codices are integrally interconnected: the three memorials preserved various parts of the earliest Hungarian Bible translations, recorded by the scholarly literature as the Hussite Bible. According to a note in the volume, the Codex, at a later stage, became the property of Albrecht Widmanstetter (1506-1557), one of the best-known humanists, diplomats and book-collectors of the era. After the death of Widmanstetter, his books, together with the Codex, were acquired by Bavarian Prince Albrecht V, in 1558. This language relic, earlier referred to as the Jászay Codex, named after the first publisher of scholarly literature, was probably discovered by Gábor (Gabriel) Fejérváry in 1833. The Codex received its current title after the place where it is kept at present. – B: 1136, 1257, 1552, T: 7456.→Hussite Bible; Tatros Bible; Apor Codex; Viennese Codex; Bible in Hungarian; Codex Literature. Munich Agreement – It was made and signed on 29-30 September 1938, by Chamberlain and Daladier, the English and French Prime Ministers respectively, and by Hitler and Mussolini, Heads of State of Germany and Italy, at their meeting in Munich. In the four-power agreement, Great Britain and France obliged Czechoslovakia to concede the Sudetenland with its three million ethnic Germans to Germany. The Prime Ministers of Great Britain and France were indifferent to the Hungarian territorial demands supported by Mussolini. The Czech, Romanian and Croatian governments did not object to the liberation of Hungarian minorities in the southern part of Czechoslovakia (Slovakian section previously Upper Hungary, Felvidék), nor to the Polish territorial claims. On Hitler’s proposal, the Munich Agreement referred the settlement of these claims to direct Hungarian-Polish-Czechoslovakian negotiations to be held at a later date. However, these negotiations became the responsibility of Czechoslovakia. After negotiations between the Czechoslovakian and Hungarian delegates, an agreement was reached, according to which the Hungarian populated southern strip of Slovakia was to be returned to Hungary, the territories with mixed population were equally divided. This was signed at the First Vienna Award on 30 September 1938. With it some 600 thousand Hungarians returned to the mother country. This was the only rectification of the fundamentally unjust Versailles-Trianon Peace Dictate (1920). Both partners considered this agreement as just. After World War II, the victors abolished this agreement, although it was signed in peacetime, before the outbreak of World War II. – B: 1138, 1030, 7103, T: 7665, 7103. →Trianon Peace Treatry;Hitler, Adolf;Mussolini, Benito;Vienna Award I; Paris Peace Dictate. Munk, Peter (Budapest, 8 November 1927 - ) – Businessman, industrialist and philanthropist. He was born into a well-to-do Jewish family. He was a teenager when German troops occupied Hungary in March 1944. With the help of Raoul Wallenberg, the Swedish diplomat, his family escaped from being deported to Auschwitz, because they were offered seats on the Kastner train transporting 1684 Jewish refugees to safety in Switzerland. This was an arrangement between Rudolf Kastner of the Zionist Aid and Rescue Committee and senior SS Officer Adolf Eichmann. They first stayed in Switzerland, then, in 1948, they settled in Canada. He earned his living as a laborer on the tobacco farms of Ontario. He studied at the University of Toronto and graduated as an electrical engineer in 1952. However, he began a career in business. In 1958 he founded Clairtone of Canada, with business partner David Gilmour, manufacturing stereos and later televisions. The best-known Clairtone designs were the “Project G” series, seen in the film The Graduate. In the 1970s he founded and became Chairman and CEO of Southern Pacific Hotel Corporation, the largest hotel and restaurant chain in Australasia. He was also founder of the Trizec Properties, and became involved in the resort business as well. He bought hotels in Fiji and soon he had 54 luxury hotels. He later sold them for $300 million. While in Toronto, he bought an exhausted American gold mine that, with modern methods, he made profitable again. Munk is the founder and chairman of the mining company Barrick Gold, the world’s largest gold-mining corporation. From the profits, Munk bought 117 skyscrapers, which he rented out as offices. Their revenue brings in $1 billion per year. He built the Polus Center, the West End City Center, and