Moldován, Stefánia (Stephanie) (Sajóudvarhely, now Şieu-Odorhei, Romania, 24 August 1931 - ) – Opera singer (soprano). She studied at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest, under the direction of Dr. Jenő (Eugene) Sipos (1948-1953). She started her singing career in the Choir of the Budapest Opera House. In 1954 she made her debut as Mimi in Puccini’s La Bohème at the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház) of Szeged, where she was a member from 1954 to 1961. From 1961 she was a soloist at the Budapest Opera House. Her balanced, full-tone voice and her dramatic and passionate interpretations placed her among the leading sopranos of the company. Above all, she had outstanding successes as Verdi’s heroines; but her repertoire also includes the leading soprano roles of Mozart and Puccini operas. She regularly appeared in international concerts and operatic presentations, even in six feature and TV films including Johann Strauss’ Die Fledermaus(The Bat - A denevér) (1965) and Puccini’s Gianni Schicchi (1975). She sang Leonora in Beethoven’s Fidelio, also in its original version named Leonora. Her other roles include Donna Elvira in Mozart’s Don Giovanni; Melinda in Erkel’s Bánk bán; Leonora in Verdi’s La froza del destino (The Force of Destiny - A végzet hatalma); Desdemona in Verdi’s Othello, and Elisabeth in Verdi’s Don Carlo. She also made a number of recordings. She received the Franz Liszt Prize (1959), the Artist of Merit title (1978), and was made Member of the Society of Immortals (2005). – B: 1445, T: 7456.
Mollay Károly (Charles) (Sopron, 14 November 1913 - Budapest, 3 April 1997) – Linguist, education historian. He completed his high school studies in Sopron (1932). In 1937 he acquired a Degree in Education (majoring in German and French) at the University of Budapest, where he also obtained a Ph.D. in Art (1938), as a trainee and demonstrator. In subsequent years, he taught in various high schools. From 1942 he lectured at the Teachers’ (Eötvös) College, University of Budapest. He became an honorary lecturer in 1944. In World War II, he was enlisted in the army, and he became a prisoner of war. Back in Hungary, between 1951 and 1954, he lectured at the College of Foreign Languages; and from 1954, in German Linguistics and Medieval History of Literature at the University of Budapest, where he became professor in 1977. He acquired a Master’s Degree in 1960, and a Ph.D. in 1975 in Linguistics. He dealt with the Hungarian-German Linguistic and Cultural Historic Relations during the Middle Ages, and researched the history of German settlers in Hungary, as well as the cultural history of Sopron. He was a member of the editorial board of the Sopron Review (Soproni Szemle) from 1938, and its Editor-in-Chief from 1970. He retired in 1984. His works include Medieval Family Names of Sopron (Középkori soproni családnevek) (1938); Das älteste deutsche Lehngut der ungarischen Sprache, Acta Linguistica (1951), and The German-Hungarian Linguistic Connections – Our Language in the Danube Region (A német-magyar nyelvi érintkezések – Nyelvünk aDuna-tájon) (1989). He received the György Káldi Prize (1941), the Golden Class of Order of Labor (1983), the Academy Prize (1984) and the Pro Urbe Sopron Medal (1987). – B: 1257, 0878, T: 7456.
Mollináry, Gizella (Gisela) (Mrs. Gusztáv Gebauer) (Budapest, 7 September 1896 - Budapest, 23 February 1978) – Poet, writer. She had to fend for herself from early childhood and worked, amongst other positions, as a mortar carrying girl, a textile worker, servant, and an army-camp follower. During the Hungarian Council (Soviet) Republic (21 March - 1 August 1919), she took part in the Communist Government and was in prison from the end of 1919 for a year in Balassagyarmat. In 1920 she fled to the Serbian-Croatian-Slovenian Kingdom (later Yugoslavia), and sent her first poems to the journal, West (Nyugat) from there. When she received amnesty, she returned to Hungary. Due to her anti-German attitude, she was arrested and imprisoned by the Gestapo in October 1944, but she escaped. Earlier in her life she wrote poems; later on, she wrote an autobiographic novel-cycle, describing her colorful life’s ups and downs. It saw several editions and was translated into Italian. Her latest poems were published in the periodical, Vigil (Vigilia). Her works include Womanly Humility (Asszonyi alázat) (1927); The Countenance is Darkening (Az arc elsötétül) (1931), and God is Silent (Az Isten hallgat) (1947). – B: 0883, 1250, T: 7456.
