Miklós, Jutka (Judith) (J. Van den Bussche) (Berettyóújfalu, 7 September 1884 - Creteil, France, 18 February 1976) – Poetess. She was a member of the writers’ circle of the journal Tomorrow (Holnap). She started composing poems at age fifteen. József (Joseph) Vészi published her poems in the Budapest Journal (Budapesti Napló). Such outstanding literary figures as the great poet Endre (Andrew) Ady, as well as Margit (Margaret) Kaffka and Béla Révész enthusiastically welcomed her emergence. She moved to Nagyvárad (now Oradea, Romania) from Budapest, where she formed a friendship with Gyula (Julius) Juhász, and got in touch with Ákos Dutka. She was included in the anthology of Tomorrow (Holnap). She spent three years in the USA (1910-1913), and learnt photography. On her return to Nagyvárad, she opened a photo studio; during the years of World War I, she made a living from this. After the fall of the Council (Soviet) Republic of Hungary (1919), she went to Berlin, prepared herself to become a film director and worked for a while as an assistant director. From there, she moved to Paris and opened a photo studio on Montparnasse. In her circle of friends were Count Mihály (Michael) Károlyi and his wife; Lajos (Louis) Tihanyi, Bertalan (Bartholomew) Pór, György (George) Bölöni and his wife. In Paris she married the Flemish-speaking Belgian engineer, Van den Bussche. Due to his wartime illness, the couple was forced to settle in a warmer climate. This is how she ended up in Rabat, Morocco, where she opened a cosmetic salon. World War II reached her there. In her free time, she translated the works of contemporary Hungarian poets into French. At that time, she wrote poems only occasionally. After her husband’s death, she returned to France in 1964. She lived in Chateauroux and later in Vitry sur Seine near Paris. Toward the end of her life, she again wrote some poems and, in 1971, she published a volume of her selected poetry. Other of her works include Poems (Versek) (1904), and The Earth Embraces You Back (Visszaölel a föld) (1971) – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.→Ady, Endre; Kaffka, Margit; Juhász, Gyula; Dutka, Ákos; Pór, Bertalan; Károlyi, Count Mihály; Council (Soviet) Republis of Hungary. Miklósházy, Attila S.J. (Hungary, 5 May 1931 - ) – Roman Catholic Bishop. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1949 and left Hungary during the Revolution in 1956. He completed his philosophical and theological studies in Budapest, Pullach, Germany and Toronto, Canada, and obtained the STD Degree at the Gregorian University in Rome in 1968. After his ordination to priesthood in Toronto in 1961, he taught Theology at Loyola College, Montreal, at Regis College, Toronto (1968-1974), at St. Austin Seminary, Toronto, and the Toronto School of Theology (1984-1988). For thirteen years, he served as Dean of the Faculty of Theology at St Augustine’s Seminary, as a member of the National Liturgical Council of the Canadian Bishops, and of the Canadian Liturgical Society (ecumenical), and also participated, for fifteen years, in the Anglican-Roman Catholic Dialogue in Canada. In 1999 he received the Degree D. Div. honoris causa from St Michael’s College of the University of, Toronto. He is Professor Emeritus of Systematic Theology and Liturgy. In 1989 he was appointed titular Bishop of Castelminore for spiritual assistance of the Hungarian emigrants all over the world, and continued his Episcopal duties by visiting the Hungarian communities around the world, until his resignation in 5 April 2007. His successor is Bishop Dr. Ferenc (Francis) Cserháti. – B: 0997, T: 7678.
Miklósi, Péter (Pozsony, now Bratislava, Slovakia, 4 July 1946 - ) – Writer. He completed his studies at the Hungarian High School of Pozsony (1959-1963); he was a member of the Czechoslovakian National Saber Team (1963-1966), and a reporter for the paper New Word(Új Szó) (1964-1971). For political reasons, he lost his position and was unemployed for a while. Although a member of the Czechoslovak Communist Party (1968-1970), he was expelled. He lectured at the Central Theater of the Czechoslovakian Hungarian Workers’ Cultural Federation – CSEMADOK, (1972-1973). He worked as a reporter (1974-1975) for the Week(Hét), but his right of publishing was revoked. He was a clerk at the CSEMADOK Center (1975-1978), and reported again for the Week (1978-1990). Finally, he was rehabilitated in 1990. He worked as an associate of New Word, and later became its acting Editor-in-Chief. In 1990 he was Press Chief for the Coexistence Political Movement in the election campaign. Since 1966 his reports, theatrical notes, critiques, portrayals of artists, interviews and his translations of Czech and Slovakian prose fiction literature has been published in various newspapers and magazines, such as the New Youth (Új Ifjúság), and New Word,Week. He published The Home of Hungarian Culture in Prague (A magyar kultura otthona Prágában) (1981). His translations include Fairyland Adventure(Meseországi kaland) by Ladislav Luknar, stage work (1973), The Center Forward’s Ascension to Heaven (Aközépcsatár mennybemenetele) by Jozef Kot, novel, translation co-author Elemér (Elmer) Tóth, and The Nationalities(Anemzetiségek), monograph by Ludovit Klimits (1985). – B: 1083, T: 7456.
