M macartney, Carlile Aylmer

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Molnár, József (1) (Joseph) (Budapest, 27 August 1918 - Munich, 1 December 2009) – Writer, printer. He spent his childhood at Csepreg (east of Kőszeg in Transdanubia), moved to Budapest in 1930, where he completed his secondary education in a commercial high school. He worked in banks as a private official and was also active in the Social Democratic Youth Movement. Influenced by folk literature, he joined the National Peasant Party in 1945. At first, he headed its propaganda section, later became secretary to the Party’s Greater-Budapest organization. In 1947 he resigned from the party and secured his livelihood with physical work, while writing articles and dealing with the history of Agrarian Socialism. In 1948 he fled to Switzerland, where he continued to make his living from physical work; he became correspondent to the Western Herald (Nyugati Hírnök), New Hungarian Way (Új Magyar Út) and Horizon (Látóhatár). In the following years, he worked in an American establishment in Augsburg and later emigrated to the USA, where he supported himself and his family as a manual laborer and at the same time acted as an outside consultant for Radio Free Europe. Between 1955 and 1957 he was a member of the editorial board of Radio Free Europe in Munich. While correspondent and Co-Editor of Horizon (Látóhatár), he was also Executive Editor for New Horizon (Új Látóhatár). In 1961 he established a printing shop in Munich and ran it until 1983. He initiated the Aurora Book series and printed it in his shop. He wrote essays, studies and critiques for the New Horizon. Since the 1970s he had been researching the life and works of Miklós (Nicholas) Tótfalusi Kis, which he published in five volumes. His works include Studies on the Hungarian Revolution (Tanulmányok a magyar forradalomról), co-edited with Gyula (Julius) Borbándi (1966). He received the Gábor Bethlen Prize (1991). – B: 1672, T: 7456.→Borbándi, Gyula.
Molnár, József (2) (Joseph) (Debrecen, 12 December 1931 - ) – Research scientist. He started his university education at the Horticultural University of Budapest. Following the Freedom Fight of 1956, he emigrated to Canada and continued his studies at the University of British Columbia, obtaining his BSA (1961), MSA at the University of Alberta (1966) and his Ph.D. from the University of Manitoba (1971). He joined Agriculture Canada’s Ottawa Research Station as a research scientist, doing work in horticultural studies. Later he became a section head. He was appointed Director of the Saanich Research Station (1977) and continued his research work there. He introduced the Peruvian Lily to Canada. He also initiated research regarding pepino, a vegetable crop from South America, and introduced the kiwi fruit to Canada. He was an invited guest to several research establishments in Japan, the Netherlands, Israel and the USA. He was appointed Director of the Agassiz Research Station (1985,) and remained in that position until his retirement in 1995. Other researchers in China and the USA adopted some of his research techniques. He was Elder of the First Hungarian Presbyterian Church of Vancouver (Calvin, 1955), and President of the Hungarian Cultural Society of Greater Vancouver. – B: 0893, T: 4342.
Molnár, Kata (Kate) (Nagykanizsa, 26 December 1899 - Budapest, 11 June 1967) – Writer. She studied economics, then music, and later she turned to literature. Although she was among the older generation, the starting point of her career as a writer still rendered her a member of the third generation of the literary circle, West (Nyugat). She improved the genre of psychological novel with some exciting works. At first she mainly drew on the experiences of her own life and provided finely drawn, wonderful shades of the female soul. Later, she considered action in her novels as a secondary element only and she endeavored to grapple with the most important points in human life. After World War II, she sank into a long period of silence; she penned only a couple of short stories. Then in 1955 she published a volume of short stories. Her works include The Lanterns are Glowing (Égnek a mécsek) novel (1936); The Soul is Getting Ready (A lélek készülődik) novel (1938), and Mothers are Born (Anyák születnek) short stories (1955). She received the Baumgarten Prize (1939). