M macartney, Carlile Aylmer

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Mecsek Mountain (Pécs Mountain) – Fault-block mountain of Permian to Cretaceous sediments, largely carbonates, including the Liassic coal deposit, red sandstone and also some Neogene volcanics. All this overlies a relict mountain of old crystalline rocks in the northern part of County Baranya, in Transdanubia, situated between the Bükkösd Creek and the Baranya and Sárvíz Creeks. In the N and NE a group of hills joins it. Its southern slope is fairly steep. The Mánfa Saddle (394 m) divides into two parts. The average height is 400-500 m, the highest points in the West are Mecsek (612 m) and Misinatető (534 m), in the East, the peak Zengővár (682 m, the highest point of the Mecsek Mountain). The whole mountain is covered with attractive deciduous forests. On its southern slopes there is wine growing, while on its northern slopes and the adjoining hilly countryside there is a well-developed and active agricultural life with a dense population. The Liassic bituminous coal constitutes is important mineral wealth and in the limestone areas are locally karstic. The Abaliget Cave provides special zoological interest with its 184 different animal species living in its galleries (466 m long, mostly 3 m high and 2 m wide). Famous is the Mecsek flora, with the characteristic, so-called leopard’s bane Doronicum caucasicum, the orchis Ophrys cornuta and the Asperula taurina among others. Touristically the Mecsek Mountain is fairly well developed and tourism is cared for by the Mecsek Society of Pécs, with building and maintenance of the roads, lookouts and tourist hostels. – B: 1068, 7456, T: 7456.
Medak, Peter (Budapest, 23 December 1939 - ) – Film director of British and American films. He fled Hungary after the Soviet military crushed the 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight, and soon settled in Britain, where his opera singer aunt helped him to fulfill his dream of movie making. He worked at the Pathé Laboratory in London between 1956 and 1963. In 1963, he moved to the USA, where he was first with Universal Television in Hollywood, then he directed at the Paramount Company. From 1968 he acted as Stage Director as well. His major films are Negatives (1968); A Day in the Death of Joe Egg (1972); The Ruling Class (1972); Ghost in the Noonday Sun (1974); Odd Job (1978); The Changeling (1980); The Men's Club (1986); Breaking Through (1985); The Krays (1990); Let Him Have It (1991); Romeo is Bleeding (1993); The Hunchback (1997), and The Feast of All Saints (2001). Many of his films were successful and he became known for his sensitive artistic work.. – B: 1031, 1814, T: 7103.
Medek, Anna (Budapest, 1 October 1885 - Budapest, 24 August 1960) – Opera singer, (dramatic soprano). She studied singing with Josefa Maleczky, and at the Music Conservatoire of Paris with Jean Lorraine. She made her debut at the Opera House in Budapest, in the role of Elsa in Wagner’s Lohengrin (1908). In 1923 she became a life member of the Opera House. She performed abroad as a guest singer in Vienna, Berlin, Hamburg and Ostend with great success. She was also a well-known oratorio singer. From 1932 she taught at the National Music School (Nemzeti Zenede) in Budapest. Her main roles include Donna Elvira in Mozart’s Don Giovanni; Sieglinde in Wagner’s Walküre; Elisabeth in Tannhäuser; Éva in Wagner’s Die Mastersingers von Nürnberg (A nürnbergi mesterdalnokok); Senta in Wagner’s The Flying Dutchman (A bolygó hollandi); Leonora in Verdi’s Il Trovatore (Trubadur), and Mimi in Puccini’s La Bohème (Bohémélet). She was an outstanding representative of Hungarian opera history. In 1932 she was elected life member of the Opera House of Budapest. – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7103.→Opera House.