Mikó, Count Imre (Emeric) (Zabola, now Zăbala, Romania, 4 September 1805 - Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 16 September 1876) – Writer, reform and culture politician, literary historian. He was called “The Széchenyi of Transylvania”. He studied at the Bethlen Reformed College of Nagyenyed (now Aiud, Romania), then he read Law from 1826. He launched the paper, Kolozsvár Journal (Kolozsvári Közlöny) (1844). He was President of the National Assembly of Agyagfalva during the War of Independence (1848-1849). Although he was under house arrest, he had a relevant role in the restoration of the Bethlen College of Nagyenyed and its library, which had been ruined during the war. He established the Transylvanian Museum (Erdélyi Múzeum) in 1856, and the College of Sepsiszentgyörgy (now Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania) in 1859; it was later named after him. He was Governor of Transylvania in 1861. He was a member of the Supervisory Committee of the National Theater of Kolozsvár (1843-1875), founder of the Hungarian History Association and its President between 1867 and 1876, and was Minister of Public Works and Transportation (1867-1870). Some of his literary works are: The Life and Works of Péter Bod(Bod Péter élete és munkái) (1862), and On the Separation of Transylvania frm ungary proper (Erdély különválásáról) (1860). – B: 0882, 0877, T: 7103.→Bod, Péter. Mikó, Ferenc (Francis) (hídvégi) (Hídvég, now Hăghig, Romania, 1585 - Gyulafehérvár, now Alba Iulia, Romania, 15 July 1635) – Politician, diplomat, writer. From 1600, he was a page to András (Andrew) Barcsai, then he was a page, and from 1602 Secretary to Gábor (Gabriel) Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). After the lost battle of 17 July 1603, he fled with Gábor Bethlen to Temesvár (now Timişoara, Romania), then to Nándorfehérvár (now Belgrade, Serbia). After his return, he managed his estates in Hídvég and Oltszem. In 1610 he was Vice-Captain of County Csík. In 1611 he took part in the campaign against Radul Serbán. From 1613 he was Captain-General of the seats of Csík, Gyergyó and Kászon. In 1613 he had the still extant Mikóújvár built at Csíkszereda (now Mercurea-Ciuc, Romania). From 1617 he was Lord Steward, from 1622 Treasurer. On several occasions, he performed diplomatic missions in the Turkish Court and for western Monarchs. In 1625 Gábor Bethlen sent him to György (George) Brandenburg, on a mission to look for a wife. At the Peace of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) (1626), he was the chief envoy of the Prince. For his services, he received substantial grants in property. His memoirs are among the most valuable sources of early 17th century Hungarian history (1594-1613 published in 1863). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.→Bethlen, Prince Gábor. Mikó, Imre (Emeric) (pen names, László (Ladislas) Könyves Tóth, István (Stephen) Miklós) (Bánffyhunyad, now Huedin in Transylvania, Romania, 27 March 1911 - Kolozsvár, (now Cluj- Napoca, Transylvania, Romania), 21 March 1977) – Writer, translator of literary works, lawyer and politician. In 1934 he obtained a Ph.D. in Law from the University of Kolozsvár, where he also studied Unitarian Theology. In his first book, TheTransylvanian Village and the Problem of Nationalities (Az erdélyi falu és a nemzetiségi kérdés) (1932),he was the first to investigate sociologically the reciprocal influence of different nationalities in Transylvania in the new situation under Romanian rule. It was about this time that he became a correspondent for a number of Transylvanian papers and magazines, e.g. Hungarian Minority (MagyarKisebbség); Transylvanian Museum (Erdélyi Múzeum), and Our Age (Korunk). He studied International Law on a scholarship in Paris (1934-1936). In 1937 he opened an attorney’s office in Kolozsvár. After the Second Vienna Award (1940), which returned the northern part of Transylvania to Hungary, he became a Member of Parliament in Budapest. During the fall of 1944, the occupying Soviet forces took him prisoner in Kolozsvár and he spent four years in Russia at Taganrog on the Sea of Azov. While there, he learned the Russian language and, on his return to Transylvania, he obtained a Degree in Education for teaching Russian. He did that for ten years