M macartney, Carlile Aylmer



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Mormon Church (Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day-Saints – Jézus Krisztus Mai Szentjei Egyháza) – It originated in the United States. Joseph Smith in Manchester, New York founded it in 1830. Besides the Bible (especially the Letters of Paul) they honor and use as a Holy Book the Book of Mormon that teaches Jesus’ earthly life, his miracles and its elected apostles in the United States. To escape persecutions, Joseph Smith and the members of his church settled in Salt Lake City, Utah, where they built their church (1853-1893). Besides Jesus Christ, they worship several persons who possess transcendent powers. They are expecting the second coming of Christ and the Last Judgment. Their worldwide community has a membership of more than 6 million. Their life is characterized by strict moral principles, a family-centered life and love of work. They renounce stimulants, even tea. One branch of the Mormons, the Mormon Fundamentalists allow polygamy. Their supreme organism is the Council of Apostles. In Hungary, their activity started in 1987 with a prayer by one of their apostles on Mount Gellért, Budapest. It gained official recognition and became a denomination in 1988. They number about 140-150. – B: 1042, T: 7390.
Morphine – An opium derivative. It is a bitter-tasting, highly addictive powder made up of needle-shaped crystals. In humans, morphine acts on the pain receptor area of the cerebral cortex to alleviate pain. It is used to relieve strong pain, and reduces the trauma and fear of death. It first paralyzes the cortex of the cerebrum, then its center, as well as the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord. In 1925, János (John) Kabai developed a procedure in Hungary for how morphine can be extracted directly from the dry poppy head. – B: 1421, 1138, T: 7660.→Kabai, János.
Mortar Sprayer Machine (Cement gun) – The engineer József (Joseph) Vass invented it in 1908. It became known as the “concrete gun” all over the world. – B: 1226, T: 7662.
Morvai, Krisztina (Christina) (Budapest, 22 June 1963 - )Lawyer. She studied at the Law School of the University of Budapest, where she also read Political Science and obtained her Degree in 1986. For a year, she worked as a lawyer candidate at the Law Chamber of County Pest, and acquired qualification as a judge. Since 1987 she has lectured on Penal Law at the University of Budapest. In 1989 she read Law at the King’s College of the University of London, where she earned a Master of Law (LL.M) Degree. In 1993 and 1994 she taught at the Law School of the University of Wisconsin (Madison), USA. In 1995 she became a lawyer of the European Human Rights Committee in Strasbourg. In 1993 she obtained her Ph.D. Between 2002 and 2006 she was a member of the Committee on Elimination of Discrimination Against
Women (CEDAW) of the United Nations. Her field of research is the border area of penal law including the violence within family, prostitution, and women’s rights, and since 2006, also violence against civil rights. Her activities had an impact on the feminist movement in Hungary. She became well-known for establishing the Civil Lawyers’ Committee (Civil Jogász Bizottság) and became its Co-President following violent police attacks against a large number of people peacefully commemorating the 50th anniversary of the 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight in Budapest. In 2009 she was elected EU representative of the patriotic Party Jobbik, the
Movement for a Better Hungary. Her studies and books include Terror in the Family (Terror a családban) (1988); Kitti – Dread and Violence – at Home (Kitti - rettegés és erőszak – Otthon) (2005), and What is Missing: the Rhetoric of Choice? (UCLA Women’s Law Journal 1995). – B: 1031, 1105, T: 7103.→Political Parties in Hungary; Gaudi-Nagy Tamás; Vona, Gábor.
Morvamező, Battle of (Battle of Dürnkrut-Still-fried) – The armies of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph I (Habsburg) and the Hungarian King László IV (Ladislas, 1272-1290), won this battle on 26 August 1278 against the Czech King Ottokar II. The Hungarian-Cumanian contingent, making up the right wing of the combined armies, played a deciding role in the victory. Palatine Máté of the Csák Clan led them. The Czech King was killed in the battle and his death ended the struggle for the Babenberg Succession that began in 1246, and ensured the subsequent rise of the House of Habsburg. – B: 1230, 1153, T: 7665.