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Molnár, Lajos (Louis) (Hajdúnánás, 1919 - Far Rockaway, N.Y., USA, 24 March 1995) – Minister of the Reformed Church in the USA. He graduated from the Reformed Junior College of Kecskemét (1937) and enrolled at the Reformed Theological Academy in Sárospatak. After receiving his Degree in 1941, he continued his studies at the University of Debrecen, where he obtained a certificate as a secondary school teacher in 1944. He later moved to Csurgó, where he taught Hungarian and English language and Literature. At the beginning of the Communist rule, he was arrested for refusing to lead the students in demonstrations. After spending 385 days in prison, he was interned for three months in forced labor camps. In 1949 he escaped and went to Yugoslavia. He was arrested but he escaped again and found his way to Trieste, Italy, where he served as Minister to the Hungarian refugees. Subsequently, he attended the Graduate School of Theology in Lausanne, Switzerland. He arrived in the United States with a World Council of Churches fellowship to study at the Oberlin School of Theology in Oberlin, Ohio. While in Oberlin, he was a frequent guest speaker and visiting minister in the greater Cleveland area’s Hungarian Reformed churches. Oberlin awarded him the degree of M.Theol. He became Minister of the Hungarian Evangelical and Reformed Church of Gary, Indiana. Here, he continued his theological education and became a doctoral candidate at the University of Chicago. During the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, he sponsored several Hungarian refugees. In 1957 he accepted a new pastorate in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In 1958 he was called and installed at the Hungarian Evangelical and Reformed Church of Dayton, Ohio, but he resigned in 1965. He moved to New York City, retrained himself, and became active in the business world. While there, he also served as a pulpit supply in the First Hungarian Reformed Church between 1969 and 1972. – B: 0906, T: 7617.
Molnár, Mária (Győr, 11 September 1886 - Pacific Ocean, 18 March 1943) – Deaconess of the Reformed Church. From 1927 she was a missionary. She arrived in Manus Island of the Admiralty Archipelago, where, besides her missionary activity, she also provided health services and education to the Melanesian Papuans. In 1943 the Japanese troops occupied the island and took her, together with her missionary companions and put them on a torpedo-boat destroyer, shot them and threw them into the ocean. A number of mementos acquired from the Papuans are kept in Sárospatak, Hungary. She wrote on her missionary experiences in the Reformed journals and almanacs. A Reformed Handicapped Children’s Home in Cegléd bears her name. – B: 0883, 0911, T: 7456.→Cserepka, János.
Molnár, Miklós (1) (Nicholas) (Budapest, 28 October 1918 - 2003) – Historian, journalist. He studied at the University of Budapest (1936-1938), and at the University of Geneva (1958-1963). From 1937 he worked as a journalist; from 1945 he was a correspondent for the Free Word (Szabad Szó), and from 1947 for the Free People (Szabad Nép). From 1950 he was Editor of the journal Literary News (Irodalmi Ujság). On 29 October 1956 he wrote an article in the newspaper, Free People (Szabad Nép); in it he rejected the accusations against the Hungarian Revolution, published by the Soviet newspaper Pravda. After the crushed Revolution of 1956, he left Hungary via Yugoslavia. From 1957 he lived in Switzerland, working as a laborer. From 1958 he studied at the University of Geneva, where he obtained a Ph.D. in History (1963). Between 1963 and 1988 he was a reader at the Institut Universitaire des Hautes Etudes, and later Professor; concurrently, from 1969 to 1985, he was also an associate professor at Lausanne University. He retired in 1988. He was an external member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1995). He wrote about the history of the 1st. International Communist Organization; the 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight; the political development of the Central European communities, and the evolution of civil communities. His works include Imre Nagy, reformateur ou revolutionnaire? (1959); Marx, Engels et la politique internationale (1975); A Short History of the Hungarian Communist Party (1975); Triumph of a Defeat. The History of the Revolution (1991, 1998 2nd. edn.), and A Concise History of Hungary. – B: 1257, 1672, 1704, T: 7456.
Molnár, Miklós (2) (Nicholas) (Dunavecse, 3 February 1938 - ) – Cameraman, photo artist. He studied at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest (1957-1961). In 1961 he was a cameraman of the Hungarian Television (Magyar Televizió). From 1961 to 1963, he worked in the TV news department. Later, he was the leading cameraman of a number of competitions, music programs, TV plays and TV films. He worked out new video and film tricks, including the RM procedure. He was also involved in teaching at St Stephen’s University (Szent István Egyetem), Gödöllő. Among his works are Lucky Fellow (Szerencsés flótás) (1966); Wedding Anniversary (Házassági évforduló) (1970); Our Century (Századunk) series (1975-1986); Mirandolina (1984); Three Nights of a Love (Egy szerelem három éjszakája) (1987); Madman of the Czar (A cár őrültje) (1989), and Second Examination (Pótvizsga) (1997). His photo album is about extraordinary Hungarians, shot with his three-dimensional technique (3D). He is a titular professor of St. Stephen’s University. His book is: Video-magic (Videóvarázs). He received the Béla Balázs Prize (1999). – B: 0874, 1628, T: 7103.