the New City Center on the Danube promenade in Budapest. He is Head of the Trizec-Hahn Corporation, one of North America’s largest real estate companies. He founded the Horsham Corporation in 1987, to identify and develop strategic business opportunities. His principle on wealth is that what originats from society must be returned to it. He donated $37 million to Toronto General Hospital in 2006; this donation supported the Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, which he originally created with a $6 million donation in 1997. He is a member of many volunteer associations and is an Honorary Doctor of Upsala College, NJ. (1991), the University of Toronto (1993), Bishop’s University, Quebec (1995) and the T.I. Institute of Technology, Haifa. He is an Officer of the Order of Canada (1993) and was promoted to Companion in 2008, and a recipient of the Middle Cross of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (1997). He is a member of the World Gold Council. – B: 1031, 1037, T: 7103, 7456.→Wallenberg, Raul. Munkács (Ukrainian: Mukacheve; Czech: Mukačevo) – Town in the northeast of Historic Hungary of the Carpathian Basin and in the northeastern edge of the Great Hungarian Plain; since 1990 in Carpatho-Ukraine. In the inter-war years (1920-1938), it was ceded to Czechoslovakia by the Dictated Peace Treaty of Versailles-Trianon (1920); then returned to Hungary (1938-1945) by the First Vienna Award in 1938. After World War II, Carpatho-Ukraine (Transcarpathia, or Ruthenia) was annexed by the Soviet Union, and in 1991 fell to the Ukraine. It is on the left banks of the Latorca (Latoritsy) River, tributary of the Bodrog, then the Tisza (past the town of Tokaj). Munkács is an attractive town at the foot of the Northeastern Carpathians (128m above sea level) with the historic Rákóczi castle, a monastery (both from the 14th c.), a Baroque-style palace (from the mid-18th c.), the old salt-loft, several churches (including a wooden church from the 18th century built in Ruthenian architectural style), and some public buildings. Two kilometers southwest of the town, built on a 60m-high trachyte cliff, rises the Castle of Munkács, dating from 1352. The town has administrative authorities, high schools, and a lively trading life; in its fairs, timber, domestic animals and mineral water of Transcarpathia get exchanged for the agricultural products of the Great Plain. Industry is represented by sawmills, furniture factories, paper, chemical, textile, tobacco, wine and canned-food factories, brick-works, flour mills and petroleum refineries. Its population was 14,416 in 1901 (Hungarians, Germans and Ruthenians, by religion: 6,567 Jews, 3,493 Greek-Catholics and 2,751 Roman-Catholics; 29,400 Ruthenians, Jews and Slovakians in 1930. In 1991 it had 81,600 inhabitants, including 62,900 Ukrainians (Ruthenians), 7,300 Russians, 6,900 Hungarians and 1,100 Gypsies. In its history, the town was influenced by the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) from the west and the Kievan, followed by Russian Principality from the east. The Magyars, led by Khagan Árpád, during their occupation of the Carpathian Basin, first reached and took Munkács in the narrow valley of the Latorca River after entering through the Verecke Pass (according to 12th century chronicler, Anonymus) and other passes of the Northeastern Carpathian Mountains. Under King István I of Hungary (St. Stephen, 997-1038), Munkács was already known as a town. After the 1241-1242 invasion by the Mongol-Tartars, who also used the same Carpathian passes, the town was a royal estate; later, it was ruled by Máté (Matthew) Csák (ca. 1260-1321). King Zsigmond (Sigismund of Luxemburg, 1387-1437) donated it to the Russian Prince, Theodor Koriatowich in 1397. From the 15th century the town changed ownership a number of times. From 1445-1493, it was Hunyadi property; from 1606, Prince István (Stephen) Bocskai (1605-1606) owned it; from 1614, it belonged to Count Miklós (Nicholas) Esterházy (1582-1645), and still later, to Prince Gábor (Gabriel) Bethlen (1613-1629). Its castle-fort was heroically defended by Ilona (Helen) Zrinyi (1643-1703), wife of the freedom fighter Count Imre (Emeric) Thököly (1657-1705), against the besieging Austrian forces under Caraffa, from 1686 till 1688, and it was only surrendered as a result of treachery. Prince Ferenc (Francis) Rákóczi II (1703-1711), retook it in 1704. It became the estate of the Schönborn family in 1731. In 1834, the fortress was burned down. In the 1848-1849 War of Independence, it was an important military base. On 6 January 1939, Czech troops attempted to capture the town by surprise, but they were repulsed by the Hungarian Ragged Guard. In the 19th century, the fort was used as a jail. Munkács is the birthplace of the great painter Mihály Munkácsy (1844-1900). – B: 1068, 1582, 1816, 1789, 7456, T: 7456.