M macartney, Carlile Aylmer

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Méray-Horváth, Károly (Charles) (Pest, 30 March 1859 - Budapest, 26 April 1938) – Sociologist and writer. He studied Technical and Fine Art courses in Munich and Paris. Between 1887 and 1893 he was Editor of the journal Arad and Environs (Arad és környéke). At the end of the 19th century he invented a new kind of typesetting machine. He took part in the civic radicals’ movement. In 1906, he became Vice-President of the Sociological Society. He wrote books, pamphlets and novels dealing with sociology and politics. He was a representative of the theory of “organic” sociology. He conceived sociology as a biological type of science. His works include Fire and Ash (Tűz és hamu) (1890); Die Physiologie der Weltgeschichte und der kommende Tag (1901); Hungarian Politics and Sociology (1911); Towards a New World (Új világ felé)(novel, 1917), and Two Prima Donnas (novel, 1923). – B: 0883, T: 7456.
Méray, Tibor (Budapest, 6 April 1924 - ) – Writer. From 1942 to 1946 he studied in the Department of Arts at the University of Budapest, majoring in Hungarian and Latin. From 1946 he was Associate Editor for the parent paper of the Communist Party, the Free People (Szabad Nép), later he reported from Korea and Berlin. From 1947 to 1949 he was Editor for the paper, Star (Csillag). In 1954 he was a member of the Editorial Board of Free People. He turned against Rákosi and broke with Stalinism; therefore, in the autumn of 1955 he was discharged from the paper, Free People. He became a member of the writers’ opposition. After the fall of the 1956 Revolution and freedom fight he fled to Yugoslavia, then went to Paris and settled there in 1957. He edited the paper, Literary News (Irodalmi Újság) from 1962 until it ceased publication in 1989. He authored novels, recollections and political studies. His books appeared in various European languages. His works include Imre Nagy (in English 1958); Thirteen Days that Shook the Kremlin (1959); Politik ohne Gnade, study, (1966); Dreiecke, novel (1971), and Life and Death of Imre Nagy (Nagy Imre élete és halála) (1978, 1989). He received the Attila József Prize (1952) and the Kossuth Prize (1953). – B: 1672, T: 7456.
Mérei, Ferenc (Francis) (Budapest, 24 November 1909 - Budapest, 28 February 1986) – Child psychologist. From 1928 to 1934 he studied under H. Wallon at the University of Paris (Sorbonne). He obtained two Degrees: one from the Institut National d’Orientation Professionelle (1933), and one from the Faculty of Art in Education (Psychology, Sociology, Philosophy) a year later (1934). On returning to Hungary, he worked as a volunteer in the State Institute of Child Psychology (1934-1938), and between 1938 and 1940 he also worked without pay at the laboratory of the Training College for Teachers of Handicapped Children. He earned his living by coaching languages in these volunteer years. During World War II, from 1942 he did forced labor on the Russian front. In 1944 he escaped to the Soviet side and, as a captain of the Soviet army and correspondent of the newspaper New Word (Új Szó), published in Moscow, he returned to Hungary, following the Soviet occupying forces. From 1945 to 1948 he headed the Metropolitan Institute of Psychology and taught in two colleges as well. In 1949 and 1950 he was Director of the State Institute of Educational Psychology. In 1950 due to changes in the Communist Party’s policies in education, he was relieved of his position and excluded from the Hungarian Workers’ Party (Magyar Dolgozók Pártja – MDP). He was unemployed until 1956 and earned his living from translations. Later on he was rehabilitated. He took an active part in the 1956 Revolution. In 1957 he was appointed to the Institute of Psychology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, while, in 1958, due to political agitation, he was sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment, but received amnesty in 1963. From 1964 until his retirement in 1976, he was the leading psychologist of the National Mental Hospital and Neurological Institute (OIE). He received a Ph.D. in Psychology in 1982. His works include World View of the Child (A gyermek világnézete) (1945), and Psychological Diary (Lélektani napló) (1986). He received the Kossuth Prize (1949). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Merétey, Sándor (Alexander) (Kecskemét, 10 May 1930 - ) – Minister of the Reformed Church. He studied Theology at the Reformed Theological Academy, Budapest (1948-1953). He was Assistant Minister in Fót and Budakeszi (1953-1962); he was Minister in Budakeszi from 1962 until his retirement, where he built a new modern church. He was Director of the General Synod’s Archive (1976-1987); Department Chair of the General Synod (1987-1997), and Counselor of the General Synod from 1997, until his retirement in 2005. He is one of the main organizers of the famous Szárszó Conferences. In his retirement, he is Director of the Soli Deo Gloria Conference Center, Szárszó, built in 2004. His collected sermons, entitled: For me Llife is Christ (Nekem az élet Krisztus) was published at his 80th birthday in 2010. He received a medal of distinction from the Republic of Hungary, and he was made freeman o Budakeszi. – B: 0873, T: 7103.
