M macartney, Carlile Aylmer

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Mathiász, János (John) (Ádámfölde, now Mosurov, Slovakia, 22 February 1838 - Kecskemét, 3 December 1921) – Viticulturist. After completing high school in Eperjes and Kassa (now Preşov and Košice, Slovakia), his higher studies began at the Seminary in Kassa. After a year, he changed over to study Law. Then, for years, he worked as a clerk for County Abaúj. Finally he became a viticulturist, when he bought 3 acres of land near Kassa, where he improved many varieties by grafting. In 1880, he moved to the Tokaj Mountain area and bought a 7-acre vineyard at Mád (15 km from Tokaj). To eradicate the phylloxera, in 1890 he bought a 45-acre stretch of immune sand at Kecskemét in the Danube-Tisza Interfluve, where he settled with his family. Here, toward the end of his life, he became a famous viticulturist, and succeeded in improving countless grape varieties, leading to 3700 new improved ones, of which up to 60 varieties are still grown. His two famous varieties are the Queen of Vineyards (Szőlöskertek királynője) and Pearl of Csaba (Csabagyöngye), but there are many other favorites, e.g. The Beauty of Cegléd (Cegléd szépe), the Flower of Kecskemét (Kecskemét virága), and others. A prize, a Museum in Kecskemét, and a School in Balatonboglár bear his name. – B: 1031, 1068, 1680, T: 7456. – Kocsis, Pál.
Matijevics, Lajos (Louis) (Szabadka, now Subotica, Serbia, 7 July 1940 - Újvidék, now Novi Sad, Serbia, 21 October 1983) – Linguist. He obtained a Degree in Education in Hungarian Language and Literature from the University of Újvidék. At first he taught in the general school of Kishegyes for three years; from 1966 he was a demonstrator at the Faculty of Hungarian Language, University of Újvidék. In 1970 he obtained his Ph.D. at the University of Budapest. Back at the University of Újvidék, he was appointed to the post of assistant professor and, in 1983, he became a full professor and Departmental Head. His articles and studies began to appear from 1970 on in scientific journals and in Yugoslavian weeklies and daily papers. He made his mark as a scholar in the field of grammar, dialect research and jargon studies. He committed suicide. He posthumously received the Bálint Csüry Memorial Medal. His works include The Water-names of the Ferenc Canal (A Ferenc-csatorna viznevei (1981), and Our Geographic Names (Földrajzi neveink, 1982). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Matkovics, Pál (Paul) (Matkovich) (?, 1836 - Budapest, 25 February 1887) – Writer. In the latter half of the 1850s in Pest he worked under the name Vitéz Bús as a writer and journalist. In 1861 he edited the comic paper Black Soup (Fekete Leves); and from 1870 to 1883 he published the humorous diary Let us Laugh (Nevessünk). Towards the end of his life he became almost completely blind. Mainly his humorous writings proved popular. He translated a number of foreign novels into Hungarian. – B: 0883, T: 7456.→Vértesi, Arnold.

Matolcsy, György Huba (George) (Budapest, 18 July 1955 - ) – Political economist, politician and writer. He obtained his Degree from the Department of Industry at the University of Economics of Budapest in 1977; thereafter, he worked at the Institute of Industrial Economics and Industrial Organization. In 1978 he went to the Ministry of Finance, where at first he was engaged with financing the Hungarian carbohydrate industry; later he took part in the renewed economic reform-preparatory work. From 1985 he carried out research on the possibilities of property reform at the Institute of Financial Research. In 1986 he was one of the authors of the study entitled Change and Reform. In 1990, Prime Minister József (Joseph) Antall appointed Matolcsy as his financial adviser and he became Political Under-Secretary of State in the Prime-Ministerial Office. He resigned from there in December 1990, and is now in charge of the Secretariat of Economics and is Secretary of the Economics Cabinet. From early 1991 he worked as director of the Research Institute of Privatization. From October 1991, for three years, he worked at the Directorate of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), London, as a representative of the Hungarian Government; and in 1994, as its Director. In 1995 he was appointed Director of the Institute of Economic Growth. In 1998, as a financial specialist, he prepared the economic program of the Fidesz Party (Fiatal Demokraták Szövetsége – FIDESZ; Young Hungarian Democrats’ Alliance) and, from the end of the year he was a member of the economic body of Prime Minister Viktor Orbán, becoming his Minister of Finance during 2000 and 2002. Since 2003 he has been a member of Fidesz Party, and since 2006, a Member of Parliament for County Bács-Kiskun. Early in 2010, in the 2nd Orbán-Cabinet, he became Minister of National Economy. In 1981 he earned a Ph.D. and, from the 1980s, he published a number of works, including a trend-setting essay, the Change and Reform (Fordulat és Reform) (1986); the Years of Our Convalescence (Lábadozásunk évei) (1991); Our Living Memories (Élő emlékeink) (2003); the American Empire (Amerikai Birodalom) (2004), and From Champion Rider to Lagman (Éllovasból sereghajtó) (2008). – B: 0874, 1697, 1031, 2072, T: 7456.→Antall, József; Orbán, Viktor; Political Parties in Hungary.
