M macartney, Carlile Aylmer



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Magass, Miklós (Nicholas) (Igló, now Spišská Nová Ves, Slovakia, 16 March 1913 - Budapest, 14 July 1987) – Roman Catholic Priest. After his Theological studies he was ordained in the Esztergom Archdiocese on 20 July 1937. He was Chaplain in Sárisáp and in Budapest, and also taught religion there (1937-1938). In the meantime, he obtained a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Budapest (1938). Between 1938 and 1943 he was Military Chaplain assigned to the 2nd Hungarian Army on the Eastern Front. He witnessed the Hungarian military tragedy at the River Don in February of 1943. During his leave in Budapest in the spring of 1944, he participated in the Resistance Movement rescuing persecuted Jews. After the War he was Chaplain in Tatabánya (1946-1955); at St Anna Church in the inner city of Budapest (1955-1957); at St Peter and Paul Church of Óbuda (1957-1987). Dr. Magass played a significant role in the return of the Hungarian Holy Crown in 1978 from the United States, where it was kept in Fort Knox since 1945. With the mediation of the Vatican, diplomatic negotiations started on this issue between the USA and the Hungarian government. Dr. Magass, at that time Professor of Church Law at the Seminary of Esztergom, was charged by the Hungarian side to establish a diplomatic link as a traveling emissary. His American counterpart was also a Catholic priest and they met several times in the Vatican, also receiving papal audiences. Both of them received a golden cross with corpus from the Pope. The Holy Crown of Hungary was returned to Hungary on 7 January 1978. The US secretary of State, Cyrus Vance formally handed it over in the Main Hall of the Parliament in Budapest. – B: 0945, 1896, T: 7103, 7456.→Don Bend, Battle of the; Haraszti, Sándor; Holy Crown, Hungarian; Holy Crown of Hungary, return of.
Magda, Pál (Paul) (Rozsnyó, now Roznava, Slovakia, 29 June 1770 - Nyíregyháza, 23 July 1841) – Statistician, sociologist. He studied at the Lutheran High Schools of Rozsnyó, Késmárk (now Kežmarok, Slovakia), and Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia). From 1792 to 1794 he studied at the University of Jena, where Friedrich Schiller impressed him. From 1797 he taught in Csetnek, later at the high schools of Sajógömör (now Gemer, Slovakia), Lőcse (now Levoča, Slovakia), and Besztercebánya (now Banská-Bystrica, Slovakia). He became Vice-Chancellor at Teschen in Silesia. From 1814 he taught at the Lutheran College of Sopron. From 1822 he was Principal in the Archiepiscopal High School of Kalocsa; from 1825 he taught at Sárospatak, and from 1834 at Szarvas. He was persecuted by the authorities due to his progressive views. He was free from the prejudices of the nobility’s complacency; he openly pointed out their mistakes. He criticized the neglected state of public schools and of general education and he emphasized the educational responsibility of the state. His main work is The Most Recent Statistical and Geographical Description of Hungary and the Military Frontier Region (Magyarországnak és a határőrző katonaság vidékeinek legujabb statistikai és geographiai leirása) (Pest, 1819). This is the first statistical work in Hungarian. He was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Learned Society. – B: 1257, 1134, 1160, T: 7456.
Magellan Expedition – The Portuguese Fernão de Magalhães (1480-1521) entered into the service of the Spanish King Charles V, and was entrusted with the task of looking for the Spice Islands, sailing westward. The fleet consisted of five ships: the Conception, San Antonio, Santiago, Trinidad and Victoria. The artillery commander of the Conception was the Hungarian János (John) Varga, the first Hungarian to land in South America. The ships departed from Seville on 13 August 1519 and, after sailing along the east coast of South America, dropped anchors at a section of the coast probably at the present-day Rio de Janeiro. Then sailing on in 1520, they cut across the passage between Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia, later on named Magellan Strait, into the Pacific Ocean. During the course of the voyage the crew of three of the ships unsuccessfully mutinied. Reaching the Philippines, Magellan was killed in a battle. Of the original fleet of five ships only the Victoria returned on 6 September 1522, with 18 members of the original crew of 237. Later, 13 crewmembers were reported from the Cape Verde Islands, where the Portuguese held them prisoners. The route of the expedition proved that the Earth is not flat but round and that the American Continent as well as the Pacific Ocean are independent bodies; it also made these navigators realize that around-the-world traveling needed constant time adjustment. János Varga was probably the confidant of Count Erdődy who, under the pen-name Maximilianus Transsylvanicus, described the story of the expedition in a letter addressed to the Archbishop of Salzburg on the basis of Varga’s report, two weeks after his return. This was an account of the first round-the-world trip ever carried out by man.  B: 1020, 1153, T: 7456.