Medgyaszay, Vilma (née Stand) (Arad, now in Romania, 3 May 1885 - Budapest, 5 April 1972) – Actress. She completed the Performing Arts School of the Comedy Theater (Vígszinház), and first appeared on stage in 1903. A year later, the King Theater (Király Színház) contracted her, where she was most successful in interpreting Iluska in Kacsóh’s János Vitéz (John the Brave). In 1907 she became a member of the Cabaret Theater Modern Stage (Modern Színpad) where – with her performing ability – she made popular the musical versions of Béla Bartók’s and Zoltán Kodály’s compositions. For several years, she was on and off a member of the Király Színház (1909-1913). She also took over the management of the Modern Stage between 1913 and 1917. She acted in the Hungarian Theater (Magyar Színház), in the Operetta Theater (Operett Színház) of Budapest, as well as in Vienna and Berlin. In 1918 the Medgyaszay Stage, carrying her name, folded. Her real art was the song, somewhat playful, somewhat sentimental, but always in good taste, a delicate chanson that she performed as light as air and with a dramatic power. Her beauty, her pleasant voice, musicality, temperament and her acting ability contributed to her great success. For years after 1945 she was a member of the Merry Stage (Vídám Színpad). Her more important roles include in Iluska in P. Kacsóh’s John the Brave (János vitéz); Lenke in F. Molnár’s Matt, the Bird (Madár Matyi), and in Thomas’ Charlie’s Aunt (Charley nénje). Her feature films include Please, Smile! (Barátságos arcot kérek) (1936); Friday Rosie (Péntek Rézi) (1938), and Háry János (1941). Among her recordings are: The Widow’s Song (Az özegy dala) (1906); Lullaby (Altatódal) (1908), and Either, Or (Vagy, vagy) (1908). She received the Outstanding Artist title (1954), and the Kossuth Prize (1958). – B: 0871, 1445, 1031, T: 7684.
Medgyes Clan – One of the six Szekler (Magyars of Eastern Transylvania, now in Romania) clans. Most probably spelled Medies or Meggyes in ancient times. It originates from the branches of Dudor, Gyarus, Kürt and Medgyes – a note from the 19th century also added the Kurta branch to them. – B: 1346, 1078, T: 7676.→Szeklers.
Medgyesi, Ferenc (Francis) (Debrecen, 10 January 1881 - Budapest, 20 July 1950) – Sculptor. After earning his Medical Degree he studied Painting and Sculpting in Paris. The ancient Sumerian, Assyrian, Egyptian and Greek plastic arts made a great impression on him. He studied Etruscan Art, and the works of Michelangelo. His works appeared at exhibitions in Hungary from 1908 on. His first success was the relief work Dancers (Táncolók). In World War I he served as an army physician. Between the two World Wars, he had several exhibitions. In addition to small-scale plastic arts, he accepted assignments for monumental sculptures and religious artworks. He modeled four allegorical bronze statues: Archeology, Science, Arts and Folklore for the entrance of the Debrecen Déry Museum, and received the Grand Prix Award of the Paris International Exhibition for them. He modeled outdoor statuary and many relief works. From the 1940s until his death, his style matured into a classical grade; his love for folk carvings can also be detected in his later style. He left behind approximately 400 works, among them the well-known bronze medallion of composer Béla Bartók. His several thousand graphic-works represent a different class of art because he had developed a singularly unique sculpture-like drawing style. His studio was declared a heritage site. He received the title of Outstanding Artist (1955) and the Kossuth Prize (1948, 1957). – B: 0872, 0883, 1144, T: 7675.
Medgyesi, Pál (Paul) (Aranyosmedgyes, now Mediesu Aurit, Romania, 1604 - Sárospatak, 1663.) – Minister of the Reformed Church, theologian and writer. He studied at Bártfa (now Bardejov, Slovakia), Debrecen, and at the universities of Frankfurt an der Oder, Leiden and Cambridge. From 1631 he taught at the Reformed College of Debrecen; later served as a minister in Szinyérváralja, Munkács (now Mukacheve, Ukraine) and Nagyvárad (now Oradea, Romania) (1633–1638). In the Court of Reigning Prince György (George) Rákóczi I (1630–1648), he was Court Chaplain, interpreter, proclamation translator and, on a number of occasions, delegate and envoy. From 1650 to 1651 he was the minister at Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania). From 1652 on he was a court chaplain for Zsuzsanna (Susanna) Lorántffy, wife of the Prince at Sárospatak. Medgyesi was among the first to embrace Puritanism. He vigorously fought for the Reformed Church, and for the installation of its Sessions (Presbyteriums). In 1650, while serving as a minister in Nagybánya, he wrote the first Rhetoric in the Hungarian language with a Latin title: Doce nos orare quin et praedicare ... (Taníts minket imádkozni, sőt prédikálni is… – Teach us to pray,but also to preach…). From 1660 until his death, he served as a minister in Sárospatak. His literary works served to spread the ideas of Puritanism. Through the tenets of the Reformed Church, he wished to ensure a place for the peasantry in church administration. To this day, his sermons are interesting due to their timeless messages, their depiction of the age and their historical significance. He left behind some 27 major works, including The Faith of St. Augustine (Szent Ágoston vallása) (1632), Praxis pietantis (1636); Seven Days of Conversations (Hét napoki együttbeszélgetések) (1637); Spiritual ABC (Lelki A Be-Ce…) (1645); Burning Torch(Égő szövetnek…) (1645), Politico-Ecclesiastical Dialogue (Dialogus politico-ecclesiasticus…) (1650), and The Triple Woe of Transylvania and the Entire Hungarian People (Erdély s egész Magyar nép…Hármas Jajja…) (1653). He was one of the leading figures of Hungarian Puritanism. – B: 0877, 0883, 0807, 1908, T: 7657.→Rákóczi I, Prince György; Lorántffy, Zsuzsanna; Munkács; Munkács, Castle of; Sárospatak.
