Módis, László (Ladislas) (Szatmárnémeti, now Satu Mare, Romania, 9 December 1903 - Debrecen, 14 April 1972) – Minister of the Reformed Church, church-historian, librarian. He studied at the Theological Faculty of the University of Debrecen (1924-1928) and in Vienna (1929-1930). He read Semitic Philology at the University of Vienna and in Budapest (1931-1932). He obtained a PhD in Old Testament Sciences from the University of Debrecen in 1932. He was Assistant Minister in Debrecen, Vésztő, and Budapest, and again in Debrecen (1927-1935). He also taught courses at the Theological School in Losonc (now Lucĕnec, Slovakia) (1929). He taught religion in Debrecen (1935-1945). Between 1945 and 1950 he was an advisor in the Ministry of Culture, Budapest. From 1950 he worked as Deputy Director of the University Library in Debrecen. From 1959 he was Professor of Old Testament Science at the Reformed Theological Academy of Debrecen and simultaneously from 1961 he was Director of the Great Library and Archives of the College and later Chief-Director. He was also one of the leaders of theNational Reformed Collection Board (Református Gyüjteményi Tanács). His work was considerable as a bibliographer, chief contributor and Editor for the periodical, Theological Review (Teológiai Szemle) (1941-1944). He also edited the periodical, Reformed Ministerial Association(Lelklészegyesület) (1936), and the Memorial Books of Sándor (Alexander) Csikesz vols. i-iv(Csikesz Sándor emlékkönyvek I-IV) (1941-1944). His most important work is the Reformed College and Great Church of Debrecen (A debreceni Református Kollégium és Nagytemplom) (1966). – B: 0883, 1617, 1257, T: 7103, 7456.
Moesz, Gusztáv (Gustavus) (Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, 21 October 1873 - Budapest, 8 December 1946) - Botanist, mycologist. During his formative years, his interest centered on Geology and Minerals and he collected plants as well. Later, he started his higher studies at the University of Budapest as an engineering student and eventually took some courses in natural sciences. After university, he worked as a geologist for a while. He obtained his Degree in Education in 1897. He taught in a High School in Brassó (now Braşov Romania) (1899-1906). From 1906 he worked with the Botanical Collections at the National Museum, Budapest. At first, he studied the flora of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania), later he was increasingly involved in mycological research. He earned international recognition by working out how to counter fungal diseases in agriculture. He became an honorary lecturer at the University of Budapest in 1915. During the Council (Soviet) Republic in 1919, he became Manager of the Botanical Collections but was discharged in 1921, and was reinstatedonly in 1931. After his retirement in 1934, he continued with his mycological research and published the results with his own illustrations in scientific and popular journals. He fully covered the mycological flora of Hungary. His main work was: Fungal Flora of Hungary (Magyarország gombaflórája),Fungi Hungariae, vols. i-iv (1925-1941). His other works include Gull-nutsof Hungary (Magyarország gubacsai) (1938) (in: Botanical Bulletin (Botanikai Közlemények);The Fungi of Budapest and its Environs (Budapest és környékének gombái). ibidem (1942). He was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1945). – B: 0883, 1691, T: 7456. Móga, János (John) (Boczkó, now Bocicáu, Romania, 1785 - Szászerked, now Archiud, Romania, 10 November 1861) – Army officer. Early in his career he was an officer in the Imperial Army of Austria. In the summer of 1848, he was appointed Lieutenant-General, acting as Commander of the town of Pest. From September 1848 he was Commander of the Hungarian Honvéd army sent against the invading forces of Jellačić (40,000 men); on 29 September. Móga won the Battle of Pákozd (near Budapest). He pursued the army of the fleeing Jellačić to the Austrian border. He was partly responsible for the defeat by the Hungarian Forces due to his hesitation and delay at the lost Battle of Schwechat on 30 October 1848. He resigned from his rank and active military life on 1 November, and went into seclusion. Following the surrender of the Hungarian Forces to the Russian Army, called in by the desperate Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph I in the Hungarian War of Independence from Austrian rule, Móga was sentenced to a 5-year imprisonment in a fortress. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7456.→Arad, Martyrs of. Mohács Battles – Two significant battles happened at this location in Hungary.