Mátra Mountain – A volcanic mountain member of the Northeast Hungarian Central Mountains of varied composition, part volcanic, part sedimentary in origin. The Mátra Mtn. is composed of Miocene andesites, positioned between the Cserhát Range and the Bükk Mountain. Its is in the northern part of County Heves, between the valleys of the Zagyva and Tarna Rivers, 37 km long in E-W direction, and 30 km wide in N-S direction. Its highest point is the Kékes (1010 m); slightly lower are the Nagy-Gallya (963 m) and the Saskő (899 m). There are a number of creeks flowing south towards the Great Plain; on these southern slopes some famous types of wine are grown, like Visontai, Domoszlói, Gyöngyösi, Apci, Pásztói. At its southern foot is the town of Gyöngyös, looking towards the Great Hungarian Plain. Forests cover the interior of the mountain. The results of post-volcanic activity are the mineral water springs of Parád and Gyöngyös; there are also traces of geysers in some spots. The mineral wealth of the Mátra Mtn. includes: copper, gold, silver, lead, petroleum, brown coal, and dyer’s earth. During the reign of the Árpád Dynasty (896-1301) there was ironmining at Domoszló. The inhabitants of the mountain are ethnic Hungarians (Magyars). Touristically the Mátra Mountain is one of the most exploited areas of Hungary; it has good roads for cars and for tourists, has sanatoriums, hostels, holiday resorts and spas at favorite spots like Kékes, Gallyatető, Métraháza, and Mátrafüred. Parádfürdő, 2 km from Parád at the northern foot of the mountain is a health resort with mineral-water springs, an openair air swimming pool and a large park. – B: 1068, 7456, T: 7456.
Mátrai, Lajos György (Louis George) (Budapest, 6 March 1850 - Budapest, 15 October 1906) – Sculptor. He started his career as a stone and wood carver, and studied in Paris and in Munich; he took part in the ornamentation work on the castle of the Bavarian King Louis II. On his return to Hungary in 1880, he was a teacher at the School of Industrial Arts. He was the creator of a long list of monuments, among them the statue of István Széchenyi in Sopron, the Vásárhelyi statue in Szeged, the memorial of Gáspár Károli in Gönc, and the mausoleum of Miklós (Nicholas) Izsó in the Kerepes Street Cemetery of Budapest. – B: 0883, T: 7456.
Mátray Codex – A songbook, its content most probably collected in the Felvidék (Upland, Northern Hungary, now Slovakia) in 1677. The first part contains secular songs, the second religious ones, while the third part is made up of prayers. Only two of the secular songs are historical. One is about the death of Count Miklós (Nicholas) Zrinyi. The other 39 are love songs; hence they are meaningful sources of ancient Hungarian love poetry; 20 religious songs were taken from Balassi-Rimay’s Godly Songs (Istenes énekek), published in Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). Some of its prayers and notes reflect the influence of Protestant theology. The Codex was named after Gábor (Gabriel) Mátray (1797-1875), Director-Guardian of the Hungarian National Museum’s Library and procurer of this significant document. – B: 1150, 1257, T: 3240.→Codex Literature; Mátray, Gábor.
Mátray, Erzsi (Lisa) (Budapest, 16 March 1894 - Budapest, 14 August 1968) – Actress. She completed her training at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest, and, by 31 March 1913, she had her debut at the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest, and was contracted in September of the same year. She had a 2-year contract with the Unió Co. She returned to the National Theater, and from 1937 she became its life member. After 1945 she played for a while in the Artist Theater (Művész Színház). She retired in 1952. Good feeling for conversation and dramatic power characterized her acting. Her beauty and her clear, direct speech were particularly suited for her interpretation of Roxanne in Rostand’s Cyrano de Bergerac, which she played in repeated revivals at the National Theater. Her roles included Ariel in Shakespeare’s The Tempest (A vihar); Olivia in Twelfth Night (Vizkereszt); Jessica in The Merchant of Venice (A velencei kalmár); Márta in Edouard Pailleron’s The Mouse (Az egér); Roxanne in Rostand’s Cyrano de Bergerac, Gertrudis in Katona’s Bánk bán, and Athalie in Jókai’s The Golden Man (Az aranyember). Her feaure films are: Sisters (Nővérek) (1912); When We Became Old (Mire megvénülünk) (1917); A Happy Face, Please (Barátságos arcot kérek) (1926), and The Devil’s Fiancée (Az ördög mátkája) (1936). She is a recipient the Farkas-Ratkó Prize (1916). – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7456.