Morvay, István (Stephen) (Szatmárnémeti, now Satu Mare, Romania, 16 November 1904 - Budapest, 16 April 1970) – Minister of the Reformed Church. He completed his secondary education in Budapest (1923). He studied Theology between 1926 and 1931, and was ordained in 1934. He served in Harkány, Paks and Kecskemét, also in the Hungarian Reformed Foreign Mission Federation from 1932 to 1934, and worked as an assistant minister for the Soli Deo Gloria (SDG) Student Association of the Reformed Church (1934-1939). Later, he taught religion in the schools of Budapest (1939-1943). From 13 October 1943 he was Parish Minister of the Congregation at the Valeria Settlement in Budapest, until his suspension on 13 April 1956. He was not employed by the Church from 14 April 1956 until 31 January 1959. After that, he served as a hospital chaplain in Budapest from 1 February 1959 until his death. In 1948 he established and then edited the Reformed weekly, The Way (Az Út). He wrote a number of articles in church papers. – B: 0883, 0911, T: 7456.
Móry-Szakmáry, Magda (Magda Szakmáry Móryovú) (Kassa, now Košice, Slovakia, 29 September 1905 - Pozsony, now Bratisalva, Slovakia, 8 March, 2001) – Singer, pianist. She studied piano under Laura Rappoldi-Kahrer, and singing under Luise Ottermann at the Conservatory of Music, Dresden (1921-1925). She also studied piano in Vienna under Emil von Sauer and singing under Jenny Korb (1926-1928). In 1928 and 1929, she was in Budapest and studied singing under the guidance of Teréz Krammer. In 1929, she had a six-month long concert and recording tour in England. Between 1930 and 1934, she was a soloist at the Neues Deutsche Theater in Prague, appearing in about 20 roles. From 1934, she did a concert-tour as a solo singer and pianist, appearing chiefly on the radio in Kassa, Brunn, Ostrava, Berlin, Budapest, Vienna and Pozsony, and she sang at the Opera Houses of Essen, Stuttgart, Berlin, Budapest and Prague. From 1953, she taught singing at the Bratislava Conservatory of Music. Among her students at the Opera House of Pozsony (Bratislava) were Anna Kajabova-Pedaskova, Marta Nitranova and Ruzena Illenbergerova. Her main roles were: Ännchen in Weber’s Der Freischütz (A bűvös vadász); Blonde in Mozart’s Il Seraglio (Entführung aus dem Serail); Musette in Puccini’s La Bohème, and Marcellina in Beethoven’s Fidelio. She recorded Debussy’s piano works at Columbia Records, London (1929). She made several hundred TV, radio and film appearances. For political reasons, she used the pseudonym Maria Mathiarova. She was a member of the Franz Liszt Society from 1980, and received a number of prizes and awards. – B: 1083, 1031, T: 7456.
Mosdóssy, Imre (Emeric) (Imre von Mosdossy) (Budapest, 15 January 1904 - Ontario, Canada, 1995) – Painter, graphic artist. Following matriculation, he studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest. He went on a study trip to Holland, France and Italy. He taught at the School of Industrial Design Budapest. He left Hungary in 1945 and worked in South Germany. In 1948 he moved to Paris, France, in 1949 to Colombia; then, in 1963, settled in Ontario, Canada. Between 1934 and 1942 he designed, among others, the decoration for many Hungarian exhibitions including the Hungarian Pavilion at the 1939 New York World’s Fair. He painted portraits of world leaders, and made pictures for church interiors. He designed plasters for bronze: Moses, (1967); Deposition, bronze (1974); Dante Meets Beatrice, bronze (1979), and the Donald Cameron bronze medal for the Banff School of Fine Arts (1982). He designed 890 postal stamps for 10 countries, including Colombia, Canada, Haiti and Honduras. In Colombia, 11 churches have his canvases, altars, and colored mosaic windows. He also created plaques, small sculptures, medals and medallions and frescos, including a plaque of R. Pinilla, President of Colombia; H. Keller memorial plaque; and a plaque for Canada at the 750th anniversary of the death of St. Elizabeth. He edited the magazine, Sculpture. – B: 0893, 1020, 1031, T: 4342.
Mosonyi, Mihály (Michael) (until 1859, G. Brand) (Boldogasszonyfalva, 2 September 1815 - Pest, 31 October 1870) – Composer. He completed his teacher training in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), but never had a systematic music training. Between 1835 and 1843 he was a private piano tutor for the family of Baron Pejacsevich, and he started composing more seriously during these years. He moved to Pest in 1842. One of his operatic overtures was performed in 1843. In 1844 he was appointed Archivist to the Music School (Hangászegyesület) of Pest-Buda. As a member of the National Guard, he participated in the 1848-1849 War of Independence. In 1857-1858 he furthered the development of an independent Hungarian national music. He realized his ideas on reform first in smaller works for piano, then through cantatas and, finally, in major symphonic works. He started publishing his Hungarian national compositions in 1860, by then under the name of Mosonyi. As a main contributor (until 1867) to the Musical Pages (Zenészeti Lapok), started in 1860, he outlined a program of Hungarian music, based on his theoretical principles and criticism. His most significant work was the Beautiful Helena (Szép Ilonka) (1861) that made him famous. Franz Liszt conducted his Festive Music (Ünnepi Zene) in an 1865 performance. Following the 1867 Compromise, he composed less and less and eventually stopped writing music. He was a groundbreaker of the Hungarian operatic culture. – B: 0883, 0886, T: 7684.→Mihalovics, Ödön.