(1) The first one took place on 29 August 1526, and is referred to as the Disaster of Mohács (Mohácsi Vész).
Preliminaries: At the 11 November 1522 Imperial Assembly of the Holy Roman Empire, the Hungarian ambassadors asked for 20,000 foot-soldiers and 4000 cavalry troops to fight against the Turkish menace. They were promised only 4000 footsoldiers; but even this promise went unfulfilled. The 24 April 1523, the Hungarian National Assembly was preoccupied with other matters: laws were enacted about the return of serfs, who escaped during the peasant rebellion led by György (George) Dózsa in 1514; there was discussion about the confiscation of Lutheran properties and their supporters, and the collection and use of taxes. Prior to 10 October 1523, the emissary of the Turkish Sultan was sent to Croatia, promising tax exemptions and security to the Croatian aristocracy’s properties, if they would allow the Turkish troops to pass through their territory to the Austrian provinces. At the end of the year, the French King Francis I, in Spanish captivity, sent Croatian aristocrat, János Ferenc (John Francis) Frangepán, on a secret mission to Suleiman I, the “Magnificent”, requesting him to attack the Habsburg territories. Frangepán returned in the spring of 1526 with the Sultan’s promise to do so. At the meeting of the Assembly of the Holy Roman Empire, which began on 28 July 1526, the Hungarian Royal Chancellor, Tamás (Thomas) Nádasdy, presented the repeated request of the Hungarian King Lajos II (Louis, 1516-1526) for help. On 18 August, he was promised 4000 foot soldiers. Lajos II also requested help from the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, the English King Henry VIII, the Portuguese King John III, Austrian Archduke Ferdinand, and Pope Clement VII; but no help was forthcoming. Between 26 and 28 July, King Lajos II sent contradictory orders to János (John) Szapolyai, the Transylvanian (Erdély, now in Romania) Voivode, first instructing him to join the main army; then telling him to stay where he was. On 15 August, Szapolyai began to move with the Transylvanian army from Torda toward the royal army camp. On 16 August, at Bata, the military council elected Pál (Paul) Tomori, the Bishop of Kalocsa and Captain- General of Southern Hungary, as Commander-in-Chief.
The Sultan, not intending to wage battle on 29 August, ordered his troops to set up camp. Some of the troops were in the process of encampment, when the Hungarian Army began to take up battle positions. Due to the indecision of the Hungarian Court, János Szapolyai with his 20,000 men missed the main battle altogether. Similarly, the Czech mercenary troops, having reached only Győr, and the Croatian troops of Count Kristóf (Christopher) Frangepán, one of the elected leaders of the Hungarian Army, also failed to reach the battleground in time. Thus, the Turkish army had a threefold numerical advantage over the hastily assembled and poorly trained Hungarian army. In addition, the Hungarian army also lacked a suitable military commander.
The battle: Its location was well chosen by the Turkish military leadership; they controlled every hill in the region and could move their troops behind them without being noticed. They were ready to outflank and even pursue the Hungarians if the opportunity presented itself. The spirited initial attack of the Hungarians was successful but the fire of the 300-piece Turkish artillery halted it. Then the death of the Hungarian commander led to a disorganized withdrawal to the River Danube and the surrounding swampy areas. This withdrawal deteriorated into a chaotic flight and with his 75,000 men the Sultan was victorious. It is now a historically proven fact that the guns that ensured victory were loaned to the Turks by Francis I, “the most Catholic” French King. Of the 25,000 Hungarians, about 21,000 were killed, among them Pál Tomori, the Commander-in-Chief, György (George) Szapolyai, the Chief Magistrate of the County of Szepes, László (Ladislas) Szalkai, Bishop of Esztergom, as well as 5 other bishops, 28 members of the high aristocracy, and another 500 members of the nobility. And as a final blow, King Lajos II drowned on horseback in the Csele Creek as he was trying to flee the battleground. There were also Czech, German and Polish mercenaries among the fallen. The 2000 captives were beheaded on the Sultan’s orders on the day following the battle. Only some of the cavalry managed to escape.
