Mátyás I, King, Small Sealof – A round seal of 40 mm in diameter. It has a lead core, while the surface is covered with gold. On one side, the seated figure of King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 1458-1490) is visible, holding the symbols of power: the scepter and the orb, in his hands. In front of his feet is the coat of arms with the Hungarian Cross, surrounded by the inscription ADIUTOR MEUS DOMINUS DEUS. On the other side is the coat of arms of the Árpád dynasty, surrounded by an inscription MATHIE D.G. REGIUSHUNGARIE ETC. There is a flap on the side of the seal for a string. A citizen of Szeged found the small seal on 23 December 1987, close to the Witch’s Island (Boszorkány sziget) on the shores of the River Tisza that at the time was unusually low. Until then, there were only two similar seals known in Hungary, one in Sopron, and another in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia). The Sopron seal is a rare treasure from the Middle Ages; microscopic studies identified the Szeged find with the design of the Sopron seal. It is kept at the Ferenc Móra Museum in Szeged. – B: 1020, T: 7673.→Mátyás I, King. Mátyás I, King, Throne Tapestryof – The most significant 15th century relic of the European art of weaving. The fabric is velvet brocade, woven on a rectangular-shaped, golden background; the pattern has green velvet contours, filled with hook-stitched golden thread. In the center field’s lower part a decorative vase is placed on a base adorned with angel heads. On both sides of the vase is a griffin standing on a cornucopia and a blooming tree branch. Above the vase is a Renaissance style fruit wreath with ribbons; in its center is the coat of arms of King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 1458-1490). The design is probably the work of Pollaiuolo, and was made in the weaving studio of Malochi in Florence, Italy, where they produced only commissioned pieces. This tapestry was originally discovered in the treasury of the Erdődy family, at the end of the 19th century. Since then, it has been kept at the National Museum of Hungary in Budapest. The Museum also treasures scarlet-colored fabric fragments. It is believed that there were two series of these wall hangings: the first had the coat of arms of King Mátyás I, the second that of Queen Beatrix. These were commissioned to adorn the walls of their Buda palace rooms to commemorate their wedding. – B: 1144, T: 7670.→Mátyás I, King. Mátyás, Ernő (Ernest) (Kristyór, now Criscior, Romania, 16 June 1888 - Sárospatak, 29 May 1950) – Minister of the Reformed Church, theologian and writer. He studied Theology at the Reformed Theological Academy of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) (1907-1911), and in Geneva (1924-1925). He became an honorary lecturer in Kolozsvár in 1921 and obtained his Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Szeged in 1992. Between 1914 and 1925 he was Parish Minister in Székelyföldvár (now Rặsboieni-Cetate, Romania). From 1923 to 1925 he was a substitute teacher at the Theological Academy of Kolozsvár. From 1928 he was Professor of New Testament Studies at the Reformed Theological Academy of Sárospatak. As Director of the Reformed College of Sárospatak, he made the College famous by launching such movements as the Village Seminary (Faluszeminárium), People’s Academy (Népfőiskola), and Talent Research Work (Tehetség kutató munka) etc. His works include Mysticism of Apostle Paul (Pál apostol misztikája) (1921); Religious Mysticism(Vallásos misztika) (1921); Major Problems of the Gospel of John (János Evangéliuma főbb problémái) (1926); New Testament’s Revelation of History (Újszövetségi kijelentéstörténet) (1943), and the Gospel of John (János Evangéliuma) (1950). He is regarded as an outstanding New Testament scholar between the two world wars. – B: 0883, 1160, 0910, T: 7103. Mátyás, Ferenc (Francis) (Kispestpuszta, 22 November 1911 - Budapest, 18 February 1991) – Poet, writer. He was born into a poor peasant family of many children. He grew up at Tápióbicske and Gyalpuszta and worked for the manors. In 1934 he completed an industrial art course at a technical college. He became assistant in a firm, drawing addresses and coat-of-arms in Budapest. He became acquainted with folk writers and his poems were published in the magazines, Answer (Válasz),People of the East (Kelet Népe), and some in the Nice Word (Szép Szó), with the help of the prominent poet Attila József. He joined the paper, EveningCourier (Esti Kurir) and, after 1945, he was a correspondent of Freedom (Szabadság), and edited the weekly, Free Lőrinc (Szabad Lőrinc). From 1949 he was a correspondent for the National Széchényi Library; later he became a research scientist and section head at the Library. In 1953 he obtained a Librarian Degree. Between 1959 and 1972 he was Editor for the Magvető Publishing House. His early poems show merciless objectiveness in featuring all the aspects of the poor living conditions of the Puszta. Later, he expressed a feeling of anguish over the bitterness and defenselessness in one’s life. After 1947 he could only rarely publish his poems but, from the 1960s, his poems started to appear more often. They were permeated with the serenity of recollection and the desire for harmony. His works include I would like to be (Szeretnék lenni) poems (1936); The Village Delegate (A falu küldöttje),autobiographical novel (1942); The Poor Creatures of the Pusztas (A pusztákszegénykéi) poems (1943); The Only Refuge (Az egyetlen menedék) poems (1979); Silence and Restlessness (Csönd és nyugtalanság), poems (1958), and Our Ephemeral Existence(Tiszavirág életünk) poem, (1988). He received numerous prizes, among them the Attila József Prize (1960). – B: 1257, 0878, T: 7456.→József, Attila.
