M macartney, Carlile Aylmer

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Mikus, Sándor (Alexander) (Sződ, 11 August 1903 - Budapest, 17 September 1982) – Sculptor. He was self-taught, made drawings and portraits. In 1924 he was working at the United Incandescent Lamp Factory (Egyesült Izzó Gyár) Újpest, as a technician, when he sold a portrait, My Old Mother (Öreganyám), to a research engineer colleague, who helped him to finance a six-month long study trip. Except for short breaks, until 1930, he lived mainly in Florence and in Rome, where he met Pál (Paul) Pátzay. On his return to Hungary, he worked at his studio. His first one-man show was at the Ernst Museum, Budapest (1932). He also became a member of the Munkácsy Guild, the Rippl-Rónay Society, and the KÚT (Képzőművészek Új Társasága – New Society of Artists). From 1938 he was Vice-President of ÚME (Új Művészek EgyesületeSociety of New Artists). In 1941 the Tamás Gallery showed his more recent creations in bronze miniature sculptures, emphasizing the essential plastic elements of the human body: Bathing Woman (Mosakodó nő); Woman Combing her Hair (Fésülködő nő); Bare-footed Woman (Mezitlábas nő), as well as his medals. The Woman Combing her Hair was also shown at the New York World Fair. In 1949 his Petőfi statue was unveiled in Ózd. The Academy of Applied Art, Budapest appointed him professor, and he worked there until 1976. In 1950 he won the competition and completed the Stalin Monument that was demolished during the 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight. After 1957, he had numerous commissions for public square statues, using his earlier small-scale compositions. Many of his medals are also significant works, such as Pál Pátzay (1934) and József Rippl-Rónai (1937). In his compositions, using classical sculptural traditions, he expressed man’s everyday activities, life situations and routine movements. His human forms suggest serenity, strength and timelessness. His exhibitions in Hungary include the one-man show at the Art Gallery (Műcsarnok), Budapest (1961), Ferenc Móra Museum, Szeged (1963), and the Historical Museum, Budapest (1974). His overseas exhibitions include Athens (1966), and New Delhi (1969). A memorial exhibition was arranged for him at the National Gallery, Budapest (1984). Some of his works are at the Hungarian National Gallery and also in Vienna, Moscow, England and Mexico. He received the sculptural prize of the Szinyei Society (1933), two Gold Medals at the Paris World Fair (1937) and the Kossuth Prize twice (1949, 1952). – B: 0883, 1105, T: 7456.→Pátzay, Pál; Munkácsy, Mihály; Rippl-Rónay, József; Melocco, Miklós.
Milkó, Bishopric of Moldova (Petcheneg Bishopric (1227- ca. 1512) – Established for the conversion of Cumanians (Kuns). At the beginning of the 13th century, on the request of Pope Honorius III (1216-1227), King András II (Andrew, Endre, 1205-1235), supported a Dominican Mission already working on the conversion of the Cumanians. At the request of the Cumanian leaders Barc and Membrok, Róbert, Papal Legate and Archbishop of Esztergom consecrated Tódor (Theodore), Head of the Dominican Order in Hungary as Bishop of Cumania in 1227. The town Milkó, located between the Carpathian Mountain Range and the River Szeret (now Siret, Romania), became the center of the new bishopric. On the request of the Pope, King Béla IV (1235-1270) built a church there. Due to the resettlement of the Cumanians with Prince Kötöny in Hungary, the population of the bishopric drastically decreased and the Tartar-Mongol invasion in 1241 sealed its fate. Later there were several attempts to resurrect it until 1441, but to no avail. – B: 0942, 0945, T: 7103.