A Historical Memorial Site was established at Mohács on the occasion of the 450th anniversary of the battle on 29 August 1976. The Hungarian National Nature Protection Office declared in 1975 a 7.5 ha (17.5 acres) protected area south of the town of Mohács, the place where the mass graves of the casualties of the Battle of Mohács (29 August 1526) were excavated in 1963.
In Hungarian history, two other disasters of comparable magnitude occurred: the lost battle of Muhi against the invading Mongol-Tartar army on 11 April, 1241, with the consequence of a completely devastated country, the massacre of 2 million Hungarians, half of the population of Hungary. The other was the Versailles-Trianon Peace Dictate on 4 June 1920, that dismembered Hungary in such a way that 3.5 million ethnic Hungarians fell under foreign domination. It was an unjust collective punishment on the Magyar people, repeated by the Paris Peace Dictate on 10 February, 1947.
(2) The second battle of Mohács took place on 12 August 1687. The combined leadership of Charles, Prince of Lorraine, Prince Miksa (Maximilian) of Bavaria and Prince Louis of Baden and their armies helped the Hungarian army against Vizier Suleiman’s Turkish Army. At first, by pretending a fleeing withdrawal, they induced the Turkish Commander to move his army from its camp around Eszék (now Osijek, Croatia) across the River Dráva toward Mohács. The Grand Vizier followed and set up his camp at Baranyavár, near the location of the 1526 Mohács battle. Then Prince Charles moved the joint Hungarian-German army to Siklós and, on the hillside of Harsány, he finally engaged in battle at a site of his own choosing. The clash of the 50,000-man Hungarian-German army with the 60,000 strong Turkish army ended with the total defeat of the latter. Eight thousand Turks fell, many more drowned in the Dráva River while fleeing, and seven thousand were captured. The full exploitation of this victory, the liberation of Nándorfehérvár (now Belgrade, Serbia) was not achieved, due to the conflict among the leaders. – B: 0942, 1031, 1288, 1686, T: 7665.→Mohács Tragedy; Mohács, Historical Memorial Site of; Lajos II, King; Tomori, Pál; Kanizsai, Dorottya; Szapolyai, János; Mongol-Tartar Invasion; Trianon Peace Treaty; Paris Peace Treaty;Hungary, History of.
Mohács, Historical Memorial Site of – A commemorative site built in 1976, on the 450th anniversary of the fatal battle fought on the 29th of August 1526, near the town of Mohács against the Turkish forces. With the lost battle, a 150-year-long suffering befell upon Hungary in the tragic struggle against Turkish occupation. The memorial bronze gate at the entrance was made by the goldsmith József (Joseph) Pölöskei. The monumental artwork closes in an arch, symbolising the fallen heroes. Its bronze units are held together by 28,000 rivets, indicating the approximate number of fallen soldiers. In the yard of the atrium building there is a fountain, its white stone rose figure symbolizing the country divided into three parts. Along the atrium there is a battle-related historical, war-historical and archeological exhibition. There are five mass-graves in the cemetery-garden; in each of them are the remains of some 400 male corpses. Among the mass-graves there are the statues of King Lajos II (Louis), who drowned in the Csele stream; of the Hungarian Commander Pál (Paul) Tomori; of Dorottya (Dorothea) Kanizsai, who buried the dead; and of Turkish Commander Sultan Sulejman I The Magnificent; there are also many wood-carved statues in memory of the fallen heroes, as well as wooden grave markers (kopjafák) symbolizing horses and weapons. A 10-m high cross was erected for the memory of the fallen Christian soldiers in 1990.The artifacts were created by sculptors József (Joseph) Király, Sándor (Alexander) Kiss, Pál (Paul) Kő, and István (Stephen) Szabó Jr. The designer of the entire memorial site was György (George) Vadász, architect, winner of the Ybl and Kossuth Prizes. – B: 2132, T: 7103.→Lajos II, King; Tomori Pál; Kanizsai, Dorottya; Mohács Battles;Mohács Tragedy.