Molnár, Ágoston (August J.) (Cleveland, OH, USA, 1928 - ) – Minister of the Reformed Church, educator, archivist in the USA. After graduating from the Brush High School, Lyndhurst, he studied at the University of Michigan, the Lancaster School of Theology, and at Columbia University. His scientific career started at the Elmhurst Academy where he set up the Department of Hungarian Studies (1952-1959). At Rutgers University, he took part in the development of Hungarian Studies (1959-1965). In 1957, he was a founding member of the “Hungarian Project in Hungary” at Columbia University. Since 1995 he has been President of the American Hungarian Foundation. Under his leadership, the Hungarian Heritage Center opened in New Brunswick, New Jersey (1989). He is the author of a number of scientific essays and volumes, as well as documentary films. He has been Editor for the Hungarian Science periodical since 1973. Since 1991, he has been a board member of the Corvina Foundation of Princeton University. His contribution is outstanding for the realization and operation of the Hungarian Heritage Center, whereby he built a cultural bridge between Hungarians and Americans. His works include Hungarian Writers and Literature (edited studies of József Reményi) (1964). – B: 1037, 1672, T: 7103.
Molnár, Antal (Anthony) (Budapest, 7 January 1890 - Budapest, 7 December 1983) – Music historian, musicologist, composer, violinist. He studied composition at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest (1907-1910) under Viktor (Victor) Herzfeld, and also studied the viola. He was one of the first who recognized the genius of Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. He collected folk music in Transylvania in 1910 (now in Romania) and in Upper Hungary (Felvidék, now forming Slovakia) (1912). He played with the Waldbauer-Kerpely String Quartet between 1910 and 1917; they presented Bartók’s First String Quartet; then he worked as member of the Dohnányi-Hubay Piano Quartet (1917-1919). He started his music educational work as a professor at the Music Academy of Buda and at the Municipal College of Music of the Capital City, where he was the first to teach music history and solfège. From 1919 to 1959 he was a professor at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, and lectured on Chamber music, Esthetics and Theory of Music. He was an outstanding music critic as well. At the age of 70, at the peak of his powers in 1960, he was forced to retire. He edited the Popular Music Booklets (Népszerű zenefüzetek) between 1934 and 1940,and from 1957, he was Editor for the Gondolat Publishers’ (Gondolat Kiadó) series, TheLittle Music Library (Kis Zenei Könyvtár). He was one of the founders of Modern Hungarian Music as a discipline. For many years, since 1954, he published informative works and critiques in a program booklet. In the fields of music psychology and sociology, his writings, books and lectures are of particular significance. He also composed music for teaching and educational purposes, especially for violin and piano, composed a string quartet and the Comedy Overture. His main works include String Quartets of Bartók (Bartók’s kvartettjei) (1911); History of European Music up to 1750 (Az európai zene története1750-ig) (1920); Zoltán Kodály (1936); The Music of Today(A ma zenéje) (1936); Smetana-Dvorak (1967); The World of the Composer (A zeneszerző világa) (1969); Applied Music Esthetics (Gyakorlati zeneesztétika) (1971), and Heretic Thoughts on Music (Eretnek gondolatok a muzsikáról) (1976). He received the Haynal Prize for his composition, Missa Brevis (1910), the Francis Joseph Prize (1914), the Baumgarten Prize (1938), the Kossuth Prize (1957), and the Outstanding Artist title (1970). A Music School in Budapest bears his name. – B: 0883, 1495, T: 7456.→Bartók, Béla; Kodály, Zoltán.