Magi (Mágusok, Sorcerers) – (1) They were priests, symbolized by the snake of the monotheistic, fire-venerating Mazdaism and later of Zoroastrianism. Besides performing offerings and other religious activities, they functioned as healers, astrologers and dream readers. They believed in their magical powers. The “Magi religion” (mágus vallás) is often mentioned in ancient Oriental sources in connection with the Magyars and their neighbors. They practiced Mazdaism, while some also pursued Zoroastrianism. The magi priests survived the era of King István (St. Stephen) I (997-1038) and, in 1046, János (John), son of Vata, recruited a large number of sorcerers and magi priests against King Péter (2) Later, magicians and sorcerers were called Magi. – B: 1078, 1138, 1020, T: 3240.
Maglód Clan – According to Anonymus, the Chronicler (12/13 century), the Maglód Clan originated from Gyula (Julius) Erdőelvi Tétény. There are no official documents about this clan but a number of place-names evoke it. – B: 0942, T: 7676.→Anonymus.
Magna HungariaDe Facto Ungrie Magne or Ungaria Magna, the Latin name of the earlier supposed original “Hungarian homeland” as Friar Julianus mentions it. In the Middle Ages “magna” also meant “great” or “old”. Between 300 and 400 AD the large movement of peoples on the Steppes – induced by the Huns – pushed several ethnic groups and fractions of various ethnic groups to the regions of the Mid-Volga, the Bjelaya and Kama rivers. Magna Hungaria was located somewhere between the bend of the River Volga and the Ural Mountains. With the death of Krobetas, the Turkic Empire dissolved around 650. At first the Onogurs remained in the area between the Sea of Azov and the Kuban Region; then, around 670, they returned to Pannonia and joined the Várkonys. However one of the tribes stayed behind and joined the Bulgars, then moved to the region of the Kama Balkhi in 934. They are referred to as Badzsir (Baskhir) and they numbered about 2000. The inhabitants of Magna Hungaria were involved in agriculture. They grew barley, oats and millet, and raised horses and sheep. Since Bolgar and Cumanian refugees from the East brought information that, between the River Volga and the Ural Mountains, there lived a large Hungarian group, King Béla IV (1235-1270) sent out four Dominican friars: Ottó, Szirák, Márton and Benedek in search of them. Of the four, only one, Otto, returned with news that he had found them but, before he could give a detailed account of his discovery, he died of an illness he contracted on his journey. In 1235 the King dispatched another group of four Dominicans to find them again. Friar Julianus found them and, on his return, reported that he lived among the Hungarians along the Volga for weeks and stated that they spoke authentic Hungarian. He also maintained that they were well-trained militarily and managed to repel several Mongol attacks. By identifying the Volga-Kama region as the location of the original Hungarian homeland, he called it Magna Hungaria. King Béla IV sent Julianus back to invite them to settle in the Carpathian Basin. However, Julianus arrived too late; the Mongol armies of Batu Khan had swept over them in 1234, burned their cities and forcibly enlisted the surviving warriors. It was believed that some of them managed to escape to the region of the Caucasus. According to some sources, since the Mongols could not defeat them, they made a treaty of alliance with the Hungarian group. Several historians claim, among them Ede (Edward) Pauler, that today’s Baskhirs are descendants of those inhabitants of Magna Hungaria, who joined the Mongols and were subsequently assimilated by them. – B: 1078, 1230, 1153, 1666, 0631, T: 7665.→Migration of Early Hungarians; Illustrated Chronicle; Julianus, Friar; Béla IV, King.