Most Brave City (Communitas Fortissima) – Kercaszomor, in County Vas, was awarded this title in 2008 for its brave fight against a Serbian-Coatian-Slovenian armed unit that wanted to occupy the settlement on 1 August 1920. Finally, Kercaszomor could remain in Hungary despite the Trianon-Versailles Peace Dictate (4 June 1920), which would have ceded it to Burgenland, Austria. – B: 1916, T: 7103.→Prónay, Pál; Ragged Guard; Lajta-Banate.
Most Loyal City (Civitas Fidelissima) Title of Sopron after the 1922 plebiscite. The City, together with the area of Western Hungary (Burgenland) was ceded to Austria by the Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty in 1920. However, the city of Sopron and ten villages rebelled. Finally, a referendum was allowed on whether to stay with “little” Hungary or join the former part of Hungary called Burgenland, ceded to Austria. On 14 December 1922, the people cast their vote that resulted in the town’s stay within Hungary. Consequently it received the title Civitas Fidelissima, meaning the “most loyal town”. Since then, 14 December has become the town’s official holiday. – B: 1353, T: 7103.→Civitas Fidelissima; Prónay, Pál; Ragged Guard; Lajta-Banate.
Mother, Divine – The Great Divine Mother, the Magna Mater is the mother of the universe and all the gods, a supreme figure in Man’s primeval culture. She is associated with the Earth: the fruitfulness of nature. She is the preserver of earthly existence; she gives mortal body to the soul. Since nature has a dual role – heavenly and earthly – so the mission of the Mother is also contradictory. The Mother is primarily portrayed all over the world through the Tree of Life; sometimes it is symbolized just by a pillar. Receptive objects with hollow insides (horn of plenty, pottery, chest and urn) and the elements of water and earth also symbolize her. The water refers to the beginning of existence, while the earth refers to the end of life. The mother-figure of Hungarian ancient belief is the “Blessed Mother”. After converting to Christianity this changed to the form of the Virgin Mary. – B: 1621, T: 7685.→Madonna, the Great.
Mother Earth – In popular belief, she is regarded as the ancestral mother of the Hungarian nation. This belief is rooted in the ancient nature worship recorded in now extinct sacred poetry. According to Byzantine sources, the Hungarians honored the elements of fire, air and water. They sang songs honoring the Earth, while the Creator of the World was known as God. – B: 1141, T: 7682.→Mother Earth Cult.
Mother Earth Cult  Traces of it can be found practically in all cultural traditions. According to the ancient Hungarian creation belief, Earth emerged from the sea and rests on the backs of three whales. When they move, the earth rocks. In ancient traditions, the Earth was associated with motherhood that was later transformed to the Mother Earth Cult. These beliefs are supported by legends, even that God made the first man out of clay. The early 7th century Greek writer Theophylaktos Simokattes noted of the Magyars: "They venerate the Earth and praise it with songs". Traces of mythology also point to the belief of the early Magyars that the Earth possesses protective, forgiving and cleansing qualities. As late as the beginning of the 20th century, in certain regions of Hungary, the newborn child was placed on the earthen floor of the house to purify it, for the people believed that the mother and her newborn baby were unclean for a specified period. Not only were the sick placed on the earth so that it could “suck out” the illness from their body, but also the dying to ease their agony. In Kalotaszeg (now Ţara Călatei, Transylvania, now in Romania), they put some earth in the mouth of those who died unexpectedly or without the benefit of the last rites; hence they would find peace in the womb of the Earth.  B: 1078, 1621, T: 7617.→Mother Earth.
Mound Grave (kurgan) – A mound used for burials, often studded with stones. It was an ancient form of burial among the nomads, including the Scythians, during the great migration period. The ancient Magyars were also familiar with it. Most of the mound graves were found along the migration line on the Russian Steppes. The bodies with or without coffins were placed at the bottom of the mound, sometimes 20 meters high, with articles of personal use, horses and, on occasion, in company of their wives and servants, all in accordance with their afterlife beliefs. – B: 1136, T: 7617.