→Anonymus;István I, King; Csák, Máté; Zsigmond I. King; Bocskai, Prince István; Esterházy, Count Miklós; Bethlen, Prince Gábor; Zrinyi,Countess Ilona; Thököly, Count Imre; Rákóczi II, Prince Ferenc; Munkácsy, Mihály; Ragged Guard; Vienna Award I.; Munkács Castle; Munkács Catholic Diocese. Munkács Castle (now Mukacheve Castle or Palanok Castle, Ukraine). – Anonymus, the 11-12th century chronicler, reported that this was the place the Magyars occupied first, after entering the Carpathian Basin in 895. They named the place Munkás after the word munkás (laborer).The place was probably already a settlement from the later part of the Stone Age. Anonymus did not mention its castle. King Károly I (Charles, 1307-1342) donated it to the Russian Prince Koriatovich (1339), who settled Russians on his estate. Among its owners were: György (George) Barankovics, János (John) Hunyadi, King Mátyás (Matthias Corvinus), and his son János (John) Korvin, who owned 30 villages with the castle. After the military disaster of Mohács (1526), it is mentioned as a royal castle and its importance grew. Countess Ilona (Helen) Zrinyi, wife of Prince Imre (Emeric) Thököly defended the Castle of Munkács for three years (1686-1689) against the Austrian Imperial Army and, with it, her husband’s cause. She had to give it up due to treason. Reigning Prince Ferenc (Francis) Rákóczi II modernized the castle with the help of French military engineers. After the Szatmár Peace Treaty (1711) the Munkács Castle continued its resistance for two more months, with its leader István (Stephen) Szennyei. The Austrians turned the castle into a prison. The castle burned down in 1834. The Hungarian Army captured it from the Austrians; but its commander, Pál (Paul) Mezőssy, had to surrender it on 26 August 1849. It was ceded to Czechoslovakia, together with Sub-Carpathia, in the Dictated Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty, after World War I (1920); Hungary regained it as the result of the First Vienna Award (1938), lost it again at the end of 1944, this time to the Soviet Union. During the Soviet era, the castle was used as a school for tractor drivers. In 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, it became part of the Ukraine by virtue of inheritance. Now there is a museum in the castle and there is an ongoing renovation of its buildings. – B: 0942, 1030, 1078, T: 7103.→Anonymus;Zrinyi, Countess Ilona; Thököly, Prince Imre; Rákóczi, II. Prince Ferenc; Vienna Award I. Munkács Catholic Diocese (now Mukacheve, Ukraine) – A short historical overview from its inception to the present divides it into four periods: the period preceding the founding of the Szatmár Bishopric; the period of the Szatmár Bishopric; the period after the First World War, and the events during and after the Soviet Union.
1) When the Magyars settled in the Carpathian Basin in the last quarter of the 9th century, they followed a Turkic religious cult. By the middle of the 10th century however, the Hungarian rulers were ready to adopt Christianity. The question as to which one to join, the Eastern (Greek) or Western (Roman) rite, was decided by the political circumstances of the period. The Pope and King St István I (St Stephen, 997-1038) charged Anastasius-Astrik, first Bishop of Kalocsa, later Bishop of Esztergom, with the organization of the Hungarian Roman Catholic Church. He divided the country into seven dioceses, each encompassing huge territories that included the Transylvanian Bishopric, founded in 1009. The Sub-Carpathian area belonged to it until 1346; then it was attached to the Diocese of Eger. A contemporary document in the Vatican Archives lists more than 50 churches under its jurisdiction.
2) The independent Catholic Bishopric of Szatmár was established on 23 March 1804, and given legal status by the Pope on 8 August of the same year. The new Bishopric, besides the County of Szatmár, included the counties of Máramaros, Ugocsa and Ung. Until the end of the First World War, the Diocese was under the subsequent governance of nine bishops.