Magnus A title as indicated in the Illuminated (Képes) Chronicle, Pozsonyi Chronicle, the Ranzanus Chronicle, the Thuróczi Chronicle, and a couple of other documents; even on a medallion, there is a reference to Ruling Prince, later King Géza-István (Géza Stephen) (971-997) by this title. – B: 1078, 1020, T: 7658.→Illuminated Chronicle, Vienna.
Magor – (1) Hungarian (Magyar). The legendary father of the Hungarian Nation who, with his brother Hunor, was the son of a famous hunter, the giant Nimrod; also known as Ménrót and Enéh. The association of the Magyars with Magor, as their forefather is close and direct, while the relationship with Hunor is through the Hun legends. Other sources maintain that Magor is but the distortion of the name Magog. Anonymus, the Chronicler, calls Magog the forefather of the Hungarians. (2) Muageris (Magor) and his brother Gorda, who lived in the 6th century, were the descendants of Kutigur. The offspring of Muageris was Kuvrat (605-665), who rescued the Onogur-Bolgar Empire from Avar control. – B: 1078, 1020, T: 3240.→Anonymus; Madsar; Madzsars.
Magura – It is the name of several mountain ranges and mountains in the Carpathian Mountain Range: (1) Árva Magura, (2) Liptó Magura, and (3) Szepes Magura are all in Upper Hungary, now Slovakia. The etymology of the word is little known and controversial. (1) The word magura may possibly be the original Hungarian word for lion. It is conceivable that it was for reasons of magic that the Hungarians (Magyars) named some rather high mountains in the Northern Carpathians magura; (2) curiously enough, Magura in the Sumerian language also meant lion, regarding the lion as a guard-dog. It could also mean simply magas = high. – B: 1020, T: 7456.
Magyar”, the Name as Designation – The name Magyar appears in the northern Caucasus and the Old East in such versions as Madzheri, Magyeri, Materi, Madsar, etc; it frequently appeared in names of peoples, mountains, rivers and settlements; on 16th century maps it is the name of the Black Sea as Mare Hungaricus. In the Old East the use of this word in written documents goes back to the times before Christ. Under the pressure of the Khazars, the people of Árpád left Lebedia and settled down in Etelköz (650-888). Here the Sabirs broke away and as a result, the Megyer tribe became the leader of the alliance. From this time on the “Magyar” name became established. – B: 1274, 1668, 1020, T: 7684.→Lebedia; Etelköz; Magor; Madsar.
Magyar, Adorján (Adrian) (Budapest, 4 October 1887 - Zelenika, Yugoslavia, 28 September 1978) – Painter, historian (ancient history). He learned his artistic skills in his uncle’s, Viktor Madarász’s studio in Budapest, and then completed his sculpting studies in Rome and Florence, Italy. For years, he carried out folklore research in remote parts of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania) and collected rich materials. In the meantime, he learned various local Szekler and Palóc dialects. With respect to the origins of the Magyars, he alleged that they did not arrive with Prince Árpád from Asia, but that they were the original inhabitants and founders of a particular culture in the Carpathian Basin. Modern sciences (e.g. archeology, anthropology, zoology, botany, linguistics etc.) give some support to his hypothesis. The public notary of Castelnuovo (now Herceg-Novi, Montenegro) authenticated his related manuscript of 1911-1912, on 3 June 1914, under No. 2752. He wrote more than 200 articles and studies. Some of his works are: Questions (Kérdések) (1930), The Golden Mirror of Conscience (A Lelkiismeret Aranytükre) (1937) (Switzerland 1975); Ancient Hungarian Runic Writing (Ősmagyar rovásírás) (USA, 1961, 1962); Hungarian Origin of the Nibelungen Lied (Nibelung ének magyar eredete) (1963); My Theory (Elméletem) (Sweden 1969); Gold Ball (Goldkugel), folktales (Germany, 1970); About the Miraculous Stag (A csodaszarvasról) (1921, 1972); The Miraculous Stag (A csodaszarvas) (1991,1997); My Theory on Our Ancient Culture (Elméletem ősműveltségünkről) (Switzerland, 1978); The Hungarian Architectural Style (A magyar épitőízlés) (1990); The Lyrical Beauty of Our Ancient Culture (Ősműveltségünk költői szépsége) (1993), and The Hungarian Language (A magyar nyelv) (1996). His major work is The Ancient Culture (Az Ősműveltség) (1995, 1999). Besides his enormous classical knowledge, he spoke nine languages, including Latin. His works were published and distributed mainly in the western world but after 1990, in Hungary as well. There is now an Adorján Magyar Society in Hungary. – B: 0912, T: 7103.→Madarász, Viktor; László, Gyula; Hungarian Runic Script.