Mohács Tragedy – On 29 August 1526, in the Battle of Mohács, more than the best of Hungarian military and national leadership was lost: Hungary’s independence was also lost for centuries. Though in 1541 the Sultan captured Buda only by a ruse, after the battle of Mohács, there was no national army to oppose the Turks. Only half of the army that uselessly sacrificed itself at Mohács would have been sufficient to defend the capital of the country. After the Turks occupied Buda they burned Pest, and sent an endless stream of ships to Istanbul with the spoils from Hungary. The loss of the battle of Mohács caused Hungary’s exclusion from European development for centuries and started hundreds of years of suffering for the Hungarians. After the 150 years of Turkish rule, Hungary’s population barely reached 2 million, just half of what was before. For all these adverse effects, Mohács has become the symbol of national tragedy in Hungary. – B: 1686, 1031, T: 7665.→Mohács Battles; Mohács, Historical Memorial Site of. Mohai Szabó, Béla (Erdély, Transylvania, now in Romania, 1915 - Sao Paulo, Brazil, March 1991) – Reformed Minister in Brazil. Following his matriculation at the Reformed College in Debrecen, he entered the Royal Ludovika Military Academy in Budapest, where he received his commission as Lieutenant. Following World War II, he emigrated to Brazil with his family. In Buenos Aires, Mohai Szabó felt the call of the Church. Concurrently with his daytime employment, over a period of several years, he completed his studies at the Presbyterian Seminary in Campines. Following his ordination, he became a minister of the Brazilian Hungarian Reformed Church. He was familiar with all aspects of the life of the local Hungarian community. He faithfully visited the elderly at the Church’s Care Center and took part in the Ecumenical Movement, spending several years serving the Brazilian Hungarian Lutheran Church. He was an active member of the Diaconia Organization of the Brazilian Christian churches. He also headed the Hungarian Veterans’ Association. – B: 0906, T: 7617.→Ludovika Royal Hungarian Military Academy. Mohás, Livia (Olivia) (Bogács, 17 November 1928 - ) – Writer, psychologist. She studied at the School of Physical Education between 1948 and 1952. From 1952 to 1969, she taught physical education. At the same time, she studied Psychology at the University of Budapest (1965-1968). She worked as an editor (1969-1973), lectured at the Ministry of Culture and Education (1973-1974), and was a correspondent for the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1974, and of the National Educational Institute from 1981. From 1983 she was a freelance writer and a psychologist. Her novels lead us into the world of the past, the dreams and the reveries, the memories and family myths. Her works include Students of the City Outskirts (Peremvárosi diákok) (1972); Fox-hunting (Rókavadászat) novel (1985); Theodora, novel (1995), and The Dancer, thePolitician, the Woman (A táncos, a politikus, a nő), essays (1998). She is a member of the Alliance of Hungarian Writers (Magyar Írószövetség), the Society of Hungarian Writers (Magyar Írók Egyesülete), theNational Society of Hungarian Creative Artists (Magyar Alkotóművészek Országos Szövetsége), the C.G. Jung Complex-Psychotherapy Society (C. G. Jung Komplex-pszichoterápiás Egyesület) Hungarian Psychology Society (Magyar Pszychológiai Társaság), and the Chamber of Hungarian Psychologists (Magyar Pszichológus Kamara), She received a number of prizes, among them the Tibor Szobotka Literary Prize (1994), the Small Cross of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (1998), and the Attila József Prize (2002). – B: 0878, 1031, 1257, T: 7456.