Mátyás, Mária (Hajdúdorog, 23 September 1924 - Budaspest. 12 September 1999) – Opera singer (soprano). She studied under the direction of Erzsébet (Elizabeth) Hoór-Tempis, Árpád Palotai and Mária (Marie) Budanovits; in Rome, she was a student of Manfredo Polverosi. She made her debut in 1946 at the Opera House, Budapest. She was its soloist from 1945 to 1980. At the beginning of her career, she sang coloratura soprano roles; later she changed to lyric roles and also sang leading dramatic soprano parts with great success. She was one of the most versatile leading sopranos of the Opera House. She played a significant role in the introduction of contemporary Hungarian operas, e.g. by Emil Petrovics and Ferenc (Francis) Farkas. All the female leading roles of the Erkel operas were in her repertoire. The carrying-power of her voice, her range of expressiveness and her interpretation, together with her acting talent, brought her success both on the Hungarian and the international opera stages. She regularly appeared as a guest artist all over Europe. She was also a recording artist. Her roles include Pamina in Mozart’s Magic Flute (Varázsfuvola); Konstanza in Mozart’s Il Seraglio (Abduction from the Seraglio – Szöktetés a szerájból); Violetta in Verdi’s La Traviata; Desdemona in Verdi’s Othello; Marguerite in Gounod’s Faust; Sentain Wagner’s Flying Dutchman(A bolygó hollandi), and Örzse in Kodály’s Háry János. She was awarded the Kossuth Prize (1953), and received the Artist of Merit title (1959), as well as the Outstanding Artist title (1975). – B: 1445, T: 7456.→Erkel, Ferenc;Farkas, Ferenc; Petrovics, Emil. Matyó (Matyók)– A group of Hungarians living in or near Mezőkövesd, Szentistván and Tard in the western region of County Borsod. They make up one of the ethnic groups of the Palóc. They have mostly large families, and earlier strict endogamy characterized them. From the middle of the 19th century they cultivated their colorful and rich clothing and worked as seasonal laborers. Their Roman Catholic religion played a very important part in their culture. The Matyó embroidery is a much sought-after item, even abroad. – B: 0942, 1153, 1134, T: 7684.→Palóc;Győrffy, István. Mátyusföld (now Matudova, Slovakia) in Northern Hungary of the Carpathian Basin (now in Slovakia) – The northwestern part of the Little Hungarian Plain, a very fertile talus slope covered by loess at the foot of the Little Carpathians. It is a large island (called Csallóköz, now Žitnỳ ostrov, Slovakia) formed by two branches of the River Danube. It is named after the powerful oligarch of the Anjou period, Máté (Matthew) Csák (1260-1321), who owned this area at the time. In earlier times it was regarded as the third region of Hungary known as Pars Tertia Regni. The region’s Hungarian population dates back to the 9th century. A number of place names appear in documents dating back to the era of the Árpád Dynasty (896-1301), such as: Boldogfa, Diószeg, Hegy, Hegysur, Hidaskürt, Kossut, Jóa, Nyék, Pered, Szeli, Taksony, Vizkelet and Zsigárd. Among the small villages a number of agrarian towns developed: Szenc, Szered, Vágselye. The town of Deáki is well known as a cultural-historical heritage site, where the ritual book, known as the Pray Codex was kept in the ancient local church. Albert Szenci Molnár, the famous world traveler, language-reformer and psalm translator was born in Mátyusföld. Zoltán Kodály, the renowned composer, spent his childhood in Galánta, giving rise to his folk song collecting journeys. The area is almost entirely Hungarian inhabited; the Slovaks settled only on the northern perimeter. After World War II the Hungarian population endured the effects of the “Benes Decrees”. From Slovakia 100,000 ethnic Hungarians were deported; there were forced population exchanges with Hungary, while 60,000 were taken to Sudetenland for slave labor, including those from the Mátyusföld. In spite of their dire fate, today almost every Hungarian village maintains a folk ensemble, holding cultural festivities and Kodály days. In 1985, nearly a hundred performers made their debut in Budapest. Their dearly valued heritage, musical language and folklore are carefully preserved and passed on from generation to generation. To date, their folk traditions have not been systematically investigated. – B: 0943, 1134, T: 7456.