Molnár, Béla (1) (Munkács, now Mukacheve, Carpatho-Ukraine, 7 June 1886 - Budapest, 1962) – Physician, surgeon. He obtained his Medical Degree at the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) and received his Ph.D. in Medicine in 1910. From 1911, he worked as Senior Surgeon at the No.1 Surgical Clinic, from 1913 at the Brody Children’s Hospital of Budapest, and from 1921, as Senior Surgeon in the Jewish Hospital, Budapest. In 1945, he became an honorary lecturer; in 1946, Associate Professor; in 1956, Professor and Head of the Surgical Department. He was involved with children’s surgery and medical extension training. He was also a well known art-collector and artist. His works include The Precancerous Pathological Changes (A praecancerosus elváltozásokról) (1951); Antibiotics in Surgery (Az antibiotikumok a sebészetben) (1955), and The Early Diagnosis of Cancer (A rák koraidiagnosztikája), co-authored (1959). He received the Kossuth Prize (1958). – B: 1730, 0883, T: 7456.
Molnár, Béla (2) (Kassa, now Košice, Slovakia, 24 February 1892 - Kassa, sometime after 1945) – Physician, medical historian. He obtained his Medical Degree from the Medical School of the University of Budapest (1914), later was a resident doctor at the No. 3 Internal Medical Clinic of the University. During World War I, he served as an army doctor, and at the same time he was a demonstrator at the University (1921-1938); and in the summers of 1922-1938, he also worked as a senior physician at the Baths of Carlsbad. Between 1938 and 1945, he was Chief Medical Officer of the Kassa Hospital. Early in his career he dealt with diabetes, especially its complications, such as articular diseases, arthritis and gout. Later in life, he turned to the field of medical history, especially the history of medicine and pharmacology at Kassa. He also wrote about the diseases and pathology of famous Hungarians, who visited Carlsbad for medical treatment. His works include Dietary Guide for Diabetics, Arthritic and Obese People (Diétás tanácsadócukorbetegek, elhízottak és köszvényesek számára) (1924); János Arany at Carlsbad (Arany János Karlsbadban) (1933), and Medical History of Kassa (Kassa orvosi története) (1943). – B: 1730, T: 7456.→Arany, János. Molnár, C. Pál (Paul) (Battonya-Tompapuszta, 28 April 1889 - Budapest, 11 July 1981) – Artist, graphic artist. He is one of the most popular figures of Hungarian graphic art of the 20th century. While completing his high-school studies at Arad (now in Romania) he won first prize in the national drawing competition (1912). He studied at the Academy of Applied Art, Budapest (1915-1918) then, with the famous artist, Pál Szinyei-Merse and his family, he went to Switzerland as a private tutor. It was in Lausanne and Geneva, where they organized a combined exhibition. After staying in France for a year, he returned to Hungary in 1923 and arranged for a one-man show of his religious paintings at the Belvedere Salon. As recognition of his artistry, the paper, Evening (Est), invited him to become the illustrator for three of their syndicate papers. In 1928, as a result of his painting St. Francis Assisi Preaching to the Birds, he received a three-year scholarship to Rome. His decade of successes started in 1931. After 1945 he took part in a series of exhibitions. In 1955 he had an individual exhibition at the István (Stephen) Csók Gallery, followed by others in 1960, 1965 and 1970. Later, he arranged numerous other exhibitions, including the ones in Szeged (1976), Battonya (1979), Dürer Hall, Budapest (1979), a permanent exhibition at his Budapest home (1984), and at the Ferenc Móra Museum of Szeged (1993). The popularity of his art goes back to a peculiar combination of the classical Mediterranean traditions and the restlessness of 20th century man. His mostly sacred scenes were infused with direct, sensuous visual perception. His graphic art is characterized by a combination of careful observation, elegant, bold stylization, and expressiveness. His works include Annunciation (Angyali üdvözlet) (1928-1929); Indian Summer(Vénasszonyoknyara) (1928-1930), and