Monomachos Crown – Constantine IX, (Monomachos) Byzantine Emperor sent this crown to King András I (Andrew, 1046-1060), who was the adversary of Henrik III, the Holy Roman Emperor. A fragment of the crown is at the Hungarian National Museum. – B: 1138, T: 7662.
Monorail – In 1845, József (Joseph) Kliegl, a Hungarian technician for a short-lived Slavonian timber exploitation company, constructed the first model of a horse-drawn stretch of rail. The following year another company constructed a stretch of monorail 732 m. in length. This company also went bankrupt. – B: 1226, T: 7456.→Kliegl, József. Monoszlay Clan – According to official documents, the clan’s ancestor was Makarias Comes from the time of King Béla III (1172-1196). Monoszló was the clan’s ancient nest in the County of Körös. Makarias’ son Tamás (Thomas) was Lord Lieutenant and Viceroy of the County of Valkó during the time of King András II (Andrew, 1205-1235). The clan died out in 1313 with Makarias’ great grandson, Egyed. Egyed was the notorious Master of The Royal Treasury and Lord Lieutenant of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), who, at the end of 1272, gave his support to Ottokar, the Czech King. He gave him the Castle of Pozsony that consequently became the cause of war in 1273. – B: 0942, T: 7676.
Monoszlóy, Dezső (Desider) (Monoszlóy M. Dezső, pen-name: Márk Máté) (Budapest, 28 December 1923 - ) – Writer, poet, translator of literary works. He obtained a Degree from the Law School of the University of Budapest (1946). From 1946 to 1968 he worked as a bricklayer, miner, sailor, teacher, radio mechanic, and director of a publishing firm in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia). He was Associate Editor for the journal, Literary Review (IrodalmiSzemle). He settled in Yugoslavia in 1968, and moved to Vienna in 1970. He translates Czech and Slovakian literary works. His works include I Send a Message from Heaven (Égből üzenek) (1941); We Only Live Once (Csak egyszer élünk) poem (1959); Kiss (Csók) poem (1965); Desert (Sivatag) short story (1968); Flight from Sodom (Menekülés Szodomából) novel (1975); The Last Hunt(Az utolsó vadászat) short stories (New York, 1983, in German: Die letzte Jagd, 1984), Die fünf Jahreszeiten der Liebe, short stories (Vienna, 1989), and in Hungarian: A szerelem öt évszaka (The Five Seasons of Love) (1991). He was awarded a number of prizes, including the Imre Madách Prize (1967), the Theodor Körner Prize (1979), the Life-achievement Prize (Vienna, 1986), the Golden Medal of Merit of the Republic of Austria (1989), and also the Literary Prize of the Pen Club (1996). – B: 1257, 0878, 1672, T: 7456.
Montágh, Imre (Emeric) (Budapest, 29 July 1935 - Budapest, 1 August 1986) - Logopedist, linguist. He received his qualilifications from the Training College for Teachers of Handicapped Children (Gyógypedagógiai Tanárképző Főiskola) Budapest (1959). First, he dealt with deaf-mute children. While he was training amateur actors he became involved in the training of speech techniques. From 1973 he taught speech techniques at the Academy of Dramatic Art; gave lectures and wrote articles about his field of expertise. He lost his life in an accident. His works include the Clear Speech(Tiszta beszéd) (1976). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Monti, CountAlessandro (1818 - 1854) – Military officer in the Habsburg Imperial Army, and also Colonel in the Honvéd (National) Army of Hungary. In 1848, at the outbreak of the insurrection in Brescia, Italy, he left the Imperial Army and as captain entered into the service of Piedmont. He arrived in Hungary as Piedmont’s Ambassador but, after the Italian defeat at Novara, he offered his services to Lajos (Louis) Kossuth, who appointed him leader (Colonel) of the Italian Legion, whose formation had already begun in March 1849. The Headquarter of the Legion was in Szeged, with an approximate membership of a thousand men. After the battle of Temesvár (now Timisoara, Romania), he went to Turkey and later returned to Piedmont. – B: 0883, 1321, T: 7665.→Kossuth, Lajos; Freedom Fight of 1848-1849. Montroyal, Jakab (Jacob) (? - Muhipuszta, 12 April 1241) – He was Master of the Hungarian Slavonian Templars. Accompanied by his Italian and French knights, under the leadership of Prince Kálmán (Coloman), he came to the aid of King Béla IV (1235-1270) in 1241, against the Mongols attacking Hungary. He fought valiantly in the Battle of Muhi on 12 April 1241. At first, in cooperation with Prince Kálmán and Archbishop Ugrin, they prevented Siban’s Mongol army from crossing the Sajó River. The army of Batu Khan was about to retreat, when south of the battle Subutai crossed the river and attacked the Hungarians from the rear. Montroyal and his Templar knights fell in a heroic battle. – B: 0942, T: 7665.→Béla IV, King;Mongol-Tartar Invasion;Templars, Knights of. Monumenta Hungarica – A series of volumes of Hungarian historical sources translated into Hungarian. The Hungarian Helicon published this series. It contains: János (John) Thuróczi’s Hungarian Chronicle; Bonfini’s King Mátyás (Matthias Corvinus); Márk (Mark) Kálti’s Illustrated Chronicle; the Chronicle of János (John) Küküllei, and the Nameless Minorite; György (George) Szermémi’s Deterioration of Hungary; Miklós (Nicholas) Istvánffy’s Of the History of the Hungarians, and István (Stephen) Szamosközy’s Transylvanian History. – B: 1150, T: 3240.→Thuróczi, János; Bonfini, Antonio;Kálti, Márk; Istvánffy, Miklós; Szamosközy, István. Moon Mother – In Hungarian folk tales the house of the Moon Mother stands on the summit of a steep silver mountain. This notion indicates a very ancient cultic concept.