Merited and Outstanding Artist - Titles reserved and granted to the best performing members of the arts community in Hungary. – B: 0952, T: 7103.

Mérő, Jolán (Jolanda Mero) (Budapest, 30 August 1887 - 17 October 1963) – Piano virtuoso. She began to study piano at the age of five, and was admitted to the Conservatory of Music of Budapest, well below the required age. She studied with Auguste Rennebaum, a student of Liszt. In 1908 she was appointed Professor at the National Conservatory in Budapest. Her American debut was with the Russian Symphonic Orchestra in 1909. She performed with several leading orchestras, and played extensively in the USA, Mexico, Cuba, and South America and in Europe. Her commanding technique and artistry in interpretation brought her great admiration. Her recordings include J.S. Bach: Prelude in B minor; Liszt: 2nd Hungarian Rhapsody, and Beethoven: Sonata No. 2 for Cello and Piano. She won the state prize on two occasions. – B: 0903, T: 7103.
Mester, László (Ladislas) (Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 1919 - Paris, 20 February 1986) – Physician. He started his medical education in Kolozsvár, and continued it at the Budapest Polytechnic. In 1940 he became an assistant professor and later, a professor at the same university. Mester acquired his scientific education at the Charlottenburg Institute in Berlin, later at the Pharmaceutical Faculty at Paris. In France, he undertook scientific research at different Pharmaceutical Institutes and assumed a leading position. Several international organizations and universities, appreciating his research activities, elected him a member. His activity was outstanding in the field of leprosy research, so much so, that the Japanese awarded him the Mitsuda Prize. – B: 1020, T: 7660.
Mester, Péter (Peter) (Érsekújvár, now Nove Zamky, Slovakia, 18 April 1950 - ) – Painter. After completing the School of Industrial Arts of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), he studied Tapestry Planning at the Academy of Applied Art under the Gobelin teachers, K. Pleznivy, F. Pogány and M. Szilvitzky (1969-1974). He taught for a short time, but for political reasons, he had to give it up. He is a freelance artist, draws mosaics and prepares wall tapestries. His works include Wall Hanging in Komárom, Hommage à Picasso; Hommage à Bartók, (1975); Fresco at Dunamócs (1988), and Stucco and Fresco (1990). He had individual exhibitions practically all over the world, in Mikulov (Moravia), Tangier (Morocco), Lisbon (Portugal) (1977), Moscow (1979), Prague (1981), Pozsony and Warsaw (1979); in Komárom, Nagyszombat (now Trnava, Slovakia) and Radvány (now Radvan nad Hronom) (1981); in Munich, Nuremberg, Kiev, Besztercebánya (now Banska-Bystrica, Slovakia) (1985), Érsekújvár (1987), Szimő (1988), Seoul, (South Korea) (1989) and in Paris’s Charles de Gaulle Airport (1990). He received the Prize of Excellence of the Ministry of Culture (1985) and The Building of the Year's Prize (1987). – B: 1083, T: 7456.