3) During the governance of the 9th bishop, Dr. Tibor (Tibor) Boromissza (1906-1928), the diocese abounded in new religious establishments. However, to this period fell the short-lived 1919 Communist Dictatorship, followed by the Versailles-Trianon Peace Dictate of 1920 that resulted in the break-up of the country and of the diocese. The re-drawing of the political borders of Hungary made the governing of the diocese problematic, for Transylvania was ceded to Romania, Upper Hungary and the Sub-Carpathian region went to the newly created Czechoslovakia, while Southern Hungary went to the newly-created Yugoslavia, and a slice on Hungary’s western border went to Austria. In this new situation, the Bishop was eager to normalize relations with Romania. As his jurisdiction extended to the parishes now situated in Czechoslovakia, he established an Apostolic Governorship (Apostoli Kormányzóság) at Ungvár (now Uzhhorod, Ukraine). During his governorship, the new Canon Law Codex of 1917 came into force. In 1926, Bishop Boromissza compiled a new Constitution for the Szatmár Diocese. Upon his death on 9 July 1928, István (Stephen) Szabó succeeded him as Capitular of the local Chapter. On 7 July 1929 the Holy See concluded a Concord with Romania containing many disadvantageous provisions for the Hungarian Catholic Church in Transylvania. With it, the Szatmár Diocese lost its jurisdiction over the parishes situated in the Sub-Carpathian region of Czechoslovakia. In 1930, an Apostolic Governorship was created for the Sub-Carpathian region, with its seat at Ungvár. When the First Vienna Award of 2 November 1938 re-attached parts of Slovakia and also Sub-Carpathia to Hungary, the Apostolic Holy See unified the parishes of the re-attached territories with the Apostolic Governorship of Mérk in Hungary, and a Special Bull placed it under the jurisdiction of István (Stephen) Madarász, Bishop of Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia). The provisions of the Second Vienna Award of 30 August 1940, re-attached from Romania to Hungary a large part of northwestern Transylvania (Erdély). Consequently the two dioceses were integrated into the Hungarian Church hegemony. Sub-Carpathia once again became part of the Szatmár Diocese. After the winds of World War II swept over the territory, the new bishop Dr. János (John) Scheffler, following instructions received from Rome, gave special ‘assignments’ to the parishes: who should be the next local vicar in the event the vicar should be arrested, or who should keep in contact with the bishop would prove to be difficult.
4) After the Soviet forces occupied the Sub-Carpathian region in World War II, on 27 September 1944, the situation became virtually impossible. At the Paris Peace Conference on 10 February 1947, the Szatmár Diocese was broken up into four parts: 13 parishes went to Czechoslovakia, 40 to Sub-Carpathia (then part of the Soviet Union), 55 to Romania, while 27 remained in Hungary. The Soviet terror reached the Catholic Church as well. Many of the priests were accused of treason or subversive activities. The keeping of Church registers was officially forbidden, but the priests managed to keep records nonetheless. Only the celebration of Mass and funerals were allowed. Religious instructions were also forbidden. After the terror eased somewhat and several of the priests returned from the concentration camps, the newly created Communist-run Bureau for Church Administration attempted to take over the running of the churches. They succeeded in winning over a few priests, who tried to exercise their newly acquired authority and run the Sub-Carpathian Diocese. The appointment of new priests was not allowed without the consent of the Bureau. The most severely punishable activity was the religious instruction of children. The decisive change in the life of the Sub-Carpathian Diocese began in the spring of 1989, when Cardinal László (Ladislas) Paskai, Archbishop of Esztergom, visited the region. Soon after that, the Soviet Union consented to allow Hungarian priests to serve there. In 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ukraine inherited the Sub-Carpathian region. Now it is called Carpatho-Ukraine. In 1992 the Holy See appointed Archbishop Antonio Franco, Apostolic Nuncio of Ukraine, as the Ordinarius of the Sub-Carpathian region. There was great rejoicing when, after 46 years, they ordained the first Hungarian priest in the person of Sándor (Alexander) Pap. On 14 August 1993, a resolution of the Holy See established the Apostolic Governorship of Sub-Carpathia. On 20 August 2000, on the occasion of the Hungarian millennial celebrations in the town of Aknaszlatina, (now Solotvina), the pontiff blessed a group statues of Hungarian saints.
An important event in the life of the Church took place on Ash Wednesday, 27 March 2002, when Pope John Paul II announced in the Vatican that he had elevated the Apostolic Governorship of Sub-Carpathia to the level of a Diocese. With this act, he founded the Munkács Diocese for the Roman Catholic adherents and named as first bishop of the Diocese, Antal (Anthony) Majek. – B: 1027, 1078, T: 7456.→Atrocities against Hungarians;Catholic Church in Hungary.