– B: 0942, T: 7677.
Moór, Artúr (Arthur) (Budapest, 8 January 1923 - Sopron, 26 August 1985) – Mathematician. After completing his general education in Szeged, where he obtained a Deegree in Education (majoring in mathematics and physics) from the University. World War II and captivity interrupted his studies. He worked as a teacher in Szarvas and Debrecen for five years; then, from 1953, he was a postgraduate student, and obtained a Master’s Degree (1955) and a Ph.D. in Mathematics (1964). Between 1956 and 1968 he lectured at the University of Szeged. Afterwards, until his death, he was Professor of Mathematics and Physics at the University of the Forestry and Timber Industry of Sopron. In the wide scope of his professional work, with 103 published studies and articles (mainly in German), he specialized in the Riemann and Finsler geometry and in most fields of modern differential geometry (Weyl, Cartan, Otsuki fields) with notable new results. He also treated the space theory of modern physics with some resulting publications. He was a member of the Differential Geometry School, developed in Debrecen, under the leadership of Otto Varga. He was elected member of the Japanese Tenzor Society. Through two cycles, he was a member of the Mathematical Specialist Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and President of the Sopron Chapter of the János Bólyai Mathematical Society. – B: 0883, T: 7456.
Moór, Emánuel (Emmanuel) (Kecskemét, 19 February 1863 - Mont Pélerin sur Vevey, Switzerland, 20 October 1931) – Pianist, composer. He studied music at the Academies of Music in Budapest and Vienna. For two years he toured and gave concerts (for a while with Lili Lehmann) in the USA, then in England and Germany (1885-1887). He designed the Duplex-Coupler Grand Pianoforte. It had two keyboards one above the other, while reduplicated pedals rendered it easier to carry out greater jumps, bigger grasps, rapid scale passages and to provide the possibility to create new sound effects. Together with his wife, W. Christie, he introduced and exhibited the new instrument in Budapest in 1928. His works include symphonies, concertos, string quartets, violin sonatas, operas (Die Pompadour; Andreas Hofer; Hochzeitsglocken), instrumental mass and songs. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7456.
Moór, Mariann (Marian) (Budapest, 5 February 1943 - ) – Actress. After completing her studies at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest, the Theater of Kecskemét (Kecskeméti Színház) gave her a contract. (1965). She became a member of the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház) in Budapest (1969); from 1984 she played at the Madách Theater (Madách Színház) and,since 1992, she has been a member of the National Theater, Budapest. Early in her career, she played in dramatic roles, but later, her excellent sense of humor and style became evident. Her roles include Julika in F. Molnár’s Liliom, adopted for the musical play Carusel, by Oscar Hammerstein II; Beatrix in Molnár’s The Swan(A hattyú); Melinda in Katona’s Bánk bán, and Roxanne in E. Rostand’s Cyrano de Bergerac. There are more than 40 feature films to her credit, including The Culpritis Unknown (A tettes ismeretlen) (1957); In the Current (Sodrásban) (1962); Outbreak (Kitörés) (1970); An October Sunday (Októberi vasárnap) (1979); The Tragedy of Man (Az ember tragédiája) (1993), and The Unburied Dead (Atemetetlen halott) (2004). Amongst her numerous TV films are: Princ, the Soldier (Princ, a katona) (series, 1966-1967); Good Evening Summer, Good Evening Love (Jó estétnyár, jó estét szerelem) (1972); The Elephant (Az elefánt) (1978); Solness Masterbuilder) (Solness épitőmester) (1982), and Andersen, the Fable of Fables (Andersen, a mesék meséje) (2006). She received the Mari Jászai Prize twice (1969, 1978), the Artist of Merit title (1984), the Kossuth Prize (2004), and she is Member of the Society of Immortals (2004). – B: 1445, 1504, T: 7456.