Molnár Pál (Paul) (Gyöngyös, 1952 - ) – Journalist, writer. He completed his high school studies in Gyöngyös and he obtained a Degree in Education, majoring in Hungarian History from the Teachers’ College of Eger. Thereafter, at the journalist school of the Hungarian Journalists’ National Association, he also obtained a Degree in the Department of Economics. He began his work as a journalist at the local daily, the county daily, Nógrád at Salgótarján in the summer of 1977; after nine years, he continued as journalist for the leading Communist daily Népszava (People’s Voice) in Budapest, in 1986. He also worked for Magyar Nemzet (Hungarian Nation) and Heti Válasz (Weekly Answer) and, from 1992, as an outside consultant for the News Service, Farmers’ TV, and the Hét (Week) program of Hungarian Television. Since August 2004, he has been working for the Hungarian Radio; since May 2009, he has been leading editor of the Social Policy section and, in addition, he acted as Editor and reporter for the paper Vasárnapi Újság (Sunday News). Among his 12 works are Innen az Óperencián (This Side of the Seven Seas) (1998); Ütközet az ezredvégén) (Battle at the End of the Millennium) (2000); Európai ezredkezdet (Europe at the Beginning of the Millennium) (2002); Az országépítő (The Builder of the Realm) (2006), and A művészet őszinte mély hit (Art is a Sincerely Deep Faith) (2008). Together with others, he founded various prizes, such as the Bálint Balassi Memorial Sword Literary Prize (1997), the Tinódi Lyre (Lant) Music Prize (1999), and the Europe Medal for Journalists (2000). He is a recipient the Árpád Memorial Medal (2007), the Balassi Memorial Medal (2008), and the Officer’s Cross of St. George Knightly Order (2008). – B: 0874, 1031, T: 7456.
Molnár, Tamás (Thomas) (Budapest, 26 June 1921 - Richmond, USA, 20 July, 2010) – Philosopher. He received his Degree in French Language and Philosophy from the University of Brussels, Belgium, then obtained a Ph.D. from Columbia University, USA, in 1952. He was Professor of French and World Literature at Brooklyn College, New York, from 1957; then, from 1967, he was a contractual lecturer of European History at the University of Long Island, N.Y. He was a visiting professor at the University of Potchefstroom, South Africa. He taught Philosophy and Political History at Yale University and Hillsdale College. He lectured on History of Religions at the University of Budapest. Some of his writings are Bernanos. His Political Thought and Prophecy (1960); The Decline of the Intellectual (1961); Africa. A Political Travelogue (1965); Utopia and Perennial Heresy (1967); Ecumenism or New Reformation? (1968); Sartre, Ideologue of Our Time (1968); God and the Knowledge of Reality (1974); A Critique of the Secular City and its Ideology (1978); Tiers-monde. Idéologie, Réalité (1982); The Pagan Temptation (1987); Christian Humanism, Theists and Atheists. A Typology of Non-Belief (1980); Politics and the State: A Catholic View (1980); The Pagan Temptation (1987); The Church. Pilgrim of Centuries (1990); Archetypes of Thinking (A gondolkodás archetípusai) (2001), and The Basic Questions of Philosophy (A filozófia alapkérdései) (2001). Between 1960 and 2001 he published 37 books. – B: 0874, 0879, 1672, T: 7103, 7456.
Molnár Tibor (Zagyvapálfalva, 26 July 1921 - Budapest, 23 November 1982) – Actor. In 1949 he completed his studies at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest. For one season, he was a member of the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest and, from 1950, of the Petőfi Theater. In November 1956 he moved to Vienna, then to Munich, Geneva and London. He returned to Hungary in 1959 and became a member of the National Theater of Miskolc. From 1962 until his retirement, he played at the Comedy Theater (Vígszínház), Budapest. From 1948 he made movies as well. His first film role was Jani Tarcali in Foothold (Talpalatnyi föld) (1948). His film roles gained him much appreciation and popularity, particularly the peasant and worker characters. He described his vicissitudes abroad in his Mémoire (1962). His roles included Nemecsek in Ferenc Molnár - József Füsti’s The Paul Street Boys (A Pál utcai fiúk); Scapin in Molière’s Trickeries of Scapin (Scapin furfangjai); Teacher in Sándor Bródy’s The Schoolmistress (A tanítónő), and Fool in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night (Vízkereszt). His feature films included Mrs. Déry (Déryné) (1951); Spring in Budapest (Budapesti tavasz) (1955); Ten- Thousand Days (Tizezer nap) (1967), and Hungarians (Magyarok) (1977). He received the Mari Jászai Prize (1955) and the Kossuth Prize (1956). – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7456.