in Kolozsvár. He wrote textbooks and worked as a translator. Following the Hungarian Freedom Fight in 1956, he was a laborer, and later a store clerk at the county’s book distribution center. From 1958 he was a book distributor and seller. In 1970 he became the Editor for the Publishing House, Kriterion, in Bucharest, Romania. Many of his articles and essays appeared in the re-started magazine, Our Age (Korunk), and in other magazines and papers from the end of the 1950s. Later on, from the end of the 1960s he published mainly essays, studies and novels and participated actively in Transylvanian literary life. He edited the Kriterion’s Téka series. In 1969 he became a member of the Romanian Writers’ Association. He was Lay President of the Unitarian Church until his death. His works include Country Citizens and World Citizens (Honpolgárok és Világpolgárok) (1967), The Tree thatFell upon a Peak (A bércre esett fa) (1969); Nationality Law and Nationality Politics (Nemzetiségijog és nemzetiségi politika) (1944); Petőfi in Transylvania (Petőfi Erdélyben) with Gy. David(1972); Those Who Walked Before Me (Akik előttem jártak) (1976); The Quiet Petőfi Street (A csendes Petőfiutca) memoirs (1978), and Variations on a Theme(Változatok egy témára), 1981. – B: 0878, 0882, 0877, 0883, 1257, T: 7456. →Vienna Award I; Vienna Award II. Mikó, Jenő (Eugene) (Felsőhutka, now Vysnia Hutka, Slovakia near Kassa, now Košice, Slovakia, 17 May 1931 - Pozsony, now Bratislava, Slovakia, 1 July 2004) – Bishop of the Christian Reformed Church in Slovakia, theologian. He attended high school at his birthplace and at the Reformed College of Sárospatak, but matriculated in Kassa. He studied Theology at the Comenius Faculty of the University of Prague, and completed it in 1954. He was Bishop’s Secretary, then Assistant Minister in Léva (now Leviçe, Slovakia), Érsekújvár (now Nové Zámky) and Vérfarkasd (now Vlcany). He studied Theology in Basel under Karl Barth and Oscar Cullmann in 1966. He was Parish Minister in Pozsony from 1981, and became Bishop of the Christian Reformed Christian Church in Slovakia (Szlovákiai Keresztyén Református Egyház) from 1988 to 1996. He edited the bilingual Calvinist Review (Kálvinista Szemle) (1981-1988). He was Dean of the Bratislava Deanery (1986-1988), and President of the Ecumenical Council of the Czechoslovakian Churches. He was Parliamentary Representative of the Co-existence Political Movement and, from 1991, President of the Ecumenical Council of Czechoslovakian Churches and Vice-President of the Hungarian Reformed World Federation. He participated in the foundation of the J. Calvin Reformed Theological Academy, Komárom (now Komarno, Slovakia), and he was its Professor of Systematic Theology. He represented his Church at a number of international Church Conferences. From 1960, he published articles on theological subjects. – B: 0941, 1083, 1890, T: 7103, 7456.
Mikola, Nándor (Ferdinand) (Nándor Josef Mikolajcsik) (Budapest, 27 November 1911 - Unkari, Finland, May 3 2006) – Painter. Following in the footsteps of his father, he studied lithography at the Budapest College of Arts and Crafts and, at the same time, he studied painting at the Budapest Free Academy of Arts. Later he completed his studies at the Graphic Institute of Vienna, and in the Graphics Department of the Helsinki Athenaeum. He moved to Finland in 1936, and settled in Vaasa. He had his first exhibition in 1943, but he achieved his main breakthrough at the Exhibition of 1953, and several study trips abroad followed: Paris, Spain, Kenya, China, Mexico, Spitzbergen and Provence. His work reflected informality but he also painted landscapes, still life and abstract themes, sometimes in large watercolors. He had numerous courses on watercolor painting and he is regarded as the Master of Finnish Watercolor Painting. He exhibited in several capitals, in Budapest and in Stockholm. The Museum of Art in New York has one of his paintings, and there are several in the state collections of both Finland and Hungary. In 1995 he opened his own museum in Vaasa. He also made eight documentary films. He received a High Medal of Honor of the State of Hungary, and was awarded Honorary Professor of Art, and the Medal of the Order of White Rose of the State of Finland. – B: 0908, 1031, T: 7103.