Mór O.S.B. Blessed (Maurice) (ca. 1,000 - ca. 1,070) – Roman Catholic Bishop. He attended school on the Mount of St Martin (later renamed Pannonhalma) during the reign of King István I (St Stephen) (997-1038), then he entered the Benedictine Order and became its Abbot around 1030. In 1036, King István I appointed him Bishop of the newly created Diocese of Pécs. He was unhurt during the time of the pagan revolts. Together with two priests, he crowned King András I (Andrew, 1046-1060). He witnessed and signed the founding charter of the Abbey of Tihany. He wrote the first book in Latin on the biography of András and Benedek, the two hermits of Zoborhegy. The painter, Bertalan (Bartholomew) Székely immortalized him on the altar-picture of the chapel of the Basilica of Szeged. His statue is in the Abbey of Pannonhalma; a High School in Pápa and a College in Pécs bear his name. – B: 0945, 0883, T: 7103.→Gellért, Bishop, Saint. Móra, Ferenc (Francis) (Kiskunfélegyháza, 19 July 1879 - Szeged, 8 February 1934) – Museologist, writer, journalist. He studied under difficult conditions due to his family’s poverty. He obtained a Degree from the University of Budapest in Geography and Natural History; after that, for a year he was an assistant teacher in Felsőlövő. He became a contributor for the Journal of Szeged (Szegedi Napló), and lived in Szeged from the beginning of the 20th century. Between 1913 and 1919, he was Editor-in-Chief for the same newspaper and stayed with the paper until his death. His journalistic articles and his perfectly composed special articles were published in the newspaper Southern Hungary(Délmagyarország) of Szeged. From 1904 he was the Guardian, later Director of the Somogy Library and the City Museum of Szeged. His articles about the findings at the archeological sites around Szeged and the Great Plain’s (Nagyalföld) ancient settlements are of graet value. His writing career began with his poetry. In his novels and short stories, he most sensitively described the defenseless peasantry. In 1905 his interests turned to youth literature. In his books: Sons of the Captive Man(A rab ember fiaia) (1909) and The Treasure-searching Small Sheepskin Mantle (Kincskereső kis ködmön) (1918), he drew on his childhood experiences and they became classics of Hungarian youth literature. His lyrical novels about the peasants are exceptional; among them is The Song of the Wheat Fields (Ének a búzamezőkről) (1932). An excellent story-telling ability, a subdued humor and a clear descriptive style using the spoken language come through in his works of fiction. His books have been translated into several languages. – B: 0883, 1153, 1257, T: 3240.
Moravcsik, ErnőEmil (Earnest), (Bér, 16 March 1858 - Budapest, 4 October 1924) – Physician. He received his Medical Degree from the University of Budapest, and was a demonstrator in the Psychiatry Department of the Medical School from 1883. He became an honorary lecturer in Psychiatry (1886), Professor of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology (1892), and Director of the Forensic Medical Observational and Mental Hospital (1896). From 1901 until his death, he was Professor of Psychiatry. In his wide field of research and publishing activity, he dealt mainly with forensic psychiatry, the psychomotor symptoms of dementia praecox, catatonic schizophrenia, and the mechanism of mental delusions. He was a member of the Société Clinique de Médicine Mentale of Paris, the Italian Societa Freniatrica Italiana, and the German Verein für Psychiatrie und Neurologie. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1924). His publications include Outline of Practical Psychiatry (A gyakorlati elmekórtan vázlata) (1888, 1897); Medical Treatment of Neurological Diseases (Az idegbetegségek gyógyítása) (1903), and Mental Disorderand Therapy (Elmekór- és gyógytan) (1913). – B: 1730, 1160, T: 7456.