Molotov Cocktail” (Gasoline or petrol bomb)An improvised incendiary weapon, used during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and Freedom Fight against the invading Soviet’s armored cars and tanks. The gasoline-filled closed bottles of 200-300 ml size were thrown on the tanks, where they broke and the liquid flowed in through the openings. There were two kinds: a rag tied to the neck of the bottle, soaked with gasoline and lit before throwing; this ignited the liquid inside the bottle upon impact. The other kind was only a closed bottle, used only to enhance the effect of the pilot bottle. The gasoline bottle’s popular name was “Molotov Cocktail”, named after Vyacheslav Molotov, the Soviet Foreign Minister during World War II. It was first employed in the Spanish Civil War, then in the Finno-Soviet Winter War; in the Warsaw Uprising, and in the Hungarian Revolution, and in many more cases. This simple device was used by guerilla forces and rioters. – B: 1031, T: 7668.→Revolution and Freedom Fight of 1956.
Molter, Károly (Charles) (Óverbász, now Stari Vrbas, Serbia, 2 December 1890 - Marosvásárhely, now Targu Mureş, Romania, 30 November 1981) – Writer, critic, literary historian. He came from a Swabian-German blacksmith family and completed his high school studies in Kecskemét (1908), where he learned and became fluent in Hungarian. He obtained a Diploma in Education in Hungarian and German literature from the University of Budapest (1912). He settled in Marosvásárhely, Transylvania, where he taught Hungarian and German Literature at the Reformed College of Marosvásárhely (1913-1945). He obtained his Ph.D. from the Bolyai University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) (1945), where he was Professor of German Language (1945-1951). In his youth he wrote poems and philosophizing articles; but later, prose writing became his exclusive field of creative activity. He was Co-Editor for the periodical Grim Time (Zord idő). Throughout his career, he was a member of the literary society, Transylvanian Helikon (Erdélyi Helikon). He was also successful with a set of stage plays: Eternally Moving (Örökmozgó) (1974). He depicted the world of country towns in A Mad Little Provincial Town (Bolond kisváros) (1942). His selected writings include Almost Heroes (Majdnem hősök) stories (1925); Martin Tibold (Tibold Márton) novel (1937); Reformation and Hungarian Culture (Reformáció és magyar műveltség) studies (1944); Battle Smiles (Harci mosolyok) stories (1956); Make Haste, my Little Son (Iparkodj, kisfiam) stories (1964); Spiritual In-fight (Szellemi belháború) studies, articles (1968), and Bubble-fight (Buborékharc), political writing (1980). – B: 0878, 0877, 0882, 1257, T: 7103, 7456.→Transylvanian Helikon.
Moly, Tamás (Thomas) (Moli) (Budapest, 27 January 1875 - Budapest, 16 March 1957) – Writer, journalist. At first, he was a correspondent for the paper, Fresh News (A Friss Újság), later that of the Tolnai World Newspaper (Tolnai Világ Lapja), and the Pester Lloyd, and was also stage manager of the Thália Theater (Thália Színház), Budapest. He lived for years in Paris and Berlin. He attracted the attention of the literary review, the West (Nyugat) with his short stories. His first volume of three short stories appeared in 1917. With his Robin (Vörösbegy) stories he created detective stories of literary standard. His favorite themes were the actors’ world and the artists’ life. He was a distinguished translator as well. He translated novels from English, French, German, Italian and Russian to Hungarian. His works include Adventures of Robin (Vörösbegy kalandjai) (1918-1920; Emma Szegedi, Actress (Szegedi Emma szinésznő) novel (1920), and The Green Briefcase (A zöld irattáska), novel, 1935). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Monetarius, István (Stephen) (Kincses, Münzer) (Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, beginning of the 16th century) – Music theorist. He probably studied in Vienna. He was the author of one of the oldest Hungarian theoretical works on music with music-notes, the Epithome utriusque musices (Krakow, 1518). – B: 0883, 0907, T: 7684.
Mongol-Tartar Invasion of 1241-1242 – The Mongol-Tartar Empire launched an all-out attack against Europe. The armies of Genghis, the Great Khan of the Mongols – who had already conquered most of Asia – swept through Russia, destroyed the Armenian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Cumanian Principalities. By the spring of 1241, they had reached Hungary’s eastern borders.