Munkácsi, Bernát (Bernard) (Munk until 1881) (Nagyvárad, now Oradea, Romania, 12 March 1860 - Budapest, 21 September 1937) – Linguist and ethnologist. He studied at the University of Budapest and obtained a Degree in Education. In 1880 he traversed the Hungarian Csángó villages on the eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in order to investigate their language and customs. In 1885, with the assistance of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, he took a study trip abroad, working among the Votyaks (Udmurts) in the Kama River area, and among the Chuvash in Simbirsk. During 1888 and 1889 he studied the Voguls (Mansi) in Western Siberia. In 1890 he was appointed School Inspector of the Jewish parish of Pest. Munkácsi was Editor of the journal Ethnographia for a long time and, in 1900 with Ignac Kunos, he launched the journal Eastern Review(Keleti Szemle) (Revue Orientale). In 1904 he organized the Hungarian Committee of the International Central and Eastern Asian Society. During World War I (1915-1918) he collected linguistic and ethnographic material amongst Votyak and Ossetian prisoners in the prisoner-of-war camps. In 1919, during the months of the Soviet Council Republic, he became Professor of Comparative Linguistics. He succeeded in explaining the Vogul (Mansi) texts left behind in the bequest of Antal Reguly. He published numerous linguistic and ethnographic studies. He was member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (correspondent 1890, ordinary 1910). His works include The Dialect of the Csángós of Moldova (A moldvai csángók nyelvjárása) (1881); Chuvash Linguistic Notes (Csuvas nyelveszeti jegyzetek) (1887-1890); More Recent Additions to the Turkic Elements of the Hungarian Language (Újabb adalékok a magyar nyelv török elemeihez)(1887); Linguistic Studies in the Land of the Voguls (Nyelvészeti tanulmányok a vogulok földjén) (1889); Dictionary ofthe Votyak Language (A votják nyelv szótára)(1896); Addenda to the old Turkic and Mongolian Elements in the Hungarian Language (Adalékok a magyar nyelv régi török és mongolelemeihez)(1902); Aryan and Caucasian Elements in the Finn-Hungarian Languages (Árja és kaukázusi elemek a finn-magyar nyelvekben) (1901), and Collection of Vogul Folk-poetry (Vogul népköltési gyűjtemény) (1893-1921). – B: 0883, 1068, T: 7456.
Munkácsy, Mihály (Michael; Lieb, Mihály Leó) (Munkács, now Mukacheve, Ukraine, 20 February 1844 - Endenich, Germany, 1 May 1900) – Painter. His artistic talent developed early. After the premature death of his parents in 1850, he moved in with his uncle in modest circumstances, due to his uncle’s involvement in the War of Independence. He became a carpentry apprentice at the age of 11. The physical and psychological abuse from his carpentry master greatly influenced his entire life. After his certification, he returned to his uncle in ill health and started to study drawing. The Letter Reader(Levélolvasó) (1863) was his first painting, made in the town of Gerendás (northeast of Szeged), then he left for Budapest. His patrons sent him to Vienna to study at the Academy of Fine Arts. The famous Easter Sprinkling (Húsvéti locsolás), reflecting some Rubenesque influence was the result. Following his return to Hungary, he painted another famous canvas, TheGloomy Shepherd(Búsuló juhász), which illustrates a return to Hungarian traditions. The following year he was accepted at the Munich Academy. Among his many works of this period, Storm in the Puszta (Vihar a pusztán) was acknowledged by the Hungarian artistic upper crust. On a state sponsorship he went to the World Exhibition in Paris in 1867, and gathered life-long experiences. Following his return to Munich, he studied genre painting and did another famous piece, TheYawning Servant (Ásító inas). In 1869 he created his first internationally well-known work, Condemned Cell (Siralomház), which reflects the outlaw period following the War of Independence (1848-1849). Subsequently he went to France and settled in Paris. The following well-known works emerged from his studio: Drifters of the Night(Éjjelicsavargók);The Churning Woman(Köpülű asszony) (1873), and In the Pawnshop(Zálogházban) (1874). He married in Paris, and the years there influenced and guided his interest into a different direction. During those years he painted Milton (1878). He received the Grand Golden Prize at the international exhibition in Paris for this painting, and success followed it in Europe and America. He painted a fresco, The Magyars Settling in Hungary (Honfoglalás) (1893), for the Hungarian Parliament’s Presidential Reception Hall for the millennium celebration of 1896. His style, especially in the Great Hungarian Plain(Alföld), has greatly influenced the works of Hungarian and international painters alike. His most famous work is the almost life-size Christ Trilogy: Christ Before Pilate (1881), now owned by the Hamilton Art Gallery, Canada; Ecce Homo (1896), now owned by the Déry Museum of Debrecen; and Golgota (1884), now owned by Imre Pákh, an American-Hungarian art collector. However, the Trilogy is on permanent display at the Déry Museum of Debrecen since 1995. Munkácsy started to write his own biography in the 1880s, but only reached the age of 19. Hundreds of his letters are preserved and they are interesting additions to his biography. Munkácsy was a highly talented, brilliant romantic painter, with deep and sensitive knowledge of man and his society. He is the first Hungarian painter to receive world fame, recognition and acclaim. – B: 0934, 0883, 1136, T: 7653.→Lyka, Károly.