Mesterházi, Lajos (Louis) (Hoffstaedter) (Kispest, 3 March 1916 - Budapest, 4 April 1979) - Journalist. He completed High School in 1934, then studied Latin and French for a Degree in Education at the Eötvös College of the University of Budapest. During 1938 and 1939 he was in Paris on a scholarship. In 1940 he obtained his Degree in Education and also his Ph.D. in Art. He became a commercial associate of the English-Hungarian Bank. He was Secretary of the Communist Party (Budapest District I) from 1945. In 1947 and 1948, he was a correspondent for the Literary Section of the Hungarian News Agency (Magyar Távirati Iroda - MTI) and in 1949 for the Hungarian Radio. He was Editor for the periodical Educated People (Művelt Nép) (1950-1954), then Editor for the literary paper Life and Literature (Élet és Irodalom) (1957-1958). From 1966 he was Editor for the journal, Budapest. In his articles, he featured the life of the lower middle class and the intelligentsia of the 1930s, describing how they were seeking their place in life. After the 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight, he stressed loyalty to basic principles and breaking with dogmas. In 1958, his play, the People of Pest (Pesti emberek) was staged with great success, and became an initiator of self-examination of the “moralizing” generation. Mesterházi particularly liked to turn to the “fortunate types” of hero, who can resist the attraction of power, capable of remaining pure, even in the storms of history. Among his works are Shiny Breezes (Fényes szellők) novel (1956); Message (Üzenet) play (1960); The Eleventh Commandment (A tizenegyedik parancsolat) play (1961); The Age of Innocence (Az ártatlanság kora) novel (1963); God, by Size (Isten méretre) novel (1966); Cheerful Hours (Derűs órák) stories (1968); The Prometheus Enigma (A Prométheus rejtély), novel, (1973; in Bulgarian 1983); Vacation (Vakáció) novel (1979), and The Logic of Patriotism (A hazafiság logikája) essays (1983). He received a number of prizes, including the Attila József Prize (1952, 1953, 1959, 1973), the Kossuth Prize (1962) and the Prize of the Central Council of the Hungarian Trade Unions (Szakszervezetek Országos Tanácsa – SZOT) (1977). – B: 0878, 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Mesterházy István (Stephen) (Mesterháza, 23 April 1811 - Mesterháza, 8 December 1854) – Honvéd military officer. He studied at the Lutheran Lyceum of Sopron and, from 1831, he was a Cadet in the 32nd Miklós Esterházy regiment. From 1832 he was a Royal Hungarian Body Guard. From 1837 he served in the 6th Cuirassiers Cavalry Regiment, where he became a Captain. During the War of Independence from Habsburg oppression, he fought with the rank of major from 9 July 1848. He was Commander of the National Guard of Mezőtúr and environs; after taking Buda Castle on 21 May 1849 he was promoted to the rank of Colonel. On 16 November 1849 he was first sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to 18 years’ imprisonment in a fortress. In the last three years of his life, he was imprisoned in turn at Olmütz, Kufstein and Lipótvár. – B: 0883, T: 7456.