→Csák, Máté; Csallóköz; Pray Codex; Szenci Molnár, Albert; Benes Decrees; Kodály, Zoltán; Palóc; Atrocities against Hungarians. Mátyus-Land Dialect - Mátyusföld is at the northwestern corner of the Palóc dialect area.→Palóc. Mauritz Béla (Kassa, now Košice, Slovakia, 3 May 1881 - Budapest, 15 February 1971) – Geologist, specializing in petrography and mineralogy. He studied at the Faculty of Chemistry and Natural History of the Eötvös College of the University of Budapest. In 1902 he obtained his Degree with a thesis on the morphological study of chalcopyrite crystals in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania), while he was demonstrator for József (Joseph) Krenner in the Department of Geology. Following a Degree in Education (1905), the patron of Geology, Andor (Andy) Semsey provided him with a scholarship to further his studies for five years at the universities of Heidelberg, Leipzig, Dresden and Vienna. On his return to Hungary, he continued working as a demonstrator until 1910. Then he became a lecturer (1910-1914), and was an honorary lecturer at the Budapest Polytechnic in 1911. He was a professor at the Faculty of Geology of the University of Budapest between 1914 and 1949. In 1943 and 1944 he was Vice-Chancellor of the University. He obtained his Ph.D. in Geology in 1957, and was Editor for the journal Mathematical and Natural Science Bulletin (Mathematikai és Természettudományi Értesitő) from 1937.Following his retirement, he was with the Geological Institute, working on the locating and exploitation of mines; later, he worked in the Petrology Collection of the National Museum, Budapest. For two cycles, he was President of the Hungarian Geological Society. Throughout his career, he studied the petrography of plutonic and eruptive rocks. Dealing with alkaline rocks, he published several studies on the eleolite-syenites near Gyergyóditró (now Ditrău, Romania) in Transylvania; he worked up the trachytes of the Fruska Gora Mountain (now in Serbia) in the Southern Carpathians, the volcanics of the Báni (Vörösmarti) Mountain (now Bansko brdo), and those of the Mecsek Mountain. He also carried out research on the basalts of Transdanubia. His works include The Volcanic Rocks of the Mátra Mountain (A Mátra hegység eruptív kőzetei) (1909), and Petrology (Kőzettan) (1941). He was an ordinary member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1923. – B: 0883, 1068, T: 7456. Mauthner, Ödön (Edmund) (Pest, 1848 - Budapest, 25 November 1934) – Seeds expert, gardener, writer on gardening. After completing his studies at the Agricultural College of Magyaróvár, he worked as a trainee in a number of large estates during the 1860s. At the same time, he studied the problems of seed growing and cleaning under the direction of Professor Nobbe in Germany. In 1874 he established Hungary’s largest seed-shop in Budapest. He did pioneering work in Hungary in the field of seed-growing and production of improved seeds. He created the Hungarian seed export. His seed-producing estate was located in Ferenchalom (now Kraljevićevo in Serbia), and Derekegyháza. From 1895 until 1919 he published and edited the journal, The Garden (A Kert), and wrote gardening-related articles in some other journals as well. His works include Mauthner’s Illustrated Gardener’s Book (Mauthner képeskertészkönyve) (1885), and Mauthner’s Small Gardening Catechism (Mauthner kertészeti Kátéja) (1897). – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7456.
May Festival – A spring festival of pre-Christian origin, celebrating nature’s renewing strength. Of common origin, but changed in its traditional form, was the May Day festival that appears in most ancient religions. Its characteristic theme is the jubilation after a hard winter to the reawakening nature. The custom of erecting the May Pole is associated with the festival and was common throughout Western Europe. Shakespeare in his play the Midsummer Night’s Dream(Szeniványéji álom) recorded the frolicsome atmosphere of May Festivals of his time. In many places May-ride competitions were also held and the winner received the “King of May” title. In Hungary, the May festival was transferred to Whitsunday. – B: 1078, T: 7682.