Medgyessy, Péter (Budapest 19 October 1942 - ) – Economist, politician. He studied Theoretical Economics at the Budapest University of Economics, and graduated in 1966, later also obtaining a Doctoral Degree. He worked at the Ministry of Finance (1966). Between 1970 and 1982 he held senior positions in various departments of the same ministry. He was appointed Deputy Minister of Finance in 1982, and Minister of Finance in 1987. The reform of the banking sector and the introduction of the two-tier banking system, as well as a European-style taxation system are associated with him. From 1988 to 1990 he was Deputy Prime Minister in charge of economic affairs. Among his main responsibilities was to promote economic liberalization. From 1990 to 1994 he was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Magyar Paribas Bank (member of the French Paribas Group). From 1994 to 1996 he was the CEO of the Hungarian Investment and Development Bank (MBFB). He became Minister of Finance again in the government of Gyula (Julius) Horn in 1996. He managed the consolidation of the economic situation, curbing inflation. His Ministry submitted to Parliament a Bill of a European-style pension reform. From 1998 to 2001 he was Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Inter-Europa Bank, and Vice-President of Atlasz Insurance Company. Although he was not a party member, on 9 June 2001, the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) nominated him as their candidate for Prime Minister. After the MSZP won the elections in April 2002, he became Prime Minister on 27 May 2002, and headed a coalition government of MSZP and SZDSZ (Alliance of Free Democrats). On 25 August 2004 he resigned due to his economic policy, opening the way for Ferenc (Francis) Gyurcsány. Medgyessy was appointed traveling ambassador, which ended in mid 2008. He was awarded the Commander’s Cross-with the Star of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (1988), the French Knight of the Legion d’Honneur (2000), the Grand Cross of the Belgian Order of the Crown (2002), the Gold and Silver Star of the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun (2003), the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of Chile, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav, and he became a Grand Officier of the French Légion d’honneur and received the German Federal Cross of Merit (2004). – B: 0990, 1031,T: 7103.→Gyurcsány, Ferenc; Horn, Gyula.
Medicine woman (Javasasszony)In ancient Hungarian belief the medicine women were priestess-magicians. Publicly, their goal in life was to help the needy, and this they carried out without delay. But their secret aim was to overthrow the power of the shamans among all the Eurasian nomadic peoples, including the Magyars. Because of their persecution they were rare on the Great Plain, but were more visible in Transdanubia. They first appeared on the great Danube Island in Western Hungary, called Csallóköz (now Zitny ostrov, Slovakia). Many of them tended to settle in a village or in a smaller town, though there were some who wandered about in the countryside. The patron of the medicine women is Ilona Tündér (Ilona Fairy), a type of “honorary” Great Spirit. She usually appeared in human form. Her favorite area on Earth was the Csallóköz, where she had sacred places. She taught the first medicine-women the art of magic. The initiation took place in a similar manner as that of the shamans, but it was sufficient to have the help of one medicine woman. The procedure was not too painful and the girl, restored to new life, personally met Ilona Tündér. – B: 1901, T: 7456.→Mednyánszky,_Baron_Alajos'>Csallóköz; Shaman.

Mednyánszky, Baron Alajos (Aloysius) (Prekopa, now in Croatia, 20 April 1784 - Galgóc, 17 June 1844) – Expert on cultural policy. From 1801 to 1804 he studied Philosophy and Jurisprudence at the Academy of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), after which he joined the service of the Hungarian Chancellery. In 1810 he moved to his landed estate in County Nyitra and carried out historical, archeological and literary studies. In 1828 he became a member of the Committee, which was working on the reform plan for schools and education. In 1830 he was appointed Royal Councilor; in 1833 Court Councilor and chancellery spokesman; in 1837, Privy Councilor, Vice-President of the Treasury, and Lord Lieutenant of County Nyitra. In 1839 he became President of the newly formed Committee for the Organization of Schools, and in 1842, Treasurer (President of Treasury). As a cultural politician he fought for the Hungarian language to be introduced in public education, prepared a plan for technical schools, pressed for the higher-level training of teachers, and he wanted to secure more space in education for realistic knowledge. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Director 1830, honorary 1831). He wrote romantic travelogues and historical articles in German and Hungarian. His short stories and collection of legends are significant. His published works include Malerische Reise auf dem Waagflusse in Ungarn (Scenic trip on the River Vág in Hungary) (1826), and Erzählungen, Sagen und Legenden aus Ungarns Vorzeit (Stories, sayings and legends from Ancient Hungary) (1829). – B: 0883, T: 7456.