Mészáros, Ági (Ágnes Éberli) (Budapest, 24 May 1918 - Budapest, 8 March 1989) – Actress. Her mother is the actress Ági Mészáros. Her parents worked in a theater and suggested her to become an actress, thus she acted on stage at the age of 15. She did not go to acting school; however, her acting in country theaters proved to be a good schooling. She became a true actress under the direction of Jenő (Eugene) Sziklai at Szeged, and was noticed early on, because of the sincere charm of her acting. In 1939 Antal (Anthony) Németh offered her a contract at the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest, and she remained there until her retirement in 1983. She played minor roles in the beginning. Playing Niccodemi’s The Brat (Tacskó) in 1943, she already showed her talent. The following years, she was given ingénue roles; she interpreted Molière’s young women, as well as Hungarian peasant girls, with attractive sweetness and charm. She received the most important roles of her carrier after 1945 and, through movies she became one of the most popular actresses in her homeland. Her acting was simple without being artificial; the character of the roles she played manifested itself first of all in her diction. Her more important roles were in Lehár’s The Land of Smiles (A mosoly országa); in Kosztolányi’s Dearest Anne (Édes Anna); Abigail in Scribe’s A Glass of Water (Egy pohár víz); Beatrice in Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing (Sok hűhó semmiért); Puck in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer-Night’s Dream (Szentiványéji álom); Izabella in Molière’s The School for Husbands (A férjek iskolája); Agnes in Molière’s The School for Wives (A nők iskolája); Eliza in Shaw’s Pygmalion; Adela in Garcia-Lorca’s House of Bernarda (Bernarda Háza), and Elisabeth Proctor in Miller’s The Crucible (A szalemi boszorkányok). She also appeared in a number of feature films including Foothold (Talpalatnyi föld) (1948); Gentlemen’s Fun (Úri muri) (1949); Guns and Doves (Puskák és galambok) (1961); Singing Bird (Énekesmadár) (1966), and the Tales of Budapest (Budapesti mesék) (1976). Among her TV films are: Amphitrio (1963); The Inspector (A revizor) (1970), and The Enemy of the People (A nép ellensége) (1978. She received twice the Kossuth Prize (1950, 1954), and also the titles of Merited Artist (1950), and Outstanding Artist (1954). – B: 0871, 1445, 1031, T: 7684.→Voith, Ági.
Mészáros, András (Andrew) (Bélvata, now Vojtechnove, Slovakia, 11 July 1949 - ) – Philosopher, historian. He studied at the Komensky University, Bratislava (formerly Pozsony) (1968-1973), where he obtained a Teacher of Philosophy Degree. After being a manual laborer between 1973 and 1983, he became an adjunct professor at the Komensky University. Since 1983 he has been an Associate at the Bratislava Institute of Philosophy of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. His field of research is History of Philosophy and Philosophy of Society. His works include The Hegel Debate in Hungary…(A Hegel vita Magyarországon…) (1984); The Value of Ideas and the Continuity of Time (Az eszmék értéke és az idő kontinuitása) (1987), and the “As if Being” and Philosophy (“Mintha lét” és filozófia) (1990). – B: 1083, T: 7103
Mészáros, Attila (Vághosszúfalu, now Dlhá nad Váhom, Slovakia, 29 January 1951 - ) – Astrophysicist. He attended Hungarian primary schools in Vághosszúfalu and Vágsellye (now Sala, Slovakia) (1957-1966), and a Hungarian High School in Galánta (1966-1969). From 1969 to 1979 he studied at the Department of Chemistry, then at the Department of Physics, Natural Science Faculty, University of Prague. Between 1976 and 1980 he was an Associate of the Prague Observatory. From 1980 to 1984 he was on post-graduate studies, then an associate at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. In 1984 he became a lecturer at the Department of Astronomy of the Faculty of Mathematics-Physics, University of Prague. His research fields are: theory of relativity, theory of gravitation and astrophysics. Since 1988 he has been a member of the International Astronomical Society (IAU). His papers appear in the Physical Review; General Relativity and Gravitation; Astrophysical Journal; Acta Physica Hungarica, and Articles; he also publishes in the Week (Hét); New Youth (Új Ifjúság), and in Czech and German magazines. – B: 1083, T: 7456.