Moravcsik, Gyula (Julius) (Budapest, 29 January 1892 - Budapest, 10 December 1972) – Philologist, historian, Byzantinologist. He studied at the University of Budapest, finishing with a Ph.D. in Art (1914). His topic was the legend of the Miraculous Stag in Hungarian mythology and the presence of the legend in Byzantine writings. In World War I, he fought on the Russian front and became a prisoner of war (1915-1920). Following his return from the captivity, at first he taught in a Budapest High School; then lectured at the Eötvös College of the University of Budapest and, in 1924 he became an honorary lecturer in Mediaeval Greek Philology and Hungarian-Byzantine connections. By 1936 he was Professor and Chair of Greek Philology at the University of Budapest. In the field of Greek Philology and Byzantinology, he attained international recognition. He treated every aspect of the Hungarian-Byzantine connections, also explored and criticized their sources and single handedly succeeded in establishing Hungarian Byzantinology. In his fundamental work, the Byzantinoturcica, he brought together all the Byzantine historical sources related to the Turkic peoples, summarized the results of related historical literature complementing the results of his own studies, and added an exhaustive bibliography. For this work, he was awarded First Prize of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, where he was a corresponding member since 1934, and regular member since 1945. In addition, he was a corresponding member of the Bavarian, the then East German, Austrian, Serbian and Bulgarian Academies of Science. He translated and published with the original text 10th century Byzantine Emperor Constantinos Porphyrogenetos’ On the Administrationof the Empire(De administrando imeprio) (1950). His works include Daughter of King St Ladislas and the Byzantine Pantokrator Monastery (SzentLászló leánya és a bizánci Pantokrator-monostor) (1923); The Byzantine Sources of Hungarian History (A magyartörténet bizánci forrásai) (1934), Byzantinoturcicavols. i-ii, (Budapest, 1942-1943, revised and enlarged edition, Berlin, 1958), Byzantium and the Magyars (Amsterdam-Budapest, 1970), and Einführung in die Byzantinologie (1976). He received the Kossuth Prize (1949) and an honorary doctorate from the University of Athens (1964). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Móré, Fülöp (Philippe) (csulai) (Cylanus, Philippus; Gyulai Móré Fülöp) (ca. 1470 - Mohács, 29 August 1526) –Roman Catholic Bishop, diplomat. He was educated in Bologna (1490), returned to Hungary in 1501, was Royal Secretary between 1502 and 1516, and Chief Official of the Queen’s Court. Between 1512 and 1524 he was an envoy in Venice, where he was well known in humanist circles. From 1524-1526, he was Bishop of Pécs. He died in the Battle of Mohács in 1526. It is known from book dedications to him that he was an excellent poet and orator. None of his works survived. – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7665.→Mohács Battles. Morel, GyulaKeresztélyS.J. (Julius Christian), (Budapest, 17 December 1927 - ) – Sociologist, Jesuit priest. He entered the Order of the Society of Jesus (SJ) in 1946. He started his university studies in Budapest in 1948, continued them in Belgium, France and Austria, studying Philosophy, Theology and Sociology. He earned his Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Vienna. In Vienna and Munich, he did youth educational work. In 1962 he participated in organizing the Institute of Hungarian Church Sociology and has been one of its leaders since then. In 1968 he became an honorary lecturer, in 1969 a professor at the University of Innsbruck, and Head of its Institute of Sociology. Apart from general sociological issues, he was deeply involved in dealing with the position of the Hungarian Catholic Church and the sociological projection of its functioning. His works include Religion in der kommunistischen Presse (1969); Werbung für Atheismus in Ungarn (1981); HungarianCatholicism: a Handbook, with Imre (Emeric) András (1983), and Ordnung und Freiheit, Die soziologische Perspektive (1986). – B: 1672, T: 7456.→András, Imre S.J. Morelli, Gusztáv (Gustavus) (Budapest, 20 February 1879 - Budapest, 11 January 1961) – Physician, dentist. He studied Medicine at the Universities of Berlin, Zurich, London, Paris and Budapest, and received his Medical Degree from the University of Budapest (1902). From 1903 he did his internship at the No. 1 Internal Medical Clinic, Budapest, where later he became a demonstrator. During World War I, he served as a regimental Medical Officer; from 1919 he worked as physician at the Stomatology Clinic of the University of Budapest, where he organized the Department of Oral Infections. In 1923 he became an honorary lecturer of Pathology and Therapy of Oral Illnesses. From 1926 he was titular Associate Professor. From 1925 he edited the journal, Dental Review (FogorvosiSzemle), and from 1932 to 1947 he was President of the National Dental Association. He retired in 1936. His field of research was oral symptoms of illnesses of internal medicine and the independent oral diseases. He dealt with mastication pressure and constructed a mastication-pressure meter named after him. He was very much interested in the history of dentistry. His publications appeared in Hungarian, English and German. His most important works are the Oral Illnesses (A szájbetegségei) (1922), and the Connections of Hungarian Stomatology Abroad (A magyar stomatológia külföldikapcsolatai) (1945). – B: 1730, 0883, T: 7456.