Mednyánszky, Baron László (Ladislas) (Beckó, now Beckov, Slovakia, 23 April 1852 - Vienna, Austria, 17 April 1919) – Painter. His artistic talent appeared early in life. In 1870 he was a student of the Technische Hochschule of Zürich; from 1872 he studied at the Academy of Art in Munich. Between 1873 and 1875, he furthered his studies under I. Pils at the École des Beaux Arts of Paris. Already in 1877 one of his paintings was exhibited in Paris. He went on a study trip to Italy in 1878. In the early 1880s he kept a studio in Vienna. After the loss of his mother in 1883 he retired to Nagyőr (now Strážky, Slovakia, in the former County Szepes). In 1884 he rented a studio in Budapest and from then on, he regularly exhibited his works. His paintings of this period were gloomy, gray scenes, often depicting Carpathian cliffs, fir tree forests in a snow-covered, foggy atmosphere. From 1889 to 1892 he worked in Paris again, where, under the influence of Impressionism, his painting became lighter in color and more airy in his paintings of swamp scenes of the Great Hungarian Plain, city outskirts and slums. Still later, his paintings featured autumnal mountain and hill scenes. In 1892 he contributed to the Feszty cyclorama with some mountainous scenes that he painted in County Máramaros (now Maramureş, Romania) (1896-1897). He sojourned in Paris in 1900, in Galicia in 1901 on the shores of the Adriatic Sea, followed by four years in Vienna. Between 1905 and 1911 he was in Budapest and later reappeared in Vienna. Despite his advanced age during World War I, he traveled around the various war zones and made sketches for paintings in the battlefields of Galicia, Serbia and southern Tyrol. His soul-stirring experiences were reflected in the harrowing scenes of this series of paintings, revealing deep humaneness. He spent the last summer of his life at Nagykőrös and, from October until his death, he stayed again in Vienna, where he was buried (he was reburied in Budapest in 1966). His works include Fishing on the Tisza (Tiszai halászat) (1880); Old Tramp (Öreg csavargó) (1880); Fall Landscape (Őszi táj) (1890-1895); Iron Gate of the Danube (Vaskapu) (1890-1895); In Serbia (Szerbiában), (1914), and Ruins of a Town (Egy város romjai). His unique, individualistic style of painting remained unappreciated for some time, particularly the representational works: the shipwrecked ones in life and the monumentally conceived, simply molded, deeply felt paintings of peasants. The number of his paintings is unusually large, since his simple, wandering life-style, following his own whim, enabled him to devote all his life to his art. His view of life was mystical; he had a deep-thinking personality, and was one of the most original figures of the early 20th century Hungarian intellectual life. He was awarded a number of prizes. The National Gallery in Budapest holds numerous works of his. – B: 0883, 0934, 1068, T: 7456.→Feszty, Árpád; Miskolczi, László; Feszty Cyclorama; World War I.
Mednyánszky, Mária (Mrs. J. Kulcsik) (Budapest, 7 April 1901 - Budapest, 22 December (1978) – Table tennis star, coach. From 1925 she was with the Hungarian Circle of Physical Exercise (Magyar Testgyakorlók Köre – MTK). From 1926 she was 29 times member of the Hungarian national team, and won 28 medals at World Championships and became the most successful female in the history of table tennis. She became the first official women's world table-tennis champion in 1926. She went on to win the title for five successive years and won a further 18 world records. She retired from the national team in 1936. In 1941-1942 she was the Federal Captain of the Hungarian table tennis national team. During her sport career she won 22 Hungarian Championship. She was awarded the Golden Order of Merit of the Hungarian People’s Republic in 1976, Hungary's highest sporting honor. She was inducted into the ITTF Hall of Fame in 2007, and the Italian I Guinness del Tenistavolo, September 2007. – B: 1031, T: 7103.