Mayer, FerencKolos (Francis) (Eger, 6 July 1899 - Washington, USA, 15 November 1988) – Physician, medical historian, bibliographer. He studied at the Cistercian High School of Eger, later joined the Order. He did further studies at the College of Innsbruck and, apart from Philosophy, he studied foreign languages. In the autumn of 1919 he left the Order, studied Medicine at the University of Budapest, and obtained a Medical Degree (1926). During his medical studies, he became interested in the history of medicine, published a number of articles in the Medical Weekly (Orvosi Hetilap). In 1927 he published his synthesizing work, The History of Medicine (Az orvostudomány története). From 1925 to 1927 he worked at the Institute of Pathological Anatomy of the University of Budapest; later on worked in the Hospital of Uzsok Street, as a pathological anatomist. In 1928 he went on an extensive European study trip and carried out research in distinguished institutes of medical science. In 1930 he settled in the USA. From 1931 to 1954 he edited the medical journal, Index Catalogue, held in the Medical Library, managed by the army. The clarification of the cause of epidemic hemorrhagic fever, causing considerable losses of life in the armies of both sides during the Korean War, is linked to his name. During the last twenty years of his career, he was with the Fort Mayer Hospital of the Pentagon, as a medical practitioner. The US Department of Defense used his wide knowledge of languages (he spoke 19 languages) in their documentation and reference work. He retired in 1974 in the rank of a colonel. He received the Weszprémi and Zsámboky Memorial Medal of the Hungarian Medical History Society and an honorary membership. In 1988 his famous work, The History ofMedicine, was republished in a facsimile edition, supplemented with a chapter on the medical history of the 20th century. – B: 0883, 1730, T: 7456.
Mayer, Móric (Maurice) (Vác, Hungary1842 - Buenos Aires, 1917) – Argentinean economic specialist of Hungarian descent. He probably obtained an Engineering Degree from the University of Pest. In the early 1860s, he emigrated from Hungary and became the trusted man of György (George) Klapka in the Hungarian legion set up abroad. After the battle of Königgrätz (3 July 1866), he moved to Argentina, where he offered his services to general János (John) Czetz, originally also from Hungary. He took part in the Argentinean–Paraguayan war and, after its conclusion he served in the expeditionary forces ordered to secure the western border region. He left the army in 1875. With his undertakings, he became one of the leading figures of the rapidly developing Argentinean economy. He established the still functional Dock Suri Harbor and Warehouse Company, by which Buenos Aires developed and became one of the busiest harbors of the world. He played an important part in the development of the Argentinean river-navigation and railway network. In 1967, Argentina celebrated the fifty-year anniversary of his death. – B: 0883, 1160, T: 7456.→Klapka, György;Czetz, János. Mechwart, András (Andrew) (Schweinfurt, Germany, 6 December 1834 - Budapest, 14 June 1907) – Mechanical engineer. He started his career as a laborer, then learned the locksmith trade and completed his higher education in Augsburg. After joining the little iron-foundry workshop of Ábrahám Ganz (1859) in Budapest, he developed it into the famous manufacturing firm. Following Ganz’s death, the firm became a joint stock company, with Mechwart becoming its Director, later the Managing Director. He took over the wagon works division in Budapest and, in 1878, established the Electrical Section of the Ganz Works that, as a separate manufacturing plant, became famous all over the world. Several of his inventions are still recognized and a roller mill was named after him. On the roller frame, the most important part of the mill, he changed the porcelain rollers to chilled cast iron ones that milled the grain much more finely. In exporting these mass-produced rolling mills around the world, the Hungarian milling industry's reputation was decisively established. He also designed the steam and petrol-driven plough (1896) that replaced the plough-iron, using rotating milling iron blades. Although his rotary plough was an excellent structure, its bulky size and considerable price hindered its general use. He made the Ganz Works and its products world famous and received a number of honors for his efforts; he was bestowed a Hungarian knighthood in 1899, and a statue was erected in his memory in Budapest (1913). – B: 0942, 1078, 1285, T: 7456.