Magyar, Antal (Anthony) Blessed, O.F.M. (Hungary ? - Foligno 13 May 1398) – Monk. He went to Rome on a pilgrimage, where he entered the Franciscan Order as a tertiary. He traveled to Assisi, but became ill in Foligno, where he was cared for at the Trinity Hospital and was healed. According to his vows, he remained with the hospital as an attendant, where he cared for the destitute and the elderly. He also gathered abandoned children and educated them. His relics are at the main altar of the hospital church. – B: 0945, 1085, T: 7103.
Magyar, Balázs (Blaise) (? – died in 1490) – Military commander. He was the father of Benigna Magyar. He started his military career under János (John) Hunyadi. During the reign of King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus) (1458-1490) he participated in the campaign against the Hussites and later against the Czechs in northern Hungary. In 1462, he was captain of Felvidék (Upland) (the northern, mountainous part of the former Hungarian Kingdom, now Slovakia) and from 1470, he was leader of the defense of the southern frontiers. For two periods (1470-1472 and 1473-1474), he was a Croatian-Slavonian Ban (banus) and, from 1473 to 1475, a Transylvanian Voivode and, as such, he gave assistance to the Moldovan voivode against the Ottoman Turks. In 1479, he occupied the island of Veglia in the Adriatic Sea but he could not hold onto it, against the Venetian fleet. In 1480, King Mátyás I, (Matthias Corvinus) (1458-1490) sent him with a smaller army to retake Otranto occupied by the Turks; he succeeded in this mission. He became Croatian-Slavonian ban again in 1482 and 1483. He apparently withdrew from public life in his retirement. For his former services, King Mátyás gave him large landed estates, particularly in Transdanubia and in the Trencsén (now Trenčin, Slovakia) area. His daughter Benigna and her first husband, Pál (Paul) Kinizsi, an army commander of the King, inherited his estates. – B: 0883, T: 7456.→Hunyadi, János; Mátyás I, King; Magyar, Benigna.
Magyar, Bálint (Valentine) (? - Szigliget, April 1573) – Captain of border fortresses. He was a descendant of an impoverished noble family from County Zala, whose family friend was the Palatine Tamás (Thomas) Nádasdy. From 1545 he was Captain of the forts of Szigliget and Fonyód, with some short interruptions, until his death. The Turks always wanted to conquer the fortress of Fonyód, but never succeeded in Bálint Magyar’s lifetime. In 1551 he was Second Lieutenant for the Nádasdy’s Banderium in the Transylvanian campaign, and took part in the siege of Lippa. In 1552 he was briefly Captain of the town of Pápa, later that of Kanizsa. His ceaseless forays and arbitrary measures against the Turks got him in legal trouble with the Pasha of Buda and the nobility of the Lake Balaton regions; but Nádasdy always defended and saved him. He is regarded as one of the most important military commanders against the Turks in the mid-16th century. A school in Fonyód bears his name. – B: 0883, 1773, T: 7456.→ Magyar, Benigna.
Magyar, Benigna ( ? - died in 1526) – Daughter of Balázs (Blaise) Magyar. She married three times. Her first husband was Pál (Paul) Kinizsi. They were married between 1484 and 1492. Her second husband was Mark Kamicsáni Mislenovics (died 1509); and her third husband was Gergely (Gregory) Vázsonyi Kereki (died 1519). She had her third husband assassinated and lost her properties, although King Louis II (1516-1526) pardoned her. She inherited large properties from her father (died 1490) and from her first husband (died on 20 November 1494). Two prayer books in Hungarian (called the Festetics and Czech Codices) were prepared for the Pauline monastery of Nagyvázsony on her orders, and they are valuable literary and linguistic relics. – B: 0883, 1068, T: 7456.→Magyar, Balázs; Kinizsi, Pál; Festetics Codex; Czech Codex.