Millennium – 1896 marked the 1000th anniversary of the Settlement of Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin. Festivals, exhibitions and the inauguration of such great projects in Budapest as the Underground Railway (beneath the Andrássy Boulevard), Heroes Square (Hősök tere) and the Fishermen’s Bastion (Halászbástya) marked the event together with large-scale celebrations throughout the country. The recognition of the Settlement became Law and appropriate monuments were erected in seven different parts of the country: Brassó (now Brasov Romania), Dévény (now Devín, Slovakia) Munkács (now Mukacheve, Ukraine) Ópusztaszer, Pannonhalma, Zimony (now Zemum, Serbia) and the Zobor Mountain (now in Slovakia). Later, additional monuments were also erected at numerous locations. Following the Versailles-Trianon Dictated Peace Treaty (1920), the newly-created countries destroyed all the monuments erected in the former parts of Hungary, now ceded to them. – B: 1078, 1153, T: 3240.→Feszty Cyclorama.
Millennium Celebrations, Hungarian, 1896 – On 2 May 1896, with the ringing of church bells in the background, Emperor and King Ferenc József (Franz Joseph) opened the Millennium Exhibition in the Budapest City Park (Városliget), and also the first underground railway on the European Continent. The Royal Couple, accompanied by the chief office bearers of the country, statesmen, artists, and the delegations of the Capital City and the counties, all dressed in the ceremonial national costume, visited the main venues. The celebrations continued the same day with a gala performance at the Opera House. Next day, a Thanksgiving Mass was held in the Matthias (Mátyás) Church on the Buda Hill. Special light displays illuminated the city and spectacular fireworks were held on Gellért Mountain. On 4 May the Exhibition Hall officially opened and, the next day, the King held a special review of the 17,000 troops on the Blood Meadow (Vérmező) in Buda. On 6 May, accompanied by military Honor Guards, the Guards of the Crown with ceremonial halberds and the Chief of the Official Guards of the Realm, the Hungarian Holy Crown was carried from the Royal Palace to the Mátyás Church. The next day, the King laid the cornerstone for the construction of a new wing of the Royal Palace. The 8 May began with an equestrian parade of the ceremonial equestrian units of the Parliament and those of the counties and municipalities, stationed on the Vérmező, to the Castle in front of the Mátyás Church. The colorful cavalry escorts, wearing historical or ceremonial Hungarian garb, left the Mátyás Church, crossed the River Danube to the new Parliament Building that only had the entrance and cupola hall complete at this time. Here, Prime Minister Pál (Paul) Gyulai read two laws on “Commemorating the Millennium of the Founding of Hungary”. Then the Members of Parliament accompanied the Holy Crown back to the Royal Castle, where they paid homage to the Monarch amidst the firing of salutes from guns of the Citadel and the Danube flotilla in the background. They expressed a sentiment that mutual trust between the King and the Nation is the solid basis “of that blessed harmony, whose strength alone can guarantee progress in the centuries to come”. The spectators came from every region of the country and numbered nearly 6 million. – B 0899, T: 7665.Underground Railway.
Millecentennial Celebration, Hungarian, 1996. – Hungarians celebrated the 1100th anniversary of their ancestors’ settlement in the Carpathian Basin. It started when the main Magyar forces under Prince Árpád crossed the Verecke (now Veretski, Carpatho-Ukraine) Pass of the North-Eastern Carpathians and descended into the Great Plain in 895 AD. Historical and archeological evidence shows that the Magyar tribes had a semi-nomadic, semi-agricultural way of life. Their system of social and political institutions, modeled on those of the Khazars, can be seen as the antecedent of the Christian Kingdom of Hungary. The natural endowments of the new country and the compulsion they were under to end their military sorties led the Magyars to settle permanently in the Carpathian Basin. The economic, social and political processes that ensued under the new conditions resulted in a renewal of Hungarian society and the emergence of a new system of power. One of the outstanding contributors to this process was Prince Géza (d. 997) who showed great political acumen in navigating a path between East and West. Géza's son, István (later St. Stephen, 977-1038) became Hungary’s first King and founder of the Christian State. István requested and received a crown from the Pope (his crown with its Byzantine part is the Hungarian Holy Crown), and in doing so, irrevocably opted for the Western-type European path of development that has defined Hungary's place up to the present. The settlement brought an end of an era of more than 1000 years. As a result, among the peoples arriving from the East, the Magyars were the first to become a European nation in the Carpathian Basin, blending the various tribes into one.