→Ganz, Ábrahám. Mécs, Károly (Charles) (Budapest, 10 January 1936 - ) – Actor. He completed his studies at the Academy of Dramatic Art (1961). He appeared on the stage of the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest, as early as 1958. From 1960 he played in the Petőfi Theater (Petőfi Színház) and, from 1961 to 1963, at the National Theater of Szeged (Szegedi Nemzeti Színház). From 1963 he was a member of the Thalia Theater (Thália Színház), and of the Arizona Theater (Arizóna Színház); later, he worked at the Artist Theater (Művész Színház) and at the Budaörs Stage (Budaörsi Szín). He also appears on the stage of the Opera House. He interprets heroic, tragic and the lover’s roles of classical and modern works. Acting with a light, natural pleasant voice characterizes his artistry. His roles include Laci Joó in J. Darvas’s Smoky Sky (Kormos ég); Romeo in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet; Nagy Jr. in Bródy’s The Schoolmistress (A tanitónő);Richard Dudgeon in Shaw’s Devil’s Disciple (Az ördög cimborája); Marchbanks in Shaw’s Candida, and Görgey in Illyés’ Torch-flame (Fáklyaláng). There are more than 40 feature films to his credit, including The Promised Land (Az ígéret fölsdje) (1961); Sons of the Stonehearted Man (A kőszívű ember fiai) (1965); At the End of September (Szeptember végén) (1973); Tax-free Marriage (Vámmentes házasság) (1980); The Gambler (1997); Sacra Corona (2001), and Hotel Szekszárdi (2002). He received the Mari Jászai Prize (1970), the Artist of Merit title (1977), the Officer’s Cross of Order Merit of the Republic of Hungary (1996), and the Outstanding Artist title (2002). – B: 1445, 1031, T: 7456.
Mécs, LászlóO.Praem. (Ladislas) (Martoncsik) (Hernádszentistván, now Kostolany nad Hornádom, Slovakia, 17 January 1895 - Pannonhalma, 9 November 1978) – Monk, priest, poet. He completed his high-school studies in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia), where his first poems appeared, published in the magazine Our Flag (Zászlónk). In the Arts Faculty of the University of Budapest, he studied the Hungarian-Latin curriculum (1913-1914). It was in 1914 that he applied for admission into the Premonstratensian Order and, by 1916 he had resumed his studies for a Degree in Education. In 1918 he was ordained priest at Jászóváralja (now Jasovský Podzámok, Slovakia), where he worked as a librarian after the dissolution of the Order. Between 1920 and 1929 he worked as a parish priest in Nagykapos (now Vel’ké Kapušany, Slovakia.) His impressive and moving poems appeared regularly in the Hungarian papers of Upper Hungary (Felvidék, now Slovakia). In 1923 he published his first volume of poems, Morning Bell (Hajnali harangszó) in Ungvár (now Uzhhorod, Transcarpathia, Ukraine), and started on his recital tours, giving his poetry great popularity and lionizing the lyricist’s sonorous voice and imposing bearing. The theme of his poems is usually social with religious overtones. His poems excel with their consummate versification. Gyula (Julius) Farkas came out with his biography as early as 1929. His superior appointed him parish priest to Királyhelmec (now Král’ovský Chlemec, Slovakia) in 1930. Volume after volume appeared but so did the criticisms, particularly from the journal West (Nyugat). In 1935 he made a successful trip in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania) and then, during his trip to France, he gained significant recognition with his poem recitals in Paris, where he met Paul Valéry. His collected poems were published in 1941. The following year, in his magazine, Vigilia, edited by him, appeared the anti-Hitler poem, Prayer for the Great Lunatic (Imádsága nagy Lunatikusért) that landed him in legal trouble. In the autumn of 1944, he left Királyhelmec because of the approaching Soviet forces and, after the War, he lived with his friends in Csorna and Pannonhalma. In 1953 he was accused of “repeatedly spreading leaflets”, when his hand-written poems were handed out as presents, and was sentenced to 10 years of house arrest. However, he was freed during the 1956 Revolution and resumed his pastoral work in 1957. From the spring of 1958, he preached regularly in the parish church of Óbuda. He celebrated the 60th anniversary of his ordination in 1978. The Benedictines of the Pannonhalma Abbey care for his bequeathed property. His works include Let there be Light! (Legyen világosság!) (1933); Selectedpoems (Válogatottkölteményei) (1934); Collected Poems of L. Mécs 1920-1940, (Mécs L. Összes Versei 1920-1940) (1941), and the Golden Fleece 1923-1968(Aranygyapjú 1923-1968), selected poems (1987). – B: 0883, 1058, 1257, T: 7456.