Mészáros, Gyula (Julius) (Szakcs, 28 March 1883 - New York, USA, January 1957) – Orientalist, ethnographer, Turkologist. During 1904-1906 he studied Turkish in Constantinople (now Istanbul). From 1906, commissioned by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, he spent 18 months among the Chuvash and Tatars of the Volga region, to collect folkloric material. In 1909 he earned a Ph.D. in the Turkish-Tatar language from the University of Budapest. From 1909 to 1915 he worked at the Ethnographic Section of the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest, where his Bashkir Collection (1909) and the objects of the Constantinople region (1910) were deposited. In 1910 he was searching for the original home of the Magyars in Anatolia. From 1916 until the end of World War I, he was Professor, and Head of the Hungarian Chair at the University of Constantinople. In 1920-1921 he was involved a dubiuous financial action and was arrested in Vienna, for being active in the preparation of counterfeiting the French Franc; later he was freed on bail. From the mid-1920s he was the Scientific Head of the Anatolian Ethnographic Museum in Ankara. In 1930-1931 he studied the language of the Pakhy people, originally from the Caucasus region, who settled in northwestern Anatolia. On his return to Hungary in 1932 he became a correspondent for the National Committee for the Protection of Historic Monuments, associated with the Museum of History, and was also invited to lecture at the University of Szeged. He studied the influence of the Turkic people and the Eastern Culture on ethnic Hungarians. He also studied the Caucasian languages. During 1943 and 1944 (when historic Southern Hungary – Délvidék was returned to Hungary, after the defeat and disintegration of Yugoslavia during the German campaign), he became a professor at the College of Eastern Commerce of Újvidék (now Novi Sad, Serbia). After World War II, following the reconstitution of the Yugoslavian State, he left Southern Hungary and settled in Turkey. In 1951 he emigrated to the USA, and settled in New York. His theoretical models were not accepted in Turkological research circles. His collected material, especially from the Chuvash territory is of real scientific value. His works include Chuvash Folk Poetry Collection, vol. i (1909), vol. ii (1912); Magna Ungaria, the Bashkir–Hungarian Problem (1910); Early Cumanian Linguistic Records in Hungary (1914), and Die Päkhy-Sprache (1934). – B: 0883, 1068, T: 7456.
Mészáros, István (1) (Stephen) (Pácin, 2 April 1929 - Miskolc, 14 February 2007) – Bishop of the Reformed Church. He studied Theology at the Reformed Theological Academy, Sárospatak (1947-1951) and in Debrecen (1951-1952). He was an assistant minister in Nagyrozvágy, Mád, Újfehértó, Debecen, Abaújvár, Kisgyőr and Miskolc-Hejőcsaba (1952-1956); he was Parish Minister in Kisgyőr (1956-1985), then in Miskolc-Avas (1985-2007). He was on a scholarship at the Theological Seminary in Princeton, USA (1982-1983). He became Bishop of the Cistibiscan (Tiszántúli) Reformed Church District in 1991, and was Professor of Systematic Theology at the Reformed Theological Academy, Sárospatak, and Professor at the University of Miskolc from 1999. – B: 0873, T: 7103
Mészáros, István (2) (Stephen) (Budapest, 19 December 1930 - ) – Philosopher, critic. He studied in Budapest and Jena. He was a demonstrator for the philosopher György (George) Lukács at the University of Budapest. He obtained a Ph.D. in Arts (Philosophy) and authored studies and critiques. After the 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight, he fled to the West. From 1958 he was Editor for the literary journal, Consciousness (Eszmélet), and from 1956 to 1959 he gave lectures on Philosophy at the University of Turin. Between 1959 and 1961 he was a research associate at the University of London. From 1961 to 1966 he was an honorary lecturer at St. Andrews University of Scotland. From 1966, he was an honorary lecturer at the University of Sussex in Brighton. In 1972 he became Professor of Sociology at York University, Toronto. He published works only in English. He remained a Marxist thinker, even after his departure from Hungary and its break with Communism; consequently, he faced political difficulties in his professional career. His works include Marx’s Theory of Alienation (1970); Lukács’s Concept of Dialectic (1972); The Work of Sartre: I. Search for Freedom (1982), and Philosophy, Ideology and Social Science; Essays in Negation and Affirmation (1986). He received the Attila József Prize (1951) – B: 1672, T: 7456.→Lukács, György.
Mészáros, Kálmán (Coloman) (Gyula, 8 May 1894 - Miskolc, 25 September 1971) – Physician, Africa researcher, traveler and writer. During the years 1924 to 1935 he was permanently in Abyssinia (now Ethiopia). The Emperor, Haile Selassie I, initially appointed him physician of the Imperial Army, and later, he made him his personal physician. He had the opportunity to travel over large areas and experience dangerous and exciting hunting trips. In 1938 he was forced to leave Abyssinia because of the occupation of the Empire by the Italian army, and he had to return to Hungary. He continued working as a physician, first in Kiskunfélegyháza, and later in Ároktő in County Borsod, near the River Tisza. His document collection, richly illustrated by photographs and on films, shows his African experiences and observations. His African legacy and trophies are preserved in the Hungarian Natural Science Museum (National Museum) in Budapest. – B: 1731, T: 7456.
