M macartney, Carlile Aylmer

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Mádi Szabó, Gábor (Gabriel) (Nyíregyháza, 30 August 1922 - Budapest, 6 March 2003) – Actor. He started his acting career at the Madách Theater (Madách Szinház), Budapest in 1942. He was a member of the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest, from 1946, and the Csokonai Theater (Csokonai Színház), Debrecen, from 1950; the Youth Theater (Ifjúsági Színház) from 1952; and the Petőfi Theater (Petőfi Színház) from 1957. After being a member of a number of theaters, he finally retired in 1989 from the Attila József Theater (József Attila Színház). He personified some 170 major characters, including Petur in J. Katona’s Bánk bán; Mihály Józsa in Illyés’ Torch-flame (Fáklyaláng); Flambeau in Rostand’s Eaglet (Sasfiók); Laertes in Shakespeae’s Hamlet, and Lear in King Lear and Rabaut in J. Székely’s Protestants. He made many feature films, among them the Lieutenant of Rákóczi (Rákóczi Hadnagya) (1953); Saint Peter’s Umbrella (Szent Péter esernyője) (1958), the Poor Rich (Szegény gazdagok) (1959), and Somewhere in Hungary (Valahol Magyarországon) (1987). He also appeared in television productions. He was a suggestive character actor. He received the Jászai Prize (1957), the titles of Merited Artist and Outstanding Artist (1976, 1985), and the Kossuth Prize (1998). – B: 1439, 1445, T: 7103.
Mádl, Ferenc (Francis) (Band, 29 January 1931 - Budapest, 29 May 2011) – Politician, lawyer. He read Law first at the University of Pécs, then at the University of Budapest and obtained his Degree in Law in 1955. Between 1956 and 1971, he was an officer in charge of the juridical office of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. From 1961 to 1963 he was enrolled in post-graduate studies at the University of International and Comparative Law, Strasbourg, France. From 1971 he lectured at the Faculty of Law at the University of Budapest. In 1973, he became a Professor, and an Associate of the Institute of Political Science and Jurisprudence of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; in 1985 he was Chair of International Civil Law. He was a visiting professor at universities in the United States and Germany. He was appointed to the position of arbitrator to the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes, Washington, DC, USA, in 1989. In 1991 he was elected member of the Institut de Droit International. In the Hungarian Government, formed after the first free elections in 1990, as an independent, he became Minister without Portfolio from May 1990 to February 1993, then Minister of Culture and Education from February 1993 to July 1994. On 4 August 2000 he was elected President of the Republic of Hungary for a five-year term. His main field of research was international, civil, comparative and commercial law. He was a pioneer in establishing the requirements for the adaptation of Eastern European legal systems to the structures of the European Union. His works include Comparative International Civil Law (in Hungarian, 1978); The Law of International Transactions (1982); The Legal Structure of the Enterprise (1985), and State and Economy – Revolution by Means of Law in Central and East European Countries (1997). He became a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (correspondent 1987, regular 1993). He was elected Knight of the French Legion of Honor (1999). He received the Széchenyi Prize (1999), and an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Heidelberg, Germany (2001). – B: 0879, 0992, T: 7456.
Madonna, the Great (Nagyboldogasszony) – Blessed Mother (Boldogasszony), the Hungarian version of the Virgin Mary. Boldogasszony was an ancient Hungarian name for a female deity. In the 10th century Bishop St. Gellért (Gerhard) advised the western missionaries moving to Hungary to convert the nation, to apply the name Boldogasszony to Virgin Mary. Over the centuries the two names became synonymous amongst the people. The common people actually knew two versions of this name: (1) Nagyboldogasszony (The Great Madonna, the Great Blessed Mother) or Saint Anne and (2) Kisboldogasszony (Little Madonna, Blessed Mother) or Virgin Mary in the eyes of the people. The name of Boldogasszony has been applied to a variety of names. (1) Geographic place names such as Boldogasszonyfalva in County Bács-Bodrog, and Boldogasszony (Frauenkirchen) east of Lake Fertő, County Moson. (2) The name of the month January, which is regarded as the month of Boldogasszony. (3) Candle-dedicating (Gyertyaszentelő) Boldogasszony. (4) Fruit-grafting (Gyümölcsoltó) Boldogasszony. (5) Girls (Leányai) of Boldogasszony. (6) Many parishes bear this name. (7) The name of a wooden post, “Blessed Mother” (Boldogasszony) in the family rooms of country homes, decorated with carvings and kept close to the hearth; a wide-spread custom mainly in northern Hungary, in the Upland (Felvidék), now in Slovakia. (8) One of the most popular hymns of Catholic Hungarians is dedicated to Boldogasszony. It begins with the line Boldog Asszony anyánk, Régi nagy patrónánk...(Our Blessed Mother, Our ancient great Patroness). It is frequently sung especially in times of national peril. The festival of Boldogasszony is on 15 August, the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Assumptio Beatae Mariae Virginis).B: 0945, 1068, 1134, T: 7663, 7456, 7103.→Mother, Divine; Gellért, Saint; Pagan Religious World; Marriage Oath; Mary’s Kingdom.