Mohi, Battle→Muhi Battle. Moholy-Nagy, László (Ladislas) (Bácsborsod, 20 July 1895 - Chicago, 24 November 1946) – Painter, photographer, art critic, architect. He studied Law in Budapest and later studied painting. He moved to Vienna after World War I, then to Berlin. He joined the Ma and the Gestaltung groups because of their progressive ideas. He taught at the Bauhaus in Berlin between 1920 and 1923, and worked with W. Gropius and became a renowned representative of the BauhausMovement. He painted abstract pictures. He lived in England between 1935 and 1937. Later he moved to the USA, and established the NewBauhausSchool in Chicago in 1937. In his writings, he dealt with abstract art and issues of applied art. He composed his works in the constructivism style, such as Bridges (1921); United Construction (1922); Construction (1923); Composition A II (1924), and FloatingForm (1945). His idea of non-representational art consists of pure color, texture, light and equilibrium of forms. He was an eminent member of the Bauhaus Movement, and was influential in the development of fine and applied arts in the mid 20th century. – B: 0872, 1934, T: 7103.
Mokry, Sámuel (Monostorszeg, 8 May 1832 - Budapest, 10 June 1909) – Agronomist, Lutheran Pastor. After completing the Lutheran Theological Academy and the Agricultural College of Keszthely, he began to farm in 1864. He went abroad for a number of study trips. In 1867 he became Secretary of the Agricultural Society of County Békés and Editor for its journal Bulletin (Értesítő). After the great drought of 1863, he strove for years to produce biological improvements to the wheat of the Great Plain, to develop it into a more resistant plant with larger ears. Soon the farmers were growing the new, improved version. He published his methods of improvement in special papers. He became the first wheat improver in Hungary. He summed up all his plant-improving work and techniques in his book, Wheat Improving Methods (Búzanemesités) (1875). – B: 0883, 1105, T: 7456.
Moldova, György (George) (12 March 1934 - ) – Writer. He studied at the Scenario Department of the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest (1952-1957). Then he became a manual laborer, and from 1964, a freelance writer. Strong social inquiry, satirical and ironical ways of seeing things, with an ability to expose the inner contradictions of issues characterize his works. He is regarded as the best continuity of the Hungarian satirical literary traditions. He describes the tough world of the Pest suburbs with sentimentalism and through exotic eyes. In his novels he seeks answers to the tragic contradictions of the 20th century through the fate of his solitary heroes. In his satires, he singles out the absurdities of society and castigates the corruptness of the community. Inordinate, romantic management of action, extreme characterization and detached, angular interpretation characterize his work’s literary value. His many publications include Dark Angel (Sötét angyal) novel (1964); The Forty Preachers (A negyven predicator) novel (1973); My Life is Short (Az életem rövid) novelette (1987); The Last Frontier (Az utolsó határ) novel (1990); Hitler in Hungary: the Secret Proviso (Hitler Magyarországon: a titkos záradék) novel (1992); TheGate of Fear(A félelem kapuja) novel (1992), and János Kádár, vols. i-ii (Kádár János, I-II),(2006). He received a number of prizes, including the Attila József Prize (1973, 1978), the Kossuth Prize (1983), the Karinthy Ring (1993), the Lajos Nagy Prize (1993) and the Maecenes Prize (1994). – B: 1257, 0978, T: 7456.
Moldova, Hungarians in (Csángók) – Hungarians in Moldova, Romania, are ancient settlers, whose origin is substantiated by the geographical names of the area. These settlers remained between the eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains and the mountain valley, bordered on the east by the River Seret (Szeret). According to some opinions, including Professor Béla Gunda, the Hungarians around Bakó are the descendants of some of the Magyars, who remained outside of the Carpathian Basin. The mountains stretching on the two sides of the rivers Tatros and Beszterce have Hungarian, Csángó, Uzbek, Petcheneg and Cumanian names. There are still 160 villages with Hungarian names, which are either totally or partially inhabited by Hungarians in Moldova. Among them are 36 villages named Magyarfalva (Hungarian Village). Characteristically, Hungarian village names did not include such prefixes as “Saint”. This suggests that the establishment of these villages happened prior to the conversion to Christianity. The border of these closely situated Hungarian villages beyond the eastern Carpathians stretches east of the Szeret River. The majority of Hungarians of this area is made up of ancient settlers who came to Moldova more than a thousand years ago. Over time, they absorbed some Petcheneg, Uzbek and Cumanian tribes.