The Secretary (A titkárnő) (1968). His murals (state- and church-commissioned) include three triptychs, that of the Church at the Peace (Béke) Plaza of Budapest (1942), the Altar of the Inner City Parish Church, Budapest (1948), and the panel at the ceremonial hall of the University of Pécs. He prepared numerous book illustrations, such as D. Kosztolányi’s Figures (Alakok), andShakespeare’s Coriolanus. Many of his works are in museums abroad, in Nuremberg, Munich, Rome and Venice. The National Gallery, Budapest, has 12 of his paintings. His written works include Confessions about his life, vols. i-iv. He received the Grand Prix of the Szinyei Society (1934), two gold medals from the International Wood-cut Biennial of Warsaw, and the International Church-art exhibition of Padua, the jubilee gold medal of the Hungarian Capital Budapest (1936), and his panel won him the Grand Prix of the 1937 World Fair. There is a Molnár C Pál Friendship Circle, a Studio Museum in Budapest, and a Memorial House in Battonya. – B: 0883, 0934, 1031, T: 7456.→Szinyei Merse, Pál. Molnár, Farkas Ferenc (Francis Wolf) (Pécs, 21 June 1897 - Budapest, 12 January 1945) – Architect, painter. He studied at the Budapest Polytechnic and at the Staatliches Bauhaus, Weimar, where he was a student of W. Gropius. His Red Boxhaus (Vörös kockaház) was quite a sensation at the Bauhaus exhibition in 1923. From 1927 he worked in Budapest, at first with Pál (Paul) Ligeti, then on his own, and finally with József (Joseph) Fischer. They built mostly villas and family homes. His works are the first and best representatives of constructivist and functionalist architecture in Hungary. He was Hungary’s representative at CIAM – an international alliance of modern architects – and was its group-leader in Hungary between 1928 and 1938. He published in the periodical, Space and Form (Tér és forma), propagating modern architecture. His works include villas in Lejtő Street, Harangvirág Street, Lotz Károly Street, Székács Street, and a block of flats at Toldy Ferenc Street in Budapest. Among his paintings are: Humanity (Emberiség) (1922); Archers (Nyilazók) (ca. 1920); Orvieto (1921), and Lamentation (Síratás) (1921). His book is entitled Works of Farkas Molnár (Molnár Farkas munkái) (1923). – B: 0883, 0934, T: 7103. Molnár, Ferenc (Francis) (originally Ferenc Neumann) (Budapest, 12 January 1878 - New York, 1 April 1952) – Writer, playwright, journalist. He was known as Franz Molnar in the USA. Born into a middle-class Jewish family of German descent, he was the son of Dr. Mór (Maurice) Neumann and Jozefa (Josefa) Wallfisch. He attended the Lónyai Reformed High School, Budapest (1887-1895). In 1896 he studied Law in Budapest and Geneva, then, in 1897, he visited Paris. Instead of continuing his studies, he started working as a journalist, and adopted the name Molnár. He published his first volume of short stories in 1898, his first novel in 1901, and his first play in 1902. He also started living high, a lifestyle that lasted for the rest of his life. He became a member of the Petőfi Society (1907) and of the Kisfaludy Society (1911). He was a war correspondent on the Galician front in Russia (1914-1915). English and American papers, including the London Morning Post and the New York Times, published his reports. He lived mainly in Western Europe between 1920 and 1940. His high income as a writer was unprecedented and he maintained five luxury apartments in the best hotels of Budapest, Vienna, and Carlsbad, Venice and Nice. He married several times; his first wife was Margit (Margaret) Vészi, the second Sári (Shari) Fedák and the third Lili Darvas. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the French Legion of Honor (1927), after the Paris production of his play, The Swan (A hattyú) (1921), that had several film versions as well, the latest one made in 1956. His collected works were published in 20 volumes (1928), and they were published in English in the USA (1929). He moved with his wife, Lili Darvas to the United States permanently in order to escape from the rising anti-Semitism (1940). He settled in New York and resided in the Plaza Hotel until his death 12 years later. He was among the greatest Hungarian dramatists and novelists of the 20th century. In his works, he paid special attention to love stories, seduction, jealousy, eroticism, sexuality and the battle of the sexes. He was an incomparable master in the development of dialogues and in the creation of effective and peculiar stage situations. The life in Budapest is treated in two of his novels: The Hungry City (Az éhes város) and The Story of a Derelict Boat(Egy gazdátlan csónak története) (1901). As a novelist, he is remembered mainly for ThePaul Street Boys (A Pál-utcai fiúk) (1907),originally written as a juvenile novel, telling the story of two rival gangs of youths in Budapest, featuring the themes of solidarity and self-sacrifice; it is a classic of juvenile literature, published in fourteen different languages. It has also been made into a movie several times, the most notable one in 1969. His other novels include The Story of a Girl from Pest (Egy pesti lány története) (1905); Music-making Angel(A zenélő angyal) (1933); The Green Hussar (Azöld huszár) (1937); Farewell My Heart (Isten veled szívem) (1945) German: Leb wohl, mein Herz (1950); Viaggio in autunno (Autumnal Travel –Őszi utazás) (Róma 1946); Companion in Exile, Notes for an Autobiography (New York, 1950), in German: Gefahrtin im Exil (Bad Wörishofen, 1953), and Útitárs a száműzetésben (Budapest 1958). Molnár’s most popular plays, apart from The Swan, include The Devil (Az ördög) (1907); Liliom (1909), which become eventually familiar as the Rogers and Hammerstein musical, Carousel (1944); The Guardsman (A testőr) (1910); The Wolf (A farkas) (1912); Carnival (Farsang) (1917); Riviera (1926); Olympia (1928); The Good Fairy (A jó tündér) (1930); The Unknown Girl (Az ismeretlen lány) (1934), and Delila (1937). Internationally, Molnár is one of the most famous Hungarian playwrights and novelists. – B: 1031, 1068, 1445, 1672, T: 7456.
Molnár, Gábor (Gabriel) (Budapest, 2 December 1908 - Budapest, 29 October 1980) – Hunter, globetrotter, travelogue writer. In 1927 he received an agricultural qualification at Pápa and, for 2 years, worked in manors as a hunter trainee. In 1930 he answered an advertisement for a planned North-Brazilian Expedition and was accepted. They arrived in South America in June 1930. Molnár traveled alone ahead to Manaus, the capital of Amazonas State, where he was informed, that the expedition members he had left behind had become sick and had returned home. Molnár had to work in the village of Bona Vista as a farm-head of the Ford Company’s rubber plantation. Using his money, he organized a two-month-long collecting trip that he subsequently repeated several times. During these trips he sailed the full length of the Amazon and its major tributaries: the Tapajos, Cupari, Jatapu, Uatuma and Rio Negro. He continuously sent the collected material back to Hungary. On 7 March 1932 he lost his eyesight. He returned to Hungary the same year and learned to write on a Remington typewriter, and began to write about his adventures. At first, he published in a newspaper, later in book form as well. Eighteen others followed his first book. Accompanied by his wife, he traveled to Mongolia in 1964, and repeated the trip again in 1968. Then, in 1972, he spent several months in South American countries as a guest of the Brazilian External Affairs Ministry. During his stay, he went to the villages of a number of little-known Indian tribes. Molnár was first and foremost a collector of natural science specimens and samples. He also traveled to and studied almost unknown areas. His colorful and powerful descriptions and lively stories earned him popularity. In the 20th century he was the most popular writer of hunting trips and expeditions. – B: 1122, 1614, T: 7456.