Madsar, Russia – (1) Name of three cities on the high plateau of the Kuma River, surrounded by huge burial mounds attributed to the Cumanians. The small ruins of Kicskina Magar and Ulu Magar are located about 25 km from each other. Probably Anusirvan, the Sassanida Persian king, erected these around 530 A.D. In connection with these cities, Theophylactos Simokatta, 7th-century Byzantine historiographer, mentions that, during the victorious Persian wars of Byzantine Emperor Herakleios (622-628), “Theodoros and Andreas restored the old, ruined cities of the Matzars”. The large territory occupied by the cities indicates that their development took place over several centuries. The third settlement named Magar was located at the site of the present village called Poksino, but it was destroyed earlier. In Kicskina Magar, the Franciscans had a monastery in 1319. The Russians called it Ulu Magar Sventa Kreszta (Holy Cross); they found well-developed commerce and an advanced Muslim culture there. In 1395 the Mongol-Tartars of Timur Lenk destroyed the towns. Polish diplomat, Andrzej Taranowski, in his travel notes of 1569, mentions the ruins that remained until the18th century, when, on Potemkin's orders, the polished stones of the ruins were used in the building of the fortress of Jekaterinograd. In his notes of 1712, De la Montraye observes that the Masar cities were original Hungarian settlements. He based his opinion on information he received from the Tartar inhabitants. In 1829, Károly János (Charles John) Besse, and in 1895, members of the Zichy expedition, found only small ruins of these cities. Count Géza Kuun transcribed the name of the ruined cities as Magar, and that of the river as Bubala. In 1972, István (Stephen) Vásáry, an academician on a research assignment to St Petersburg, discovered a short description of the cities, dated to 1677. The Madsar name is still known among the people and it can be found in the official registry of names. (2) A province south of the Caucasian Mountains that, according to Derbendnameh, existed in the 8th century and was named after its inhabitants. The mention of the name Madsar, is actually the first reliable reference to the name of the Hungarian people. During the Middle Ages, the province was an important commercial center. In the cities, the Turkish women wore no veil, enjoyed complete personal freedom, dressed luxuriously, and possessed high social standing. Similarly to the Sumerians, they placed their dead into burial chambers lined with stones or bricks. – B: 1078, 1020, T: 7665.→ Zichy, Count István; Kuun, Count Géza; Magor.