Although the original settlement is dated to 895, according to Byzantine sources it should not be tied to a single year, since Hungarian troops had already appeared near the eastern and southern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains by 830. Furthermore, there is evidence that they advanced into the Carpathian Basin and that their military campaigns reached beyond the Dévény Gate, the entry point of the River Danube into the Carpathian Basin. Results of the latest research suggest that the Magyars were already acquainted with agriculture when they arrived in the Carpathian Basin and, at the beginning of the 10th century they played an equal political role among the European powers. It is no accident that the strong Christian state in Central Europe, established by Prince Géza, then by his son King István I (St Stephen) was finally consolidated by King László I (Saint Ladislas, 1077-1095). The 50,000-volume library, the famous Corvina of King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinu, 1458-1490), was exceptional in Europe in the second half of 15th century.

The loss of the Battle of Mohács to the Turks on 29 August 1526, followed by 150 years of Turkish rule in central Hungary, interrupted the development of the Hungarian nation. Then the Habsburgs exploited the weakness of the nation and prevented the country from fully recovering. The Mongol-Tartars (1241-1242), the Turks (1526-1686), the Austrians (1541-1867) and Russians (1849) all ravaged the country over the centuries; but the nation survived and could only recover its full independence centuries later. By the beginning of the 20th century, Hungary, as part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, was progressing well both industrially and socially, achieving a relative prosperity for the people.

However, World War I derailed the development and the following Peace Dictate of Versailles-Trianon (4 June 1920) reduced Hungary’s territory by two-thirds, took away one-third of its ethnic Hungarian population, and deprived the country of most of its natural resources. Due to its geographic location, Hungary invariably ended up on the losers’ side.

After World War II, Hungary came under Communist rule that endeavored to suppress all attempts of national freedom and made Hungarian interests subservient to those of the Soviet Union. Though handicapped in the twentieth century, the highlights of her earlier history place Hungary among the important European nations. St István’s policies and laws proved him to have been a true European ruler, and the House of Árpád gave more saints to the Christian religion than any other royal house in Europe. János (John) Hunyadi, with his victory at Nándorfehérvár (now Belgrade, Serbia) in 1456, stopped the Turkish menace threatening Christian Europe. The first decree granting freedom of religious observance in Europe was passed in 1568 at the National Assembly in Torda, Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). In the sciences, Hungarian discoveries and achievements have received international recognition. The love of country and freedom inspired extraordinary deeds in Hungarian history. The Rákóczi insurrection lasted from 1704 to 1711 and the 1848-1849 War of Independence involved the whole nation. Though the 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight was short-lived against the powerful Soviet Union, it shook the Communist system to its core. After this defeat, the nation was severely oppressed and sank into apathy; but the fall of the Communist system in 1989 opened up new vistas with a promising future.

The official commemorations of the millcentennial celebrations were based on scientific knowledge of the historical events, gained from archeological finds and written sources. Also explored and revived in these celebrations was the country's popular image and its awareness of the past, as revealed in myths and legends, chroniclers' traditions, and later romantic accretions to these.

The settlement (honfoglalás) emblem refers to the bow used as a weapon of choice by the Magyar ancestors. The seven arrows pointing skyward or seven rays of sunshine stand for the seven Magyar tribes, as well as for the rise of today's Hungarians and their reintegration into Europe. – B: 1099, T: 7665, 7103.→Many of the above persons and events have their own entry.
Millennium Celebration, Hungarian, 2000 – Hungarians celebrated the millennium of Hungarian Christian statehood at home and all over the world. Hungarian tribes, who had settled in the Carpathian Basin around 895, formed a Christian Kingdom on Christmas of 1000, when the first Hungarian King István I (Steven, later St. Stephen, 997-1038) was crowned with the Holy Crown received from Pope Sylvester II.