During their history the Moldovan Hungarians considered themselves as a part of the Hungarian nation and, even in hostile circumstances throughout their history they insisted on being Hungarians. 85% of the Hungarians of Moldova live in the proximity of the counties of Csík (now Ciuc, Romania) and Háromszék (now Trei Scaune, Romania) and their territory forms an ethnographic unit with Szeklerland.
The inhabitants, who escaped into the mountains from the Mongol-Tartar invasion (1241-1242), rebuilt their villages after the enemy departed. King Béla IV (1235-1270), dispatched missionaries to convert the Mongols left among the Hungarians. King László IV (1272-1290) directed Franciscan friars from Transylvania (Erdély) to the areas inhabited by the Hungarians. In 1591, of the 46,000 inhabitants of Moldova, 15,000 were Hungarians. In 1622, Rome considered Moldova a missionary territory and, for about two hundred years, entrusted the spiritual care of Moldovan Hungarians to Polish bishops and Italian missionaries. In September 1642, the Italian Franciscan cleric, Bartolomeo Basetti, called a general ecclesiastical meeting of the Catholic priests and clerical missionaries. This was necessitated by the chaotic situation caused by the many different liturgical practices. They worked out a uniform Liturgical Order and submitted it to Rome for approval. However, it was not acted upon until Pater Dr. István (Stephen) Bordogh discovered it in 1992, in a disorganized bundle of documents in the manuscript library of the Holy Congregation of the Propagation of Faith. In 1671, the residents of Szabófalva sent a letter of complaint, written in Hungarian, to the Holy See. In it, they requested a Hungarian priest for Szabófalva and the neighboring 5 villages. In 1929 the number of Hungarian and Csángó population of Moldova numbered 120,000. In 1946 and 1947 the Romanian Government forcibly closed the more than one hundred Hungarian schools. Following this, the people of Szabófalva turned to the Bishop of Transylvania, again requesting a Hungarian-speaking priest. As a result, the local authorities sent some of the petitioners to prison and introduced the whip and carrot policy. In 1987, close to 200,000 Hungarians and Csángós lived in Moldova, who still spoke the Hungarian language, but in the schools they are only taught Romanian.
The Romanization of the ancient Hungarian and Csángó peoples of Moldova dates back to much earlier times, and was of a larger scale than that of the Transylvanian Hungarians. The Roman Catholic bishops were responsible for the Wallachization. The first such bishop was Nicholaus Josephus Camilli, born in 1840, in the Italian city of Monterubiano. He was the Apostolic Visitor for Moldova, appointed on 10 September 1881. As the contemporary Romanian minority leaders reported, the life of Hungarians in those days was hardly bearable. Petru Pal Josif, Romanian minority leader, described the methods of Romanization on page 93 of his book Originea Catolicirol dinMoldova (Origin of Moldovan Catholics) published in 1942, by the printing office Serafica of Szabófalva.
Romanians now insist that the Csangós are Hungarianized Romanians. However, in 1716, Dimitri Centamir, a Moldovan Ruler, wrote a monograph to the Berlin Academy. In it he stated that the ”Csangós know the Moldovan (Romanian) language but their national language is Hungarian”. The Finn scientist, Yrjö Jooseppi Wichmann, studied the language of the Csangós (1906-1907) and reached the same conclusion. For the commission of the Europe Council, Tytti Isohookana-Asunmaa, the Finn diplomat, wrote a report on the Csángós that she submitted at the Council’s Istanbul meeting in 2001. In it, she stated that the ”…Csángós are a Hungarian ethnic minority, living in Moldova since the Middle Age…”. – B: 0942, 1020, 1031, T: 7684.→Csángó.