Mountain Crystal – A clear, transparent quartz crystal found in almost all mines of the Carpathian Basin. It was very popular in ancient times. Goblets, pitchers and vases were made of it. Various names were given to it in commerce, according to its origin, e.g. “diamond of Máramaros” (the region’s southern part is now Maramureş in Romania, its northern part now in Carpatho-Ukraine). There is a 7-cm diameter crystal orb on the top of the Hungarian Royal Scepter. For the people of Hunor this crystal may have been regarded as magical, since it is described in the Hungarian chronicles that the ancient homeland is the land where crystals are found. – B: 1078, 1153, T: 7680.→Hunor and Magor Legend.
Mountain Cult – A cult based on animism that endows lifeless objects with life or personifies them. Ancient Greeks vener­ated Mt. Olympus and Mt. Parnassus as the thrones of Zeus and Apollo. The Mountain Cult was found in the most highly developed Asian cultures where, according to a cosmic idea, mountains bridged Heaven and Earth. Traces of this cult are found in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania), where ancient Hungarian beliefs in the mountain cult developed. In old legal customs, it played a great role. On certain days of the year, kings, princes or their emissaries and judges set up their tent on mountains to administer justice. – B: 0942, T: 7677.
Movement for Better Hungary Political Parties in Hungary.
Mózes, Attila (Marosvásárhely, now Targu-Mureş, Romania 8 April 1952 - ) – Writer, literary critic. In 1971 he completed his high school studies in his native town, after which he obtained a Degree in Education, majoring in Hungarian and French, at the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) in 1976. He worked as a French and sports teacher at Székelyhid. In 1979 he became Editor of the paper Útunk (Our Way) and, from late 1990, was Editor of the prose-column of Erdélyi Helikon (Transylvanian Helicon). He published an anthology of contemporary writers, entitled: Ajtó (Door); its 12 volumes include Transitions (Átmenetek), short stories (1978); Smoke Soot (Füstkorom) short stories (1984); Indian Summer (A vénasszonyok nyara) small novel (1991); Western Wandering (Nyugati vándorlás) (2000), and History of Dissolute Times (Céda korok történelme), (2004). Attila Mózes is one of the significant members of the Transylvanian contemporary generation of writers. He is a recipient of the György Méhes Grand Prix (2002) and the Prose Prize of the Romanian Writers’ Association (1981, 1983, 1986, 2004). – B: 1257, 1742, T: 7456.
Mózsi, Ferenc (Francis) (Pozsony, now Bratislava, Slovakia, 3 May 1924 - ) – Educator. He completed his secondary education in 1944, at Érsekújvár (now Nové Zámky, Slovakia), then studied Hungarian History and Music through correspondence course of the Department of Fine Arts at the University of Pozsony (1950-1959). In 1972 he received a Ph.D. from the University of Budapest, where he taught between 1950 and 1960, later becoming Headmaster of the Pedagogical School of Komárom (now Komarno, Slovakia) that subsequently became a Training College for Kindergarten Teachers. He was Section Head at the Department of Minority Issues in the Slovakian Ministry of Education (1960-1978). He was Professor and Head of the Department of Divinity of the University of Pozsony (1978-1987). He was member of the Didactics Subcommittee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1972-1978). His educational and esthetics-related articles were published, among others, in journals such as the Literary Review (Irodalmi Szemle); Adult Education (Népművelés); Socialist Education (Szocialista Nevelés), and On Bilingualism (A kétnyelvűségről); he was Editor for this journal (1967-1979). His works include Preserving and Surpassing (Megőrizve meghaladni) a series: Why Beautiful? (Miért szép?); Let Music Belong to Everybody, From the Folksong to the Symphony (Legyen a zene mindenkié. A népdaltól a szimfóniáig) (1961); On the Development of Schools with Hungarian as the Language of Instruction in Czechoslovakia, from the Viewpoint of the Teacher (A csehszlovákiai magyar tannyelvű iskolák fejlődéséről, tanitói szemmel) (1961); Teachers’ Manuals (1969-1970); Let us Sing (Énekeljünk), for various grades, co-authored (1971, 1977, 1979, 1984); Development of the Mother Tongue in the Kindergarten (Az anyanyelv fejlesztése az óvodában), and Music Education for Various Schools and Grades (Zenei nevelés) (1973, 1976, 1985-1987, 1989). He wrote more than 40 textbooks. His main work is: The Kaleioscope of Hungarian-Slovak Cultural Connections (A magyar- szlovák kulturális kapcsolatok kaleidoszkópja), textbook, with Imre Bertók (1975). – B: 1083, 1692, T: 7456.