Mády, Zoltán (Hilscher) (Budapest, 9 September 1898 - Budapest, 13 May 1977) – Historian, literary historian and sociologist. After completing his high school studies in Budapest, he served in the army on various fronts in World War I, between 1916 and 1918. During the rule of the Hungarian Council (Soviet) Republic in 1919, he fought as a Red soldier against the intruding Romanians. In the meantime, he studied Art, majoring in Hungarian and Latin at the University of Budapest, where he obtained his Degree in Education in 1921, and later a Ph.D. in Art. His main field of research was Celtic studies. From 1920 to 1924 he taught in Budapest. In 1924-1925 he headed the Section on Education in the Institute of Social Politics in the Faculty of Economics of the Budapest Polytechnic. From 1925 until 1945 he taught at the School of Economics on Márvány Street, Budapest and, concurrently, from 1936 to 1944, he was Assistant Lecturer on Sociography in the Arts Faculty of the University of Budapest. From 1936 he headed the Sociologist Group at the National Institute of Regions and Ethnography). In 1942 he organized a number of ethnographic research camps at Kemse, Sárpilis, Rábcakapi, Magyarnemegye (now Nimigea, Romania; the participants, among others, were András (Andrew) Gábriel, Sándor (Alexander) Kicsi, Béla Köpeczi, Tibor Zimányi. In 1945- 1946 he lectured on Sociology at the Teachers’ College of the University of Budapest. Between 1946 and 1949 he worked as a supervisor over displaced children in County Békés. From 1949 until his retirement in 1961, he was a teacher at the Ferenc (Francis) Rákóczi High School, Budapest. In addition to his work as a teacher, he regarded the educational-spiritual molding of the entire Hungarian youth as his task. For this reason, he also worked in the Scout Movement and became a correspondent for the men’s journal: The Youth of Hungary (Fiatal Magyarország). For decades, he undertook the direction of the Students’ House of Hársfa Street in Budapest, run by the Pro-Christo Students’ Association. He urged the creation of a Finnish-type People’s College, and played an important role in the creation of the renowned Lutheran People’s College at Nagytarcsa in 1938. In the interest of spreading the Lutheran faith, he launched the movement called “Prayer and Service”. From 1958 he was a lecturer and, from 1972 until his death, Titular Assistant Professor of the Department of Indo-European Linguistics of the Art Faculty of the University of Budapest. He was in charge of the special courses in Celtic Linguistics and Literature and Old Irish Linguistics. He held a Supervisory Office in the Lutheran Districts in Hungary. His works include National Youth Regional and Ethnographic Research (Országos ifjúsági táj-és népkutatás) (1943). – B: 0883, 1160, T: 7456

Madzsar, Alice (Mrs. József Madzsar) (née Alice Jászi) (Nagykároly, now Carei, Romania, 25 May 1885 - Budapest, 24 August 1935) – Eurhythmic artist, choreographer, dancing teacher. She was sister of Oscar Jászi the politician and sociologist. Since the early 1920s under the influence of avant-garde aspirations she put body movements to the use in artistic expression. She conducted a class during the years 1912-1937. Their first performance was in 1925. During 1926-1927 they performed reciting and dance choruses. In 1929 an eurhythmic drama on the New Prometheus (Új Prométheusz) was produced by Alice Madzsar and Magda Róna. It was also in 1929 that her pupils acted in her work, the Two Angels (Két Angyal), which was made into a film. In 1930 she composed and produced the play Handcuffs (Bilincsek), which is her most important choreographic work. The choral drama of 1930, Daughter of Ayrus (Ayrus leánya) by Alice Madzsar and Magda Róna features the eternal rebirth of beauty; this was followed in 1931 by the Babylonian Fair (Babiloni vásár), a one-act pantomime. Their shadow play or silhouette works, such as the Six-armed Goddess (Hatkarú istennő), or The Fisherman and the Silver of the Moon (A halász és a hold ezüstje) suggest a “total theater”. Their work with the most daring message is the Modern Suite (Korszerű szvit) (1933); but only its first part appeared on stage with the title Destruction (Rombolás) at Szolnok. The police banned this work, as well as her school. Beside Magda Róna, the artistic leader was Ágnes Kövesházi. After World War I the Madzsarists (Madzsaristák) became the founders of gymnastic training in Hungary. She was dealing with her method in her book The New Ways of Women’s Body Culture (A női testkultúra új útjai) (1926, 1977), published also in French La culture physique de la femme moderne (Paris, 1936). Alice Madzsar is regarded as the pioneer of female body culture in Hungary. – B: 0883, 1031; T: 7456.→Róna, Magda.

Madzsar, Imre (Emeric) (Nagykároly, now Carei, Romania, 1 February 1878 - Budapest, 3 August 1946) – Historian. He completed his higher studies at the Eötvös College of the University of Budapest, obtained a Diploma of Education for high schools and, in 1900, a Ph.D. in Liberal Arts. From 1900 to 1924 he was a high school teacher in District I of Budapest, later its principal; also, during 1913-1938, he lectured at the Eötvös College and was appointed honorary lecturer at the University of Budapest. Between 1924 and 1935 he was Secretary of the National Educational Council, also Titular Regional School Superintendent (1926-1935). He was mainly interested in the sources of Medieval Hungarian History, questions of Philosophy of History, History of Education, and Education itself (problems of reading and writing). His works include Individuals and Masses in History (Egyének és tömegek a történelemben) (1909); History, Teaching of History and Sociology (Történet, történettanitás és szociológia) (1910); Reform of the Teaching of History (A történettanitás reformja) (1913); The Periods of World History (A világtörténet korszakai) (1932), and History and Memory (Történelem és emlékezet) (1940). He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding from 1925, regular from 1938). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Madzsghars – A name used by Ibn Ruszta and Gardizi for the Magyars of Levedia, before 650 AD. As the Arabic script does not denote vowels, in the original records the text “m.dzsgh.r” appears. – B: 1078, 1020, T: 7684.→Levedia.