Meduna, László (Ladislas) (Budapest, 31 January 1896 - Chicago, 31 October 1964) – Physician, psychiatrist. He obtained his Medical Degree from the Medical School of the University of Budapest in 1921. From 1921 to 1930 he was a demonstrator at the No. 1 Clinic of Neurology and Psychiatry, run by Karol (Charles) Schaffer. From 1930 he was Chief Physician of the National Institute of Neurology and Psychiatry of Lipótmező, Budapest, while, from 1938 he was Chief Physician of the State Psychiatric Institute at Angyalföld. In 1939 he went to the USA on a lecture tour but did not return to Hungary. From 1949 he was Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Illinois. He was the first in the world to introduce convulsiv therapy, one of the effective biological methods for treating schizophrenia Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), whereby convulsions are induced by electricity, is the developed version of Meduna’s method, which is also known as chemical convulsive therapy. He dealt with the immune chemistry of psychiatric illnesses. Meduna introduced to the clinical practice the anti-psychotic drugs Norimipramin and Ditran. In 1950 he published a monograph about oneirophenia, a hallucinatory, dream-like state that was first described by him, and was introduced to the literature of psychiatry. He founded the American Society of Biological Psychiatry. He established the internationally recognized magazine, Journal of Neuropsychiatry and remained its editor until his death. His works include Die Konvulsionstherapie der Schizophrenie (1937); Oneirophrenia (1950), and the Studies of a New Drug Ditran in Depressive States, with J. Abood (in Neuropsychiatry, 1959). The Hungarian National Institute established the László Meduna Prize for outstanding achievement in Nervous and Mental Diseases. – B: 1730, 1105, 1771, T: 7456, 7660.→Nyírő, Gyula.
Medveczky, Ádám (Budapest, 15 July 1941 - ) – Orchestral Conductor. Between 1955 and 1961 he studied at the Béla Bartók Musical Training High School of the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music (Zeneművészeti Főiskola Szakközépiskolája) under Oszkár Schwartz. From 1968 to 1971 he completed the conductor program of the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy, as a student of Andras Koródi. From 1960 to 1969, he was the timpanist of the State Orchestra, then, from 1969 to 1974 he was the leading music coach of the Opera House (Operaház); from 1974 he was its Conductor, and from 1991, its Chief Musical Director. Also from 1974, he was Adjunct Professor of Academy of Music and later its docent in the Voice and Opera Department. In the Opera House, he made his debut with conducting Mozart’s Cosi fan tutte (Women are Like that – Mindenki így csinálja). In 1969 he joined the Hungarian State Opera House. It is his main place of work even today. He has been a voice coach and conductor and, from 1990 to 1993, the Musical Director of the Opera House. From 1987 to 1996 he was Musical Director of the Hungarian Post’s Symphony Orchestra (Magyar Posta Szimfonikus Zenekara) (Today it is the MATAV Symphony Orchestra). In 1997 he became the first conductor of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Győr (Győri Filharmonikus Zenekar). He participates as conductor and educator in the musical life of Hungary. Outstanding pieces in his repertoire are Mozart’s Magic Flute (Varázsfuvola); Verdi’s Rigoletto, La forza del destino (Végzet hatalma) and Traviata; Puccini operas: Madama Butterfly (Pillangókisasszony), Tosca, La Bohème (Bohémélet); Rossini’s Mosè in Egitto; Gounod’s Faust; Humperdinck’s Hansel and Gretel (Jancsi és Juliska), and Wagner’s Ring Cycle. He has appeared with great success as a guest conductor in most European countries, and twice in the USA. Several of his independent recordings have appeared on Hungaroton Records.. In 1974, he received the second prize at the conducting competition of the Hungarian Television and, in 1976 he was awarded the Ferenc Liszt Prize (1976), and also received the title of Outstanding Artist (1989), an alternative Kossuth Prize (2008), and the Kossuth Prize (2011). He is life-member of the Opera House, Budapest. – B: 1031, 1445, 1426, T: 7684.→Koródi, András; Opera House.
Megyer Tribe – The leading tribe of the seven Hungarian tribes prior to and during the final settlement in the Carpathian Basin (896). The Head of the Megyer tribe became the Leader of the entire Hungarian tribal confederation. Álmos, and later his son Árpád, led the Hungarians into their new home in the Carpathian Basin. The election of the head of the Megyer tribe to become the head of the entire Magyar (Macar, Hetumoger: Seven Magyar) confederation was for political and military reasons. – B: 1133, 1274, 1031, T: 7456.→Álmos; Árpád.
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