Mészáros, Lázár (Lazarus) (Baja, 20 February 1796 - Eywood, England, 16 November 1858) – Hungarian (Honvéd) army officer, politician. After his studies in Law, he joined the Austrian Imperial Army and became Commander of the 5th Radetzky Hussar Regiment. On 7 April 1848 King Ferdinand V appointed him Minister of Defense in the Batthyány Government, and promoted him to General at the same time. As the Minister of Defense, he strove to maintain loyalty to the Habsburgs for a long time, hence he lost his initial popularity. During the War of Independence (1848-1849), he was a member of the National Defense Committee: from 15 April 1849 he was Lieutenant General, between 2 and 24 July Commander-in-Chief, then Chief of General Staff. He also took part in the direction of several military operations and, although he behaved heroically as an army leader, but fortune usually avoided him. In 1844 the Hungarian Academy of Sciences elected him corresponding member for his scientific work carried out during his military service. – B: 1150, 1078, 0883, T: 7456.
Mészáros, Lőrinc (Lawrence) (? - 1514) – Priest. He was known as Father Lőrinc, his nickname was “the big-stick” Lőrinc (Nagybotú Lőrinc). He was born into a peasant family of Megyaszó. He became a priest and was Parish Minister in Cegléd, when he joined the army of Görgy (George) Dózsa. He became second-in-command of the Dózsa uprising (1414). He recruited over 2000 peasants from Cegléd and its region for the projected crusade to the Holy Land, announced by the Pope, organized by Archbishop Tamás (Thomas) Bakócz. Mészáros was a skillful and convincing orator. He persuaded Dózsa to command the peasant army’s uprising. After the uprising was defeated at Temesvár (now Timişoara, Romania), Mészáros took over the command of the rebels but was defeated by Archbishop Pál (Paul) Tomori. According to certain sources, he hid out in the area of Zilah (now Zalặu, Romania). However, he was caught, prosecuted, sentenced to death, and burned at the stake. High Schools, Colleges and Streets bear his name. – B: 1078, 0883, T: 7103.→Dózsa, György; Bakócz, Tamás.
Mészáros, Márta (Budapest, 19 September 1931 - ) – Producer, scriptwriter. Her family moved to the Soviet Union, where her father became a victim of the Communist regime. She lived there between 1935 and 1946 and obtained a producer’s diploma from the Federal State Film Academy (Össz-szövetségi Állami Filmfőiskola). At the beginning of her career, she made newsreels and documentary films in Bucharest and Budapest. In 1958 she married the producer Miklós (Nicholas) Jancsó. From 1958 to 1968 she worked as a short film producer at the MAFILM. She has produced feature films since 1967. Her favorite subject is the fate of females. The western feminist movement recognized her works. She settled in Poland and has been living there. She is the Acting President of the Imre (Emeric) Nagy Society. So far she has produced 16 feature films, including Departed Sun (Eltávozott Nap) (1968); Nine Months (Kilenc hónap) (1976) Inheritance (Örökség) (1980); Diary to My Child (Napló gyermekemnek) (1982); Diary to my Loves (Napló szerelmeimnek) (1987); Diary to My Father and Mother (Napló apámnak és anyámnak) (1990); The Seventh Room (A hetedik szoba) (1995), and The Miraculous Mandarin (A csodálatos mandarin) (2001). The Unburied Dead (A temetetlen halott) (2004) is about the trial and execution of Imre Nagy, Prime Minister of Hungary in 1956. She received a number of prizes, including the C.I.D.A.L.S. Prize (1975), the F.R.I.P.E.S.C.I Prize (1977) and the O.C.I.C. Prize (1995). – B: 1031, 1690, T: 7103.→Jancsó, Miklós; Nagy, Imre.
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