On 1 January 2000, the Holy Crown of István I was transferred in a solemn ceremony from the National Museum to the Hungarian Parliament in Budapest. Thus began the celebration of Hungary's Millennium, marking 1,000 years of statehood. State President Árpád Göncz referred to the Crown “as a symbol of continuity of the State of Hungary”; Prime Minister Viktor Orbán spoke of history as a “giant river of time” as he recalled Hungary's survival against overwhelming odds through centuries of struggle, subjugation and sacrifice. Throughout those years, the Hungarian Crown served as a living symbol of the nation's will, unity and legitimacy. “It was the Holy Crown that created the opportunity for Hungary to join Europe 1,000 years ago, and as such, is better seen as a living symbol of the state and national unity than as a museum relic,” the incumbent Prime Minister declared. The millennium year was rich in celebration and events. On August 20, the national day of St. István (St. Stephen), a magnificent fireworks display took place on the Gellért Mountain in Budapest. Special commemorative events and exhibitions were held countrywide and in neighboring countries, as well as worldwide (altogether 52 countries) where Hungarians live. In addition to a series of official celebrations hosted by the Hungarian Embassies worldwide, Hungarian communities abroad organized festive events, where visiting politicians and artists from Hungary emphasized the importance of the Special Year of the Millennium. New York Governor George E. Pataky was the first to greet Hungary's Millennium with a proclamation in January, followed by congratulations from practically all countries of the world. – B: 1098, T: 7103.→Holy Crown, Hungarian; Göncz, Árpád; Orbán, Viktor; Pataky George E.

Millennium Monument Budapest (Ezredéves emlékmű, Budapest) – The monument created as a memorial to the 1000th anniversary of the Hungarian settlement in the Carpathian Basin. It is a clearly defined work of art in the Heroes’ Square (Hősök tere) of Budapest near the City Park. Fourteen renowned figures of Hungarian history found their place in this composition, redesigned on several occasions. In the middle, the spirit of victory personified by Archangel Gabriel, stands on top of a 36-meter tall Corinthian column, designed by architect Albert Schikedanz. The Monument is a semicircular construction, 85 meters wide, 25 meters deep, and 13 meters high; the span of the two wings is 20 meters. Between the pillars stand 14 statues of Kings and Princes, 7 on the left and 7 on the right. On the pedestal under the open niches in which the statues stand are reliefs with inscriptions, illustrating historical events from the life of the person depicted by the statue above, or from that period of history. The statues are: King István I (St. Stephen); King László I (St Ladislas); King Kálmán (Coloman Beauclerc; Könyves Kálmán); King András II (Andrew); King Béla IV; King Károly Róbert (Charles Robert); King Lajos I (Louis the Great); János (John) Hunyadi; King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus); Prince István (Stephen) Bocskai; Prince Gábor (Gabriel) Bethlen; Prince Imre (Emeric) Thököly; Prince Ferenc (Francis) Rákóczi II, and Lajos (Louis) Kossuth (the Governor). There are two groups of statues on either side above the rows of pillars. The statue created by György (George) Zala won a Grand-Prix at the 1900 Paris World Exhibition. The bronze archangel is nearly 5 meters high, with extended wings holding up the Hungarian crown with one hand, a double cross in the other. The statues of Khagan Árpád and the other conquering tribal leaders on horseback stand around the pedestal of the column. The original inscription on the National Heroes’ Memorial (Nemzeti Hősi Emlékmű) was: “For the 1000-year old borders”  meaning the historical borders of Hungary within the Carpathian Basin. It was removed after 1945. It was replaced in 1956, and renamed: Hungarian Heroes' Memorial, designed by Béla Gebhardt, decorated with a laurel branch. Its capital bears the inscription: In memory of the heroes who sacrificed their lives for the freedom of our people and independence of our nation. – B: 1230, 1442, T: 1442, 7456.→István I, King; László I, King; Kálmán, King; András II, King; Béla IV, King; Károly, Róbert, King; Lajos I. King; Hunyadi, János; Mátyás I, King; Bocskai Prince István; Bethlen, Prince, Gábor; Thököly, Prince Imre; Rákóczi II, Prince Ferenc; Kossuth, Lajos; Árpád; Zala, György.