Mátray, Gábor (Gabriel) (Rothkrepf) (Nagykáta, 23 November 1797 - Budapest, 17 July 1875) – Writer, music historian. Between 1816 and 1830 he was a private instructor for the family of Baron Simon Prónay, and later for the family of Count Lajos (Louis) Széchenyi. He returned to Budapest in 1830 to finish his legal studies. In 1833 he established two periodicals, the Minstrel (Regélő) and Artist of the Homeland (Honművész), and edited them until 1841. From 1937 he worked at the Hungarian National Museum; at the beginning of 1840, he was Director of the newly established Music School Society (Hangászegyesületi Zenede); after 1867 its name was changed to National Music School (Nemzeti Zenede). He was the outstanding founder of Hungarian music history research. The importance of his work lies first of all in his recognition and uncovering of the significance of Hungarian music’s historical material. His scientific research is a milestone also in the area of folk music research and, above all, the history of the Hungarian musical culture. Several of his works and publications on music history appeared in print. His works include General Collection of Hungarian Folksongs, vols. i-iii (Magyar népdalok egyetemes gyüjteménye, I-III) (1852-1858), and Tunes of Historical, Biblical and Hungarian Mocking Songs (Történeti, bibliai és gunyoros magyar énekek dallamai) (1859). All are important source material. He also wrote plays, opera libretto, and literary and scientific works. His works mark the beginning of Hungarian music criticism and the first concerts of music-historical quality, and his scientific systematization of the Széchényi Library is also significant. – B: 1197, 1257, T: 7684.
Mattioni, Eszter (Esther) (Szekszárd, 12 March 1902 - Budapest, 17 March 1993) – Painter. She studied at the Academy of Applied Art, Budapest, and later she attended the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest. Starting in 1926, she exhibited at home and abroad: Memphis, TN, USA, (1972, 1988), at the Hungarian National Gallery (1977), and in Tokyo (1980). The critics applauded her colorful, rainbow-like pictures. In her works, the influence of the Roman School can be felt. In 1937, at the World Fair of Paris, her gate-decorating pictures won a Diplome d’Honneur. Her picture, the Peasant Bride (Paraszt menyasszony) is in the Louvre, Paris. She toured Italy in 1939 and, in the same year, visited the Scandinavian countries. Between 1931 and 1942 she worked in the Artist Colony of Szolnok. This period was influential in her art; her use and application of color became more moderate, as is apparent in her pictures, such as Tabán of Szolnok (Szolnoki Tabán); Patronal Festival at the Mátra (Mátrai Búcsú), and the Woman of Decs with Bread (Decsi asszony kenyérrel). Together with István (Stephen) Pólya, she developed a particular “multi-colored stone” (hímeskő) technique. It grew out of the mosaic technique; but instead of applying colored pieces of glass, she used colored marble chips and semi-precious stones embedded in concrete. She made compositions for the Stühmer Chocolate Factory, Budapest; for the burial chapel of the Cathedral of Székesfehérvár, and around the tomb of Bishop Vilmos (William) Apor. Her greatest religious composition, The Disciples of Emmaus (Az emmausi tanítványok) is in the Rókus Chapel, Budapest. The Hungarian National Gallery, museums in Hungary and abroad and private collections display her works. In 1981 she donated her collection to the City of Szekszárd. She was one of the greatest Hungarian painters of the 20th century. – B: 0879, 0934, T: 7103.→Rudnay, Gyula.