Mikola, Sándor(Alexander) (Péterhegy, now Gornji Petrovci, Slovenia, 16 April 1871 - Nagykanizsa, 1 October 1945) – Physicist, politician. He studied at the University of Budapest, where he obtained a Degree in Mathematics and Physics in 1895. For a year, he worked with Baron Loránd (Roland) Eötvös, the renowned physicist. From 1895 till his retirement in 1935, he was a teacher and, from 1928 Principal at the Lutheran High School, Budapest. He was an outstanding teacher. He introduced laboratory works to his students. Jenő (Eugene) Wigner, Nobel laureate, was one of his students. His field of research was acoustics and physics of dielectrics. He invented the Mikola-tube for studying constant movement. He was an expert advisor to the Hungarian Delegation at the Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty preparation in 1919. In 1945 he was arrested and put in the Kidričevó Detention Camp. He died soon after his release. He was a bridge between two great generations of physicists; on the one hand, Loránd Eötvös, on the other, Wiegner, Neumann and Harsányi. His works include The Development of Basic Concepts in Physics (A physikai alapfogalmak kialakulása) (1911); The World of Thought of Physics(Afizika-gondolatvilága) (1933); Bases of Epistemology in Physics(A fizikai megismerés alapjai) (1941), and The Past and Present of the Wends (A vendség multja és jelene) (1928). He was President of the Hungarian Cultural Society in the Wend territory (Vendvidéki Magyar Művelődési Egyesület), and he was corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1921, and ordinary member from 1942. He was President of the Physicist Society of the Loránd Eötvös University, Budapest. A prize was created and named after him in 1961. – B: 0883, 1465, T: 7103.→Eötvös, Baron Loránd; Wiegner, Eugene; Neumann, von John; Harsányi, John C. Mikoviny, Sámuel (Mikovini) (Ábelfalva, now Ábelová, Slovakia 1698 – Beside Trencsén, now Trenčín, Slovakia, 23 March 1750) – Mathematician, engineer and cartographer. After finishing his studies in Besztercebánya (now Banská Bystrica, Slovakia), Berlin, Altdorf and Jena, he became Court Mathematician of the Duke of Saxony. In 1727 Count József (Joseph) Esterházy invited him to Tata to develop a water-regulating plan for the area. In 1728, in his work Epistola, he published his methods and practices of map-making, astronomy determinations, the use of quadrant, telescope, diopter and limbus calibrated in seconds, and also the development of a modern triangulating network. His work earned him membership in the Berlin Academy of Sciences. From 1728 he carried out geographical calculation of locations and land surveys in Hungary, and completed the maps of 49 counties in just seven years. Of these 23 are still in use. In 1733 he joined the large-scale geographical undertaking of Mátyás (Matthias) Bél. Eleven of his county maps were published in the four volumes of Notitia Hungariae that appeared between 1735 and 1742, a mere fraction of Mikoviny’s prodigious cartographical activities. The first map of Hungary, prepared on astronomical assessment, was based on his work. From 1735 he was appointed Hungarian Treasury Engineer in Selmecbánya (Schemnitz, now Banská-Štiavnica, Slovakia), and the first Professor of the newly established Institute of Mining Officer Education. He established a water-catchment system to secure the energy supply for the mining works of Selmecbánya. It was unheard of in his time, but the 16 reservoirs stored 7 million cubic meters of water. In 1745 he took part in the Silesian Campaign as Major of the Engineering Corps. He also worked on road and bridge constructions. After the war, he participated in the preparation of the rebuilding plans for the Royal Castle complex of Buda. It was typical of his versatility that he also pursued interests in metallurgy, forestry and archeology. He also excelled as a copper engraver. He was an important Hungarian polyhistor of his age; the first Hungarian to practice scientific cartography and a pioneer of Hungarian higher education in technology. In his honor the Mikoviny commemorative medal was established in 1950. – B: 1123, 1257, 1031, T: 7456.→Bél, Mátyás. Mikszáth, Kálmán (Coloman) (Szklabonya, renamed in 1910 Mikszáthfalva, now Sklabiná, Slovakia, 16 January 1847 - Budapest, 28 May 1910) – Writer, journalist. He was the child of a smallholder family; his father worked on a few acres of land and that is how he became acquainted with the people of his childhood. The colors of the village life, the Palóc (Slovak) countryside and its people impressed him early. The folksongs and folk-tales were the first literary imprints of his life. He studied in Rimaszombat (now Rimavská Sobota, Slovakia), and graduated from Selmecbánya (now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia). His first poems and novels were influenced mostly by the historical past. The latent national consciousness, during and following Habsburg absolutism, inspired his emotions and his thoughts. His favorite teachers bestowed on him the spirit of the lost freedom fight of 1848-1849, and he reflected on it until the end of his life.