Miller, Albert (Tapiószele, 6 January 1818 - Leoben, Austria, 1898) – Engineer, inventor. He taught at the Selmecbánya Academy (now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia) until the demise of the Hungarian War of Independence from Habsburg rule (1848-1849), then at the Leoben Academy. He invented the Polar and Orthogonal bar Planimeter as well as the Compensating Polar Planimeter in 1855. He was also the first to describe and write down the concept of a globular planimeter. – B: 0883, 1731, T: 7456.
Millner, Tivadar (Pécs, 7 March 1899 - Budapest, 27 October 1988) – Chemical engineer. In 1923 he received his Degree from the Budapest Polytechnic, and in 1948 his Ph.D. From 1924 to 1958 he was a member of the engineering staff of the Tungsram Company. From 1958 until his retirement, he was Deputy Director in the Technical Physical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and later, scientific counselor. He was appointed a titular professor at the Miskolc Heavy Industrial University. He was granted a number of patents. On the basis of one of his patents, wolfram filaments are used worldwide. He is particularly appreciated for the solution of the important basic problems of the wolfram filament and for the translating of the solution into practice. He published nearly 100 scientific papers, mainly in journals abroad. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (correspondent 1954, ordinary 1961). He was a recipient of the Kossuth Prize (1954), the State Prize in 1970, and the Plaque of the International Union of Powder Metallurgy in 1981. – B: 0883, T: 7456.
Milotay, István (Stephen) (Nyírbátor, 3 May 1883 - Rheineck, Switzerland, 10 February 1963) – Journalist, politician. He read Law at the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), and obtained a PhD. For a short while, he worked for the administration of County Szabolcs, later became a journalist. From 1907 he worked for the newspaper, Budapest News (Budapesti Hírek), edited by Jenő (Eugene) Rákosi. From 1913 he edited the paper New Generation (Új Nemzedék). After the collapse of the Council (Soviet) Republic (Tanácsköztársaság) on 1 August 1919, he fought for the fulfillment of the demands of the Christian middle-class and requested the introduction of a Numerus Clausus to limit the number of Jewish university students. As Editor for the New Hungarians (Új Magyarság), he fought against the consolidation policy of István (Stephen) Bethlen’s government. In 1920 he was a representative in the National Assembly and, in agreement with Prime Minister Gyula (Julius) Gömbös, he started a new government newspaper, the New Hungarians (Új Magyarság). From 1933 he was Member of Parliament again on various platforms. Later he became a supporter of Prime Minister Béla Imrédy. After the Arrow Party’s putsch on 15 October 1944, he remained a member of the National Alliance of Legislators (Törvényhozók Országos Szövetsége). Ahead of the Soviet occupying army, he moved to Austria, Germany and later to Latin America. Finally, he settled in Switzerland at the end of 1950s. Many of his articles were collected and published. He is regarded as one of the leading journalists of the 20th century in Hungary. His works include In the Shadow of Independence (A függetlenség árnyékában); The Unknown Hungary (Az ismeretlen Magyarország); Toward a New World, vols. i,ii (Új világ felé, I,II) (1940), and Popular Crises, Popular Hungary (Népi válság, népi Magyarország) (1944). – B: 0883, 1257, 1672, T: 7103.→Rákosi, Jenő; Gömbös, Gyula; Imrédy, Béla.
