Mary, Devotion of – Its origin goes back to the Annunciation, when, Angel Gabriel greeted Mary: “Hail (Mary) full of grace, the Lord is with you, blessed art thou amongst women” (Luke 1: 24). The first words in Latin: “Ave Maria” is a familiar prayer used by the Catholic Church. Devotion to the Virgin Mary in Hungary is as old as Christianity. The Hungarian King István I (St Stephen, 997-1038) ordered the yearly celebration of the Virgin Mary and appointed August 15 as her day to be observed as a national holiday. He dedicated the Cathedral of Székesfehérvár in her honor. King András II (Andrew, Endre, 1205-1235) ordered the bells to ring daily az noon for Ave Maria. Hungarian literature is rich with themes about Mary. The oldest sermon dealing with the Virgin Mary is found in The Book of Legends of Debrecen(Debreceni Legendáskönyv) from the 15th century. There are many Maria shrines; the Hungarian fine art is rich in images of Mary and the number of her statues is countless. – B: 1078, 0945, 0942, 1173, T: 7103.→Mary’s Kingdom; Maria’s Lamentation, Old Hungarian. Mary Legends – These purported stories about the Virgin Mary from her childhood, life, betrothal, death and ascent to Heaven are found in the New Testament. The Hungarian codices that favor stories about Mary’s death and her ascent to Heaven are found in the Teleki Codex, Tihanyi Codex and the Érdy Codex. Their common source is Pelbárt Temesvári's Stellarium. – B: 1136, T: 3240.→Temesvári, Pelbárt;Codex Literature. Mary’s Kingdom (Country) – Regnum Marianum was the ancient Catholic name for Hungary. Its origin goes back to King István I (St Stephen, 997-1038), the founder of Hungary as a Christian Kingdom. According to tradition, the dying King without an heir offered the country to the protection of the Virgin Mary. From then on the Virgin Mary was regarded as Patrona Hungariae (Patroness of Hungary). King László I (St Ladislas, 1077-1095) also called Hungary Regnum Marianum. Mary always had serious devotion, probably because of pre-Christian religious traditions. She was called Blessed Woman (Boldogasszony) as well. Mary‘s picture is on the crown jewels, on coins, and was a symbol during wars and still has holidays such as Fruit-grafting Blessed Lady on 25 March. Churches, communities and parishes often used the name Regnum Marianum. The name Regnum Marianum emphasizes a strong connection between Hungary and Catholicism. – B: 0942, 1078, 1031, T: 7103.→Mary, Devotion of; Madonna, the Great. Masnicius, Tóbiás (Masznyik, Masník) (Kosztolna, now Kostolná, Slovakia, 28 October 1640 - Zay-Ugróc, now Uhrovec, Slovakia, 28 July 1697) – Pastor of the Lutheran Church. He served in Szenic during 1668; in 1671 he was teacher and chaplain at Illava (now in Slovakia). The ecclesiastic Court, called Delegatum Judicium at Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), charged and sentenced him to galley slavery, along with 41 other preachers. Following his imprisonment in Pozsony and Nagyszombat (now Trnava, Slovakia), he escaped with János (John) Simonides in 1675 on his way to the galleys at Naples, and, although they were recaptured, they found Protestant patrons. He spent some time first in Naples, then in Wittenberg and Zittau, where he found an employment to suit his qualifications. Only in 1682 could he return to Hungary and, from that time on, for a short while, he was active again in Illava. From here – persecuted again because of his faith – he moved first to Blatnica, then to Túrócszentandrás (now Liptovský Ondrej, Slovakia) and finally to Zay-Ugróc, where he ministered to the congregation. He was one of the foremost clergymen of the so-called Decade of Mourning. He wrote about their sufferings in Crucis et lucis scola (1678), Unerhörter Gefängnis-Prozess (1878), and Gottes Kraft and Gnade (1681). He put together the Tót (now called Slovak) Grammar (1696) and published in the Tót (Slovak) language the God’s Elected Vineyard. – B: 0931, 0942, 1257, T: 7682.→Decade of Mourning; Simonides, János. Massacrein Mosonmagyaróvár – On 26 October 1956, the people of the town organized a peaceful demonstration in front of the City Hall. There were about 5000 participants: men, youth, and women with babies in their arms. As they passed in front of the barracks of the State Security Office (Államvédelmi Hivatal – ÁVH) people began to shout, demanding the removal of the red star from the top of the building. In response, the AVH guards opened machine-gun fire on the unarmed demonstrators and threw hand grenades among those who tried to shelter themselves on the ground. The massacre resulted in 85 deaths, among them a six-year-old boy and an 18-month-old baby; 50 people were severely injured and about 100 suffered lighter injuries. The AVH guards later surrendered; but their commander managed to escape to Czechoslovakia. – B: 1031, 1687, T: 7665.→State Security Police; Freedom Fight of 1956. Massacre on Parliament Square (Kossuth Square, Budapest) - In the evening of 25 October 1956, continuing the revolutionary movement that began on the 23rd, tens of thousands of people gathered on Lajos (Louis) Kossuth Square in front of the Parliament in Budapest. They were demonstrating for the withdrawal of Soviet troops and free elections. From the top of the Ministry of Agriculture building across the square, members of the AVH (Államvédelmi Hivatal; State Security Office) began to fire at the unarmed demonstrators with machine guns. The victims, including many women and children, numbered in the hundreds. The massacre ended with the intervention of a Soviet tank. The Fact Finding Commission, set up by the Antall Government in 1993, reported that, according to the Soviet-Hungarian agreement regarding October 24-25, the Hungarian troops were responsible for guarding the bridges, while the “Soviet troops received an order to liquidate the demonstration in front of the Parliament Building”. However, the Commission did not exclude the possibility that “in co-operation with the Soviet army, some Hungarian troops also participated in the massacre”. Opposing this is the unanimous recollection of the participants present on the square that the Soviet tanks did not fire at the demonstrators, many of whom climbed on the tanks and, according to photographs taken at the time, they were waving Hungarian flags without any interference from the Soviet soldiers. Moreover, when the demonstrators came under fire from the top of five buildings, one of the Soviet tanks returned the fire, ending the 1.5 hours attack on the demonstrators. While the number of the officially registered dead was 54, those present recall more than 200 dead. Recent research has put the death toll at more than 1,000 with many more wounded. When the firing ended and the people left the Square, many returned to collect their dead to bury them secretly. The massacre in front of the Parliament Buildings left deep wounds in Hungarians. – B: 1677, 1678, T: 7665.→ State Security Police; Freedom Fight of 1956. Masznyik, Endre (Andrew) (Tiszaföldvár, 24 September 1857 - Budapest, 3 October 1927) – Lutheran theologian, teacher. He studied Theology in Sopron and Pozsony (now Bratislava in Slovakia) completing them in 1879. After some trips abroad, he became a teacher of religion in a high school in Selmecbánya (now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