Magyar Clan – (1) The Uzbek Magyar clan was a fragment of the Bashkir Hungarians conquered by the Tartars. The Uzbek clan joined Sejban’s 200 soldiers, when they occupied Bokhara in 1500. (2) Even in the 20th century there was a Madjar Clan scattered in the central part of Kazakhstan. (3) According to Klaproth, the clan is one of the tribes of the Caucasian Kubecs (Kubacsi) peoples, the Madzsar or Manzsar. (4) According to King Béla IV’s documents dated 1240, the tribe was one among the clans of the Árpád Dynasty in the County of Pozsony. They settled in the Danube Island of Csallóköz (now Žitný ostrov, Slovakia). – B: 1078, T: 7676.

Magyar Diaszpóra TanácsHungarian Diaspora Council.

Magyar, Imre (Emeric) (Losonc, now Lučenec, Slovakia, 14 October 1910 - Budapest, 25 May 1984) – Physician, writer. He pursued his higher studies in Budapest, where he obtained a Medical Degree in 1934. He started his medical practice at the Teaching Hospital of the University of Budapest and, during World War II, he worked in a private hospital; later he was enlisted to do forced labor on the Russian front. From 1945 he was a demonstrator in Hospital No. I, Budapest; in 1948 he became an honorary lecturer and, in 1952, a candidate. From 1960 to 1965 he was a professor in the No. 1 Faculty of the Institute of Continuing Medical studies (Orvosi Továbbképző Intézet – OTKI), which he also headed between 1962 and 1965. From 1965 to 1980 he was professor and Head of the Semmelweis Medical University, Budapest. He was a well-known expert in every branch of internal medicine and pathology. He wrote several hundred papers on this subject; particularly well known is his work is The Fundamentals of Internal Medicine, vols. i-iii (A belgyógyászat alapvonalai I-III), (1977, with 20 editions), co-authored with Gyula (Julius) Petrányi. He was President of a number of medical societies, including several abroad. His works include Ruth, novel (1971); Judit, novel (1973); Erkrankungen der Leber und der Gallenwege (I-II) (1961); Internal Medicine in Short (Rövid belgyógyászat) (1975); The Physician and the Patient (Az orvos és a beteg) (1983), and The Diseases of the Liver, the Gall-bladder and the Pancreas (A máj, az epeutak és a hasnyálmirigy betegségei) (1985). He received the Ignác Semmelweis Memorial Medal. A hospital in Ajka bears his name. – B: 0883, 1122, T: 7456.
Magyar, László (Ladislas) (Szombathely, 13 November 1818 - Ponto de Cujo, Benguela, 9 November 1864) – World traveler, explorer, a pioneer of African research. He went to school in Dunaföldvár, Kalocsa, Szabadka (now Subotica, Serbia) completing his studies at the Naval Academy of Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia). As an imperial midshipman, he sailed to South America; then, forsaking his service, he entered the Spanish Army, and later, the Argentinean Army as a naval officer. In the war with Uruguay, he became a prisoner and was sentenced to death. However, on the intervention of a French ship captain, he was freed. It was at this time that the plan of a South American expedition was developing in his mind. For that, he asked and expected assistance only from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He already spoke not only Spanish and Portuguese but also the two most widespread Indian languages. However, the Academy did not lend him its support. As a naval officer, he sailed along the western coast of Africa. He explored the Zaire River, and kept a diary on his two-month long travel. Soon afterwards he moved to the Kingdom of Bihé that had a more pleasant climate. The King offered him his daughter, Princess Ozora. They were married in 1849, and her armed bodyguards and numerous slaves secured his undisturbed study trips. During these geographic and ethnographic field trips, he reached areas yet unseen by Europeans. He found the source of the River Congo and provided descriptions and maps on the areas he traveled in. He sent the first volume of his reports to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences that elected him correspondent in 1858. His work showed him as an exceptionally dedicated and high-level scientist of his time. His native African father-in-law was killed during an armed coup d’état in 1857. Magyar had to flee from Bihé; he entered the service of the Portuguese and founded a Portuguese settlement around the Bay of Lucira, where he lived as a merchant. At this place and during these years, he finished the 2nd and 3rd volumes of his reports. He died shortly afterwards at the age of 46. His irreplaceable documents from Lucira were destroyed in a fire at the custodian’s house, where his legacy was kept. The surviving Volume I. is priceless for African research. He was one of the most outstanding Africa explorers. His descendants are still in Angola; schools and suburbs of towns are named after him and his one-time dwelling is surrounded with reverence. – B: 0942, 1134, 0883, 1288, T: 7456.→Teleki, Count Sámuel (2); Kittenberger, Kálmán; Almásy, László Ede.