Maeotis – Former name of the Sea of Azov. In their early history, the ancestors of Hungarians lived on the eastern fringe of Europe along the Kama River. Since they were pastoralists, in summer they moved as far north as the source region of the Kama River, where they met with Finno-Ugric peoples. In the winter, they usually moved southward where the River Volga flows into the Caspian Sea. According to the Chronicle of Simon Kézai, the Hun and Magor tribes moved to and settled in the Meotis (Maeotis) area (739-745). The new country was around the northern shores of the Sea of Azov, extending as far as the Dnepr River; they later called it Levedia after their leader. They lived in association with the Khazar Empire. Anonymus, the chronicler (12th century), in his chronicles, calls Levedia Dentumoger. Ügek was the leader of the leading Megyer Tribe. At first Előd, later Álmos followed him in this position. – B: 1138, 1031, T: 7103.→Levedia; Kézai, Simon; Anonymus; Origin, Legends of.

Mag, Mrs. Vince (née Elza Varga) (Medveshidegkút, now Studena, Slovakia, 10 January 1932 - ) – Worker, leader of a group for the preservation of traditions. She completed her eight years of primary school at Medveshidegkút in 1946. Thereafter, she was an agricultural worker (1946-1952), and dressmaker (1952-1970). From 1970 until her retirement in 1989, she worked at agricultural cooperatives of Medveshidegkút and Egyházasbást (now Nova Bašta, Slovakia). When the group for preservation of traditions was formed in her birthplace in 1972, she became its leader. She set out to collect all the traditions of the district, its folk customs and songs. The endeavor proved a national success. She regularly participated in the national competitions within Slovakia for the preservation of traditions and folk music referred to as: The Spring Wind Brings Flood… (Tavaszi szél vizet áraszt...). Her group placed first in 1980, 1987 and 1989, while other times they achieved outstanding mentions in district and regional competitions. Their program was about the local wedding customs, Easter traditions, carnival and harvesting times. They appeared on several occasions at Zseliz (now Zeliezovce, Slovakia) and Gombaszög (near Szalóc/Salovec). She did preparatory work in 1986 and 1990 for A. Takács’ and Gy. Pálfy’s documentary film about her village. She established a museum in her village in 1982, and became its trustee, constantly adding to its exhibits. Between 1980 and 1990 she was President of the Local Adult Education Center. In 1989 she participated at the 100-year anniversary conference of the Hungarian Ethnographical Society in Budapest. The Czechoslovak Radio’s Hungarian broadcast prepared three reports on her activities and the traditions of her village. Her publications are Data on the Origin of Medveshidegkút (Medveshidegkút keletkezésének adatai), (1988)é Common Sayings in Hidegkút (Szólásmondások Hidegkúton) (1988)é Peasant Customs, Beliefs, Superstitions in my Village (Népszokások, hiedelmek, babonák a falumban) (1989)é Inscriptions on our Tombstones (Siremlékeink feliratai) (1989), Folk Tales (Népmesék) (1990), Proverbs (Közmondások) (1990), and Recipes of Old Dishes (Régi ételek receptjei) (1991). She received 2nd Prize in a folk song competition and the Outstanding Folk Artist Prize of the Czechoslovakian Hungarian Workers’ Cultural Federation (1986). – B: 1083, T: 7456.
Magarab People – An ethnically mixed tribe of Hungarian-Berber origin living in the area of the middle section of the River Nile. They are descendents of those Hungarians, who were captured by Sultan Selim II’s troops in 1516. Originally, they were mostly from the County of Temes, transported to Sudan where, following the war, they started building homes.

Although the Turkish occupation of Hungary ended in 1686, another wave of voluntary emigrants arrived in 1755 from Hungary; but those were already Moslems, converted during the Turkish occupation. They lived in two larger groups: in the northern part of the Sudan and the southern part of Egypt. Those in the Sudan were assigned to settle at Wadi Halfa, as well as in Halfa Daghim, an island in the River Nile (it was called Magyar-artim) until the Aswan Dam was built. Eventually, they were dispersed into the surrounding settlements. Their language is a mixture of Arabic, Turkish, Nubian and Hungarian, while, in the Sudan, they speak the Nubian Fadidzha dialect. Those living in Egypt reside mainly in Aswan and Kom Ombo, as well as the surrounding villages and some are in Cairo.