The campaign was planned against the Holy Roman (German) Empire and aimed for its total destruction; it was rumored that the Tartar armies wanted to reach Rome and beyond. Batu Khan, the leader of the campaign, saw Hungary as the strongest military power in Europe and at first he offered a military alliance to King Béla IV (1235-1270), who vehemently rejected it. Therefore, Batu Khan concentrated his main attack on Hungary, sending his weaker northern wing against the Germans.

The Mongol invasion started on 12 March 1241 and became the greatest tragedy of Medieval Hungary. The Mongols, as well as later the Turks, wanted the Hungarians as allies in the campaign against the Christian West due to their racial and geographic origin and their military strength. However, once their offer was rejected, the Mongols, as well as later the Turks regarded the Hungarians as their chief enemies and were determined to annihilate them as a nation. For this reason, both the Mongols and the Turks handled the conquered Eastern and Balkan nations more mercifully than the desperately resisting Hungarians.

They invaded Hungary from three directions: from the north via Moravia under Orda Khan, after they had annihilated the united German-Polish army at Liegnitz; from the south under Kadan and Bogotai Khans. After they had trampled Wallachia and Cumania, they broke into Transylvania through the Borgo, Ojtoz and Vöröstorony Passes; the main army, under the leadership of Batu Khan and Subutai, attacked Hungary directly through the Verecke Pass. In the Verecke Pass, Batu’s troops almost completely destroyed Palatine Dénes’s poorly equipped army. Before the wounded Palatine, with a few of his remaining men, could reach the King, the Mongols, led by Siban, took the town of Vác on 17th March, burned its buildings and massacred all of its inhabitants, down to the last babe in arms. They annihilated the army of Ugrin, Archbishop of Kalocsa, sacked the town of Eger, and scattered the troops of Benedek, Bishop of Várad that were dispatched against them.

After the destruction of Vác, the Hungarian nobility, until then unwilling to fight, joined the King’s army and thus King Béla IV could muster about 50,000 men against the main body of the Mongol army. Batu, pretending to escape, lured the Hungarians to the swampy banks of the River Sajó, where the light Mongol horsemen had a distinct advantage over the heavily armored Hungarian cavalry. In the ensuing tragic battle of Muhi, most of the 50,000, including the Palatine of the country, the Chief Judge and the Archbishop of Esztergom, were killed. Palatine Dénes and the bodyguards sacrificed their life to save the King.

The Mongols soon surrounded the town of Pest and, despite the heroic defense of its citizens, captured it in three days. The resulting blood bath darkened the waters of the Danube River. By the middle of April, hardly a house was standing; burning ruins, smoke and blood covered everything. The loot was collected in heaps on the Field of Rákos. In the meantime, the Mongols coming from the North burned all of northwestern Hungary, with the exception of the fortified castles.

At the end of April – at the invitation of Frederick II, Prince of Austria and Steier -- King Béla IV went to Hainburg, where the Prince forced him to pay a ransom. He was only freed when he agreed to concede the counties of Locsmánd, Moson and Sopron to Frederick. The Prince even occupied the town of Győr, but the Hungarians forced him to relinquish it. Béla IV then went to Zagreb and, from there on 18 May 1241, dispatched a request for help to Pope Gregory IX, Louis I, King of France, Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor, and Conrad IV, the German King.

By the end of June, the Mongols controlled the country up to the Danube River. On 1 July 1241, Gregory IX called for a crusade in the defense of Hungary and promised some concrete help. However no help arrived from anyone.

During the hard winter of 1242, the Mongols crossed the frozen Danube and destroyed Buda and Pilis in quick succession. In March 1242, Kadan’s army pursued the fleeing King and his family, as far as Spalato (now Split, Croatia) on the Adriatic coast and then to the town of Trau.

At the end of March, the news of the death of the Great Khan Ogotai reached the Mongol armies and, to participate in the election of a new chief khan, the Mongols left Hungary. Had Ogotai not died at this time, Europe’s history and, with it, the history of the world would have taken a different turn.

The 1241-1242 Mongol invasion killed more than half of the 2 million Hungarians, mainly the civilian population of the unfortified villages and towns. The Mongols destroyed every village and town that they could capture.

In “April of the Lord’s 1241st year” a Bavarian monk wrote these lines in his diary: “350 years after her foundation, in this year, the Tartar invasion annihilated Hungary as a state”. This is what the indifferent Western chroniclers believed. – B: 1231, 1288, 1153, 7114, T: 7665.→Ogotáj; Béla IV, King; Montroyal, Jakab; Templars, Knights of; Muhi Battle.

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