Mindszenty, József (Joseph) (Pehm) (Csehimindszent, 29 March 1892 - Vienna, 6 May 1975) – Archbishop of Esztergom, Prince-Primate of Hungary, Cardinal. He was born into a peasant family. He attended the Premonstratensian High School in Szombathely and, after graduation he entered the Szombathely Seminary in 1911, and was ordained in 1915. He taught religion in Zalaegerszeg in 1917, and was arrested on 9 February 1919 during the Revolution following World War I, but was later released. In October 1919 he became Parish Priest in Zalaegerszeg. In 1921 he was appointed Archdeacon; and in 1924 he became the titular Abbot of Pornó (Pornóapáti). In 1927 he was the Episcopal representative of County Zala. In 1940 Prime Minister Count Pál (Paul) Teleki asked him to organize the National Political Service in Transdanubia (Dunántúl), to combat the growing Nazi influence among the ethnic Germans in Hungary. The Pope appointed him Bishop of Veszprém on 4 March 1944. On 31 October 1944, the bishops sent a memorandum to Prime Minister Ferenc (Francis) Szálasi calling for an end to the hostilities. On 27 November, Mindszenty and several seminary students were arrested and taken to Sopronkőhida; they were set free by the Soviet forces. On 5 September, Pope Pius XII appointed him Archbishop of Esztergom and Prince-Primate of Hungary. He became Cardinal in Rome on 18 February 1946. Mindszenty was uncompromising to the mounting Stalinist influence in the country. Following a press campaign against him, the Secret Police (ÁVO) arrested him on 26 December 1948. He was severely tortured and, on 8 February 1949, was sentenced to life imprisonment, a sentence that was condemned by the UN General Assembly. Due to his declining health he was under house arrest from 17 July 1955 in Püspökszentlászló, and later in Felsőpetény. During the 1956 Revolution, János Horváth, President of the State Office for Church Affairs (Állami Egyházügyi Hivatal – ÁEH) visited him on 29 October, and wanted to take him to Budapest or Esztergom – but to no avail. On the following day the ÁVO freed him. The same night, a detachment of officers of the Rétság armored regiment took him to their barracks. On 31 October they took him to the Archbishop's Palace in Buda. On 1 November he received a large number of Hungarian and foreign visitors and issued a press statement. Zoltán Tildy and Pál (Paul) Maléter also visited him on behalf of the Government. On the evening of 3 November Mindszenty addressed the nation on the radio. In his speech, he emphasized the need to restore peace in the country and to establish a just society based on a multi-party system. At the same time, he called upon the “successors of the defeated system” to call the guilty to account through impartial courts, to restore freedom of worship and to restore the Catholic Church to “institutions and societies”. In view of the intervention of the “Russian Empire”, he called the events a Liberation Struggle not a Revolution. At dawn on 4 November, when the second Soviet military intervention occurred, Mindszenty went to the Parliament at Tildy's request and then fled to asylum to the United States Embassy. He left the Embassy and Hungary under an agreement between the Hungarian state, the US government and the Vatican on 28 September 1971. Pope Paul VI received Mindszenty who moved into the Pázmáneum, a Hungarian seminary in Vienna. His main task was to enhance the morality of the Hungarian community worldwide and to travel abroad. On 1 November 1973, Pope Paul VI called upon Mindszenty to persuade him to offer his resignation in the interests of the Vatican’s opening toward the Communist countries. Mindszenty was not prepared to do this, hence the Pope declared the Archbishopric of Esztergom vacant on 8 November. Mindszenty died on 6 May 1975 in Vienna, and was buried in the Basilica of Mariacell, Austria. His remains were reburied in the crypt of the Esztergom Basilica on 4 May 1991. His works include The Mother (Az édesanya) (1916); Life and Age of Márton Bíró Padányi, Bishop of Veszprém (Padányi Bíró Márton veszprémi püspök élete és kora) (1934); Who and what is a Child? (Ki és mi a gyermek?) (1942); Justice and Love (Igazság és szeretet), selected sermons (1956); My Memories (Emlékirataim) (1974), and Daily Notes. American Embassy 1956-1971 (Napi jegyzetek. Amerikai követség 1956-1971), edited by Emil Csonka (1979). There is a Museum in Esztergom and numerous institutions, societies, places and streets that bear his name. – B: 0883, 1031, 1230, 1257, 1684, T: 1684, 7103.→Teleki, Count Pál; Maléter, Pál; Tildy, Zoltán; Mindszenty Trial; State Office of Church Affairs;
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