Following his graduation, he became a law student in Pest, but did not graduate. In 1871 he was employed as a Juror of the District Administrator of Balassagyarmat and, from 1872, he was a law clerk, while sending his articles to newspapers in the Capital. After his wedding, he moved to Pest in 1873, where he began his fight for survival as a writer. In spite of his frugal lifestyle, he was able to finance the publishing of his novels in two volumes, the Short Stories (Elbeszélések) in 1874; but they did not stir much interest. The Diary of Szeged(Szegedi Napló) published his first novels, The Fox of the County (A vármegye rókája), and My Father’s Acquaintances (Az apám ismerősei), which caused some sensation. The most beautiful pieces of his short stories, the Slovak Kinsmen (Tót atyafiak) and the Good Palóc Folks (Jó palócok) were conceived in Szeged.
He worked from the time of the founding of the paper, Herald of Pest (Pesti Hirlap) in 1881 with short interruptions, for almost 25 years. At that time, he was already a well-known writer, member of several literary societies, and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences also accepted him as a member. Out of the Two Elections in Hungary, 1893-1897(Két választás Magyarországon, 1839-1897), grew his first political and parliamentary criticism. He exposed the despotism of the oligarchy in the Siege of Beszterce,(Beszterce ostroma) (1895). His novel, The Umbrella of Saint Peter (Szent Péter esernyője) was also published in 1895, and it became a great success, while in 1898, the New Zrinyiad(Új Zrinyiász) was a satirical novel about society life at the end of the century. His first critical realist novel, the Unusual Marriage (Különös házasság), published in 1900, is a passionate indictment of the clergy and the aristocracy. In the Black City (A fekete város), published posthumously in 1910, he illustrated, through the conflict of the city of Lőcse (now Levoča, Slovakia) and the county, how the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie gave up the great national goals due to class interests. His other major works are: The Two Beggar-students (A két koldusdiák) (1885); The Talking Gown (A beszélő köntös) (1889), and TheWomen of Szelistye (Szelistyei asszonyok) (1901).
He had an artful narration technique. He was an excellent stylist and his characters are full of dimensions. His language reflects the nuances of every-day language. He was the great master of the Hungarian critical realist prose. “I did not study writing from the great authorsbut from the Hungarian peasants” he used to say. Irony and emotional humor were his most important characteristics. His most artistic works are his short stories and his novels.
His birthplace was renamed to Mikszáthfalva soon after his death. His marble bust is at the building of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; the Mikszáth Museum opened in his country house in Horpács in 1953. – B: 1150, 0883, 1138, 1257, T: 3240.
Mikuleczky, Ferenc (Francis) (Miskolc, 25 September 1884 - Castle of Freudenstein in Tyrol, 1964) – Naval Officer, a Hungarian pioneer of aviation. He studied at the Naval Academy of Fiume; in 1905 he was made a Class I. naval cadet. It was in 1908 that his interest turned to aviation and the problems of plane-manufacture. In 1916 and 1917 he was leader of the naval aviation of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy as a Naval Lieutenant. Later, he became director of a plane factory in Budapest. After World War I, he left Hungary. – B: 0883, T: 7456.→Pioneers of Hungarian Aviation.
Mikus, Balázs (Blaise) (Pozsony, now Bratislava, Slovakia, 25 July 1955 - ) – Painter. He studied under the guidance of J. Želibský at the School of Art of Pozsony (1974-1980), and engaged in “chamber-painting”, applied graphics, mural techniques and designing of stage scenery. Regarding the artistic content, his chief interest lies in the struggle between the individual and his environment, attempting to employ expressions of gesticulation. From 1981 he participated in group-exhibitions in Prague, Pozsony Túrócszentmárton (now Martin, Slovakia), Dunaszerdahely (now Dunajská Streda, Slovakia), Szenice (now Senica, Slovakia), Trencsén (now Trenčín, Slovakia), Budapest, Komárom (Komárno, Slovakia) and Berlin. He had individual exhibitions in Szenc (now Senec, Slovakia) (1979), Komárom (1983), Pozsony (1984, 1986, 1990), Vágsellye (now Sal’a, Slovakia) (1986), and Privigye (now Prievidza, Slovakia). In 1982 he prepared costume and stage designs for Ibsen’s Nora at the Thália Theater of Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia); from 1985 to 1987, he worked on a mosaic for the Border Guard Plaza(Határőrök tere) in Pozsony. In an all-Slovakian art-show in Pozsony, he was awarded a Painting Prize (1986). – B: 1083, T: 7456.