Mattyasovszky, Ilona (Helen) (Ilona Fraknói) (Esztergom, 31 March 1892 - 1943) – Film actress. For some time she appeared under the name of Ilona Fraknói. In 1913 she already played a leading role in the film, Éva Drághfy, one of the first Hungarian silent films. During World War I, she appeared mainly in the productions of the Astra Film Works. During the rule of the dictatorship of the Council (Soviet) Republic (1919), she was a member of the Film Directorate. After the war, for a while, she maintained a film-school, together with her husband, Géza Bolváry. In 1926 they moved to Vienna, Berlin and to Munich. She was a success in several German movies. Her films include The Terror of the Village (A falu rossza) (1917); The Rich Poor (Gazdag szegények) (1917); Ordeal by Fire (Tűzpróba) (1917); Equality (Egyenlőség) (1918); Prodigal Son (Tékozló fiú) (1919); The Actress (A színésznő) (1920), and The Half of a Boy (Egy fiúnak a fele) (1924). – B: 0883, 1427, T: 7456.→Bolváry, Géza.
Matuska, Márton (Martin) (Temerin, Yugoslavia, 12 October 1936 - ) – Writer, journalist, historian. He completed his higher studies at the Agrarian Department of the University of Újvidék (now Novi-Sad, Serbia) (1957-1961). He edited the local journal, Hungarian Word (Magyar Szó) (1956-1957, 1961-1962, 1964-1993) and, after retirement, he became its contributor. He has been President of the Petőfi Hungarian Cultural Society since 1996. His research centered on the genocide of Hungarians in Voivodina, Serbia after the Second World War. His works include Craftsmen of Temerin (Temerini iparosok) (1989); The Days of Reprisal: As they Live in Memory (A megtorlás napjai: Ahogy az emlékezet megőrizte) (1991); Our Homeland, the Stepmother (Hazánk a mostoha), reports (1994), and We are Missing Each Other (Hiányzunk egymásnak), reports (1997). He received the Markovics Prize (1966), the Gábor Bethlen Prize (1991), and the Mihály Táncsics Prize (1999). – B: 0874, 1031, T: 7103.→Atrocities against Hungarians.
Mátyás Church (Matthias Church, Nagyboldogasszony Church), the Coronation Church of Hungary, a cathedral in Neo-Gothic style located in the Buda Castle area (including the Royal Palace and some ministry buildings). The first written document to mention the Church appeared in 1247, soon after the Mongol-Tartar invasion of Hungary (1241-1242), during the reign of King Béla IV (1235-1270). By 1296, the church was referred to as a monument. It was the earliest example of the classical Gothic style in Hungary. King Charles Robert of the Anjou Dynasty was crowned there in 1309. Emperor and King Zsigmond (Sigismund of Luxembourg) received the Emperor of Constantinople there in 1424. Under King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 1458-1490), between 1460 and 1470, the oratory and the southern church steeple were built as additions. After ascending the throne, King Mátyás I held a thanksgiving service there in 1458, and there were festive celebrations in it during both of his marriages. The church burned down several times over the centuries, but was always rebuilt. When the Ottoman Turks occupied Buda in 1541, they converted it to a mosque. They removed the altars and statues and painted over the wall frescos. After the Turkish occupation ended in 1686, the Jesuits took it over and furnished it in the Baroque style. The medieval arches and walls of the Church fell into such a bad state of repair that renovation became imperative. It was carried out under the direction of Frigyes (Frederic) Schulek between 1873 and 1896. In its present state, only the core of the main wall, the columns of the naves and the lower part of the southern tower are genuinely medieval. The crypt contains many treasures; now it is converted to an exhibition of sacred art. In more recent times, Emperor and King Francis Joseph and Queen Elizabeth were ceremoniously crowned there in 1867. Due to the superb acoustics of the Church, large-scale orchestral performances are held in it, like Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis or Mozart’s Mass in C minor. – B: 1031, 1681, T: 7456.→Madonna, the Great; Schulek, Frigyes; Buda Castle.

Mátyás I, King (Matthias Corvinus) (Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 23 February 1443 - Vienna, Austria, 6 April 1490) – King of Hungary and Bohemia, Prince of Austria. He possessed the greatest stature in the history of Hungary in the Middle Ages. He was the second son of János (John) Hunyadi and Erzsébet (Elizabeth) Szilágyi He received a humanistic education under the guidance of János (John) Vitéz, spoke Hungarian, Latin, German and Bohemian, well above the norm of the nobility of his time. After the execution of his brother, László (Ladislas) Hunyadi, King László V (Ladislas) (1453-1457) took him to Vienna and later to Prague. The trademarks of his character showed early: great personal courage, quick wit, resolute, personal pride and independence.