The Magarabs’ skin is much lighter than those of the locals and even today they have the facial features of their ancestors. Based on their stories and on estimates, today there are close to 14,000 Magarabs living in the areas of Wadi Ralfa, Cairo, Aswan, Kom Ombo and surrounding regions and also scattered in several other locations.

They never kept any written records but their ancestry lines are carved on doorposts. They know about their origin from oral tradition and are interested in their old homeland. Swedish experts opened up burial grounds on the island prior to flooding due to the Aswan Dam. They removed some bones that prove the Magarabs originated from the Carpathian Basin. Their discoverer and first researcher was László Ede (Ladislas Edward) Almásy. – B: 1134, 1106, 1120, T: 7684.→Africa, Hungarians in; Almásy, László Ede.

Magas, István (Steven) (Nagykanizsa, 28 September 1924 - Calgary, Canada, 9 October, 2000) – Petroleum geologist. In 1942 he graduated from the Piarist High School in his home town, after which he was called up for military service. He graduated from the Ludovika Royal Hungarian Military Academy as an artillery second lieutenant in the fall of 1944. With his military corps, he was stationed in Germany, where he survived the destructive carpet-bombing of Dresden on 13 February 1945, and where he was taken prisoner of war by the American forces. He returned to Hungary on 9 November 1945. Upon his return, he enrolled at the University of Budapest and graduated in 1950 with a degree as a petroleum geologist. He gained his early professional experience while working in Biharnagybajom, the oil center of the Great Plain (Nagyalföld), where he became Head Geologist in 1952. He became Chief Geologist for the Great Plains Region in 1954, with headquarters located in Szolnok and Abony. His advancement was achieved without ever having been a member of the Communist Party. On 23 October 1956, the day the Hungarian Revolution broke out, he was in Budapest, where he became a participant in the historical events and joined the revolutionary activities. He was elected President to the Workers' Council in the oil industry for the Great Plains Region and, on 20 November, he was elected Co-president of the Workers' Council of the National Oil Industry. Being on the list of those to be arrested, he fled with his family to the West, following the brutal crushing of the Revolution by Soviet troops. After a short stay in Austria, he moved to London, where he soon became employed by the Geophysical Service Inc. of Texas and worked in Libya, Iraq and Iran. At the end of 1957, he moved to Regina, Canada, and later to Calgary, always working within the oil industry as a leading geologist and a consultant. While he was in London the Hungarian Freedom Fighters World Federation was founded by Lajos (Louis) Dálnoki Veress. István (Stephen). Magas was one of its founding members and later its President (1984-2000). He was a leading figure in many Hungarian organizations. Some prominent ones are: The North American Coordinating Committee, (under his presidency the Human Rights Declaration was passed and the families of the executed revolutionaries gained access to their graves), Hungarian Veterans' Association, Széchenyi Society, East & Middle European Congress, Saint László (Ladislas) Order, etc. The town of Abony, in 2003, placed a memorial plaque for “István Magas - The Revolutionary”. An annual footrace, called “Futabony”, is held to remember him and the Hungarian Freedom Fight of 1956. – B: 7103, 1913, T: 7456.→Ludovika Royal Hungarian Military Academy.
Magasházi, Ödön (Edmund) (?, 1884 - Budapest, 4 February 1950) – Corporate Director. During and following World War II, he served as Technical Director for the Weiss Manfred Works, Budapest. The workers of Csepel (the southern industrial part of Budapest), under his leadership, started the rebuilding of the W.M. plants. The Military Police arrested and charged him under the pretext of espionage and supplying of information early in 1949; he was sentenced to death and was executed in the courtyard of the military prison on Margaret Boulevard in Budapest. He was one of the most qualified Hungarian technology specialists. His son, Ádám (Adam) Magasházi organized a Resistance Group with his friends in Csepel, protesting the alleged disloyalty of his father. They were captured and charged; but since most of them were under age (under 19) at the time of sentencing in August 1951, they were only sentenced to life imprisonment. However, on their 20th birthday they were sentenced to death and were executed in the transit prison in June 1952. – B: 1020, T: 7456.
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