Móricz János (John) (Juan Moricz) (Tokod, 1912 - Ecuador ? 2006) – Miner and discoverer. He was born into a barber’s family, one of five children. The family moved to Dorog and he studied at the Benedictine High School in Esztergom. He was good in drawing and his teacher encouraged his father to send him for higher studies to the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest. His father collected a fund for this but he unfortunately was cheated out of his money. Móricz found a job as a miner at the Augusta Pit of the Salgótarján Coal Mine Company. Soon he became a pump manager, later a pay-roll clerk. In the meantime he became a member of the rightist Arrow-Cross Party. During World War II, he was conscripted into the army and served as a radio-operator. In April 1945, he and his family were evacuated to Passau, Austria, and they moved to Munich, Germany, where he studied painting.
After the war, they emigrated to Central America. Finally, they settled in Ecuador, where Móricz worked at his three leased goldmines. While he was working, he became acquainted with white Indian tribes in remote places of the country, in Peru and in the Amazon region. What struck him was that he was able to talk to them in Hungarian. He also learned that in the 1920s, Hungarian engineers had had the same experience. It was worth a thorough investigation. Móricz found four tribes there: the Cahari, the Cayapak, the Mochia and the Puruha, and discovered that he could communicate in Hungarian with the members of these tribes. For example the Cayapak used, among others, the following words: apa=apa (father); aya=anya, (mother); nap=nap (day); vin=vén (old); kit=két (two); us=ős (ancestor); cu=kő (stone), pi, bi=víz (water); fuel=folyó (river); pille=pille, lepke (butterfly), etc. Based upon Móricz’s research, the Institutio de Antropologia y Geografia of Quito established that Hungarian was the original language of these tribes which were almost annihilated by the Spanish conquerors. There are corresponding names such as: Tanay, Damma, Taday, Mór, Momay, Mansy, Pil, Béla, Uray, Zillahi, etc. With the help of the Indians, Móricz found a huge cave system in the jungle of Ecuador. In one of its caves he found a “museum”, including a library with runic writings engraved onto golden plates, statues and cultural artifacts. He named it “The Cave of the Táltos” (Táltosok Barlangja). Encouraged by his findings, Móricz began archeological and archive research, and he collected more than ten thousand identical geographical and family names. Based upon Móricz’s research a university in Argentina appointed Móricz its councilor. In the mid 1960s, Móricz disclosed his findings, which caused a world sensation, and inevitably attracted many friends, as well as adversaries, including Mormons, Romanians, Yugoslavs and Spaniards. Móricz was warned more than once that he should abandon his research work but he just went ahead. Finally, in 2006 Móricz suddenly disappeared without a trace; presumably he was murdered. – B: 2107, T: 7103.→Hungarian Runic Script.
Móricz, Zsigmond (Sigismund) (Tiszacsécse, 2 July 1879 - Budapest, 5 September 1942) – Writer, journalist. He was educated at the Reformed High Schools of Debrecen , Sárospatak and Kisújszállás. His first volume of short stories, Seven Pennies (Hét Krajcár) (1909) brought him immediate popularity. His first novel, Gold Nugget(Sárarany) (1911) deviates from earlier folk themes. Its language is flowing, words pour forth in the style of great storytellers. He was a member of the Writer’s Directorate during the Council (Soviet) Republic in 1919. After its collapse, he was discriminated against for a while. The novel, Be Good Unto Death(Légy Jó Mindhalálig) (1920), is still one of the most popular youth novels. In 1929 he assumed the editorship of the literary prose column for the literary review, West(Nyugat), and filled the post until 1933. In his historical trilogy he gave a tableau of 17th century Transylvania, (Erdély); (Fairy Garden (Tündérkert) (1922); The Great Reigning Prince (A nagy fejedelem) (1935),and The Shade of theSun (A nap árnyéka) (1935), which is a literary masterpiece. His other major works include Butterfly (Pillangó) (1925); Gentry’s Fun (Úri muri) (1928); Hot Fields (Forró mezők) (1929); Relatives (Rokonok) (1931); The Happy Man (A boldog ember) (1935), and the novels about the outlaw, Sándor (Alexander) Rózsa (1937-1942). His writings are characterized by high dramatic tension, identification with national heroes, poetic vision, as well as by meticulous use of language, expressing all shades of thought and feeling. He is the most outstanding Hungarian prose writer of realism in the 20th century. He received the Rothermere Award (1932). His daughter established a literary award named after him. – B: 0883, 1153, 1257, T: 7617.