→Jesuits, Hungarian, in Latin America; Brentán, Károly. Éder, Xavér Ferenc. Molnár, JánosS.J. (John) (Csécsény, now Čačin, Slovakia, 13 June 1728 - Szepesváralja, now Spišské, Slovakia, 15 February 1804) – Preacher, Canon, writer, poet. He joined the Jesuit Order in 1745 and studied at Szakolca (now Skalica, Slovakia) Graz and Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia). From 1759 he taught at Nagyszombat (now Trnava, Slovakia); from 1767 at Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), also at Buda and Győr. From 1784 he was Canon of County Szepes. He wrote sermons in Hungarian, apologetic works in Latin, the results of polemics with the works of Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, De ratione critica legendilibros moderni temporis(On reading the books of modern times with sober critic – Az új idők könyveinek józan kritikával való olvasásáról) (1776). He wrote also on dogmatics and exegesis; he published the first cultural history in Hungarian: About Great Old Buildings(A régi jeles épületekről) (1760), and church history also in Hungarian: The History of our Church(Az anyaszentegyháznak története) (1769-1788). His educational-moralizing work: Pastor Man (Pásztor ember) (1775) was modeled on Ferenc (Francis) Faludi. He wrote and edited the first Hungarian-language literary journal: HungarianBook-House (Magyar Könyv-Ház) (1793). He published altogether 22 volumes (1793-1804). Among them is his first Hungarian-language study on physics, and some abstracts and summaries of other authors’ works, as well as their reviews. He was one of the pioneers of metrical poetry in Hungarian. – B: 1257, T: 7456.
Molnár, János (John) (Zsibó, now Jibou, Romania, 16 October 1955 - ) – Minister of the Reformed Church. He studied at the Protestant Theological Institute of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) graduating in 1980. He obtained a Ph.D. in 1990. He was Assistant Minister in Nagyvárad-Velence (now Oradea, Romania) (1980-1983). He was Acting Pastor (1983-1986); a language teacher of the Classical Languages at the Protestant Theological Institute (1986-1989); a lecturer at the Department of Old Testament Sciences (1989-1992), and professor since 1993. He has been Departmental Head and Dean of the Reformed Teachers’ College of the University of Kolozsvár since 1998. His works include History of the Old Testament Age (Ószövetségi kortörténet) (1992); Fate of Stars (Csillagsors) (1995); Life Sprouting from the Wilderness (Pusztábólsarjadó élet), essays (1998), and Hebrew Grammar(Héber nyelvtan), Kolozsvár (1999). Over 90 of his articles and studies have been published in journals and newspapers. – B: 1036, T: 7456.
Molnár, Jenő (Eugene) (Szentes, 1891 - Edmonton, AB, Canada, 19 January 1986) – Minister of the Reformed Church, philosopher, writer. He studied Theology and Philosophy at Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) where he received a Doctoral Degree in Philosophy (1915). He also studied Experimental Psychology with Edward Claparede in Geneva, Switzerland (1910), where he was invited to a lecture by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the Russian revolutionary. Molnár was the only Hungarian Reformed Church Minister who ever met V. I. Lenin. He also met John Mott, the evangelist, a great influence on his life. He served as a minister in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania) and as Army Chaplain during World War I. After the war he worked at the General Convent of the Reformed Church, Budapest. In 1926 he moved to Canada and became Parish Minister in Békevár. He also served in Windsor, Hamilton and Calgary, as well as in Lackawanna, San Bernardino and Bathurst in the USA. He was the initiator of the “Justice for Hungary” historic Ocean flight of György (George) Endresz and Sándor (Alexander) Magyar in 1931. When he retired, he moved to Edmonton, Canada. He wrote articles and essays on philosophy, psychology and education and translated into Hungarian E. Kant’s work The Critique of Practical Reason (1921). His other works include The Common Daily Wakefulness and God (1947), The Slave of Ea, novel (London, 1932). His wife, Rózsa Waldman, was a renowned pianist and friend of Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. – B: 0906, T: 7103.→Endresz, György; ‘Justice for Hungary’ Ocean Flight; Bartók, Nartgök.BBéla; Kodály, Zoltán.