Magyar, Pál (Paul) (Cegléd, 27 March 1895 - Sopron, 18 April 1969) – Forestry engineer. He began his higher studies at the Mining and Forestry Academy at Selmecbánya (or Schemnitz, now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia), but they were interrupted by military service in World War I, and the four years he spent as a prisoner of war. He continued his studies in Selmecbánya between 1918 and 1920. This time, they were interrupted by the Peace Dictate of Trianon (1920), whereby Selmecbánya was ceded to the newly created successor state of Czechoslovakia. Hence, all the teaching staff, students and equipment were hurriedly relocated to Sopron (that remained in Hungary as a result of a plebiscite), thus forming part of the University of Western Hungary, established after the war and the Peace Treaty. Finally, he obtained his Forestry Engineering Degree from Sopron in 1920. He started to work as an assistant forestry engineer in 1922. Originally from a large peasant family of the Great Hungarian Plain (Nagyalföld), he requested to be posted there, where he started to study the possibilities of re-forestation of areas (especially in the Danube-Tisza Interfluve) of sandy and alkaline soil. From 1924 to 1927, he was entrusted with the establishment of a Research Institute of Alkaline Soil at Püspökladány (near the Hortobágy National Park, southwest of Debrecen), and became its Director. Now it is called Pál Magyar Research Institute (Magyar Pál Kutató Intézet), where his bust was unveiled in 1976. From 1930 he was Director of the Forestry Research Institute of Sopron, where he worked out the system of determining soil quality on basis of plant-association, still used at present; this also became the topic of his doctoral thesis. (1930). From 1938 he was chief forestry engineer, then Forestry Commissioner. After undergoing serious brain surgery in Berlin in 1943, he was appointed to the Chair of Forest Cultivation and Afforestation of plains at the University of Sopron in 1947. He lost this position for political reasons in 1951, during the dark era of Communist rule in Hungary. Thereafter, he worked at the Budapest Center of the Forestry Science Institute and later, until his death, at the Institute’s Sopron experimental research station. He made several study trips abroad. In recognition of his scientific work, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences awarded him the title of Doctor of Biological Sciences in 1952. He was an outstanding scholar in the field of Forestry Plant Geography, especially plant ecology and enology of sandy and alkali soil areas. He founded the forestry habitat and forest-typological studies and developed their practice. His major work is Afforestation of the Plains (Alföldfásítás) (vols. i-ii, 1960-1961), to this day the basic handbook for specialists in afforestation of sandy and soda soils. In his retirement he was asked to write book reviews and appraisals or critiques of doctoral dissertations. He died after a short illness, at age 73. He received the Albert Bedő memorial medal (1967), and he was named posthumously Honorary Freeman of Sopron. As a final phase of the Forestry Faculty saga, during the 1956 Revolution in Hungary, the entire Faculty of Forestry of Sopron University, with 20 teaching staff and 200 students emigrated to Canada to join the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, where they formed the so-called Sopron Division, thus completing the nearly 200-year-long saga that started in Selmecbánya (established by Maria Theresa in 1763) via the 1920 Trianon Peace Treaty in Sopron, and finally ended in British Columbia in 1956. – B: 0883, 7456, T: 7456.→Trianon Peace Treaty; Sopron Division.
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