M.S. MasterMaster M.S.
M. Szabó, Imre→Szabó, Imre, M.
Mudi – Name of a Hungarian shepherd dog used to drive and herd sheep. When the definite characteristics of the other Hungarian dogs, the “puli” and “pumi” came about, it was discovered that there existed another type of shepherd dog. Its development goes back to the turn of the 19-20th century. Elek (Alec) Fényes, Museum Director of Balassagyarmat first described it, named it, and organized its breeding. The mudi has a proportionate body structure, lively temperament and is hardy and energetic. Its hair is 3-7-cm long, shiny and black, occasionally speckled with white or completely white. It is quite wavy or curly but straight and short on the head. It weighs about 8-13 kg. The ears are upstanding, head elongated, body slopes toward the rear with a hanging tail. The breed is much favored for shepherding but its breeding is so far not sufficiently organized. – B: 1562, T: 7684.→Hungarian domestic animals; Herding dogs; Komondor; Puli; Pumi.
Muharay, Elemér (Elmer) (Hajtapuszta near Jászberény, 20 October 1901 - Budapest, 2 February 1960) – Actor and theater manager. His schooling was interrupted a number of times. In 1922 he completed the course at the Acting and Theatre Management School of Mattyasovszky-Bolváry; however, he could not find work in his field, so he undertook casual work. From 1926 to 1928 he traveled abroad, studying the theatrical life of France and Germany, already noting the possibilities of combining folk art and modern art pursuits. In 1928 he returned to Hungary and contracted to work as an actor and manager in country troops. In 1931 Muharay opened the Elizabeth Theater at Pesterzsébet (southeast suburb of Budapest), starting the action “Classical Series with Cheap Rent” and beginning to organize the laborers. However, the administration of the suburb withdrew their permission to use the premises. For a short time, he worked in the Magyar Theater, but for similar reasons, he was expelled. In 1934 he joined the organization of the New Thalia Theater (Új Tália Színház). From 1934 to 1936 he took part in the editing of the journal Hungarian Writing (Magyar Írás), and was also its theater and film-critic; at the same time, he wrote articles for the Prague Hungarian Weekly (Prágai Magyar Hetilap). From 1935 until 1937 he edited the journal People of the East (Kelet Népe). In 1936 he established the Artist Studio (Művész Stúdió) to develop Hungarian acting and dancing, in the spirit of Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. In 1938 the Artist Studio was closed down by the police. In the same year Muharay launched the village-stage movement. In the meantime, he was expelled from all the villages of the country. In 1939 and 1940 he founded the folk group of the Vasas Stage Actors; however, the performances were disallowed by the police. In May 1941 he organized the large-scale Open-air Plays of Csíksomlyó in the presence of 20,000 people, where he also included one of the mystery plays of the Csíksomlyó Franciscans. In 1942 he was asked to lead the Levente Central Artist Ensemble, which had great success in Weimar and Florence. During the German occupation of Hungary in March of 1944, the Ensemble broke up. He and several members of the Ensemble took active part in the resistance movement. In March 1945 he joined the National Peasant Party and, on 15 March, he launched the folk theatrical group with more than 150 performances. In 1951 the Folk Art Institute was formed, the ethnographic section of which he led until his death. Muharay was a legendary teacher and organizer. His memory is preserved in the Muharay Prize, the Folk-Art Association, and a folkdance ensemble named after him. – B: 2052, T: 7456.
Muhi, Battle of → Mongol-Tartar Invasion.
Müller, Baron Ferenc József (Franz Joseph) (Müller von Reichenstein) (Nagyszeben, now Sibiu, Romania, 1 July 1740 - Vienna, 12 October 1825) – Mineralogist, explorer. Initially he studied Law and Art at the University of Vienna; then, from 1763 he studied at the Mining Academy of Selmecbánya (now Banska Stiavnica, Slovakia). In 1768 he was appointed mining engineer for the mines of Southern Hungary. In 1770 he became Director of the Bánát Mines and, from 1778 he worked as a mining consultant in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). In the same year he identified the mineral, Tourmaline in the Tyrol, and in 1872 the chemical element, Tellurium, in the gold-ore found at Nagyszeben (now Sibiu Transylvania, Romania). Emperor Joseph II (1780-1790) put him in charge of all the Transylvanian mines in 1788. In 1798 he was entrusted with the administration of the Viennese Center of the Transylvanian Board of Mines. He retired in 1818. In his honor the Hyalite glass was renamed Müller-glass. – B: 0883, T: 7456.
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