In 1458, the same nobles who assisted his father, the “‘Turk-beater” János Hunyadi, elected him king in Buda, but they also selected his uncle, Mihály (Michael) Szilágyi as a regent. Mátyás soon proved unwilling to accept such restrictions on his ability to rule. Meanwhile, his opponents and László (Ladislas) Garai offered the crown to Emperor Frederick III; but Mátyás’ military triumph in 1459, and Garai’s death ended the rebellion and resulted in Szilágyi’s arrest. In 1462-1463 he defeated the Czech forces led by Jan Giskra in Northern Hungary (Felvidék, now Slovakia). In 1463 he occupied Fort Jajca, and in 1464 took Sebrenik and continued the grand designs of his father. He regained the Holy Crown from Emperor Ferdinand and was crowned with it at Székesfehérvár on 29 March 1464. He crushed the despots and oligarchs and strengthened the royal power. He occupied Vienna, where, allegedly, he was poisoned.

Mátyás created a wide diplomatic service and established a mercenary army known as the Black Army (Fekete Sereg). The training tactics of his army were unparalleled and was copied in its entirety by King Louis IX of France. To cover the costs, he revised the taxation system comparable to European practices, putting his yearly income in line with the greatest European leaders. He revamped the administration of the Judiciary System, the Courts, Appeal Courts, and the High Courts. These remained in practice until 1944. He recognized that the best strategy was a defensive warfare against the Turks and developed the country’s southern system of fortifications. He wanted to drive the Turks entirely out of Europe through the joint efforts of all the European armies. For this reason, he wanted the crown of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He defeated the Czech Estates and was elected King at Olmütz on 3 May 1469 by the Catholic clergy. He forced the three times stronger Polish army of King Kázmér IV (Casimir), and the army of Czech King Ulászló (Wladislas) into a Peace Treaty at Boroszló (Breslau - Wroclaw, Poland) on 8 December 1474. He entered Vienna on 17 August 1472. His early death prevented further advancement of his plans.

He was a great promoter of the humanities. In the 1460s he began and continued the practice of book collecting at great expense. These were the famous, richly decorated Corvinas, forming the core of his Corvina Library. He established bookshops and print shops in Buda, under the direction of András (Andrew) Hess; he also built an observatory there. He started the construction of the Renaissance-style fort in Visegrád under the supervision of leading Italian artists. The pomp and splendor of his court astounded foreign scientists and visitors alike. However, after 150 years of Turkish occupation, the devastation of Buda and the center part of Hungary (1526-1686), hardly any traces of his splendor remain today. His last enterprise was to ensure the succession of his natural son Prince János (John) Corvin but, despite all the efforts of statute legislation and swearing of the allegiance of the Church, the magnates and the city of Vienna, his efforts failed. His thirty-two-year reign represents Hungary’s golden era. His court was the center of Renaissance art and science. He established the middle class and the trade guilds. At the time, Hungary’s population was four million, the same as that of France or England.

His court historians immortalized his stature and the history of his reign was thoroughly documented. The first chronicler was János (John) Thuróczi. Later, Antonio Bonfini in Rerum Ungaricum Decades detailed the history of Hungary up to 1496. Galeotto’s anecdotes and the people’s folklore spread the accomplishments of the “Righteous King” far and wide. He was the most popular Hungarian King.B: 1230, 0883, 11288, 1136, T: 7658.→Corvina; Mátyás I, King’s Corvin’s Calvary; Hunyadi, János; Thuróczy, János; Bonfini, Antonio; Hess, András; Zsámboki Codex.

Mátyás I, King, Corvin's Calvary – A cross with a holder made of pure gold, richly decorated with precious stones and pearls. It is a beautiful creation of the late Middle-Age goldsmith art. The height is 730 mm; the weight is approximately 6 kg. It has two parts. The upper one was created in Paris in 1402; the lower part originates from Lombardy, Italy from the period between 1469 and 1490. The upper part is gold, made in the Gothic religious style, and shows the Calvary scene with Christ and three Prophets bound to a pole. The small sculptures are covered with special enamel. This part is the most important relic of the goldsmith’s art representative of the Parisian Court. The lower part is made of poured gold. According to the coat of arms and style, an artist from Lombardy created it during the reign of King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 1458-1490). Sphinxes, dolphins and other mythological creatures decorate it along with the coat of arms of the King. As indicated in a letter, kept at the Káptalan (Chapter) Archives, János (John) Corvin first pawned it to Archbishop Tamás (Thomas) Bakócz, then gave it to him in 1494. It is kept in the Esztergom Cathedral’s treasury. – B: 1078, 1144, 1020, 1031, T: 7673.→Mátyás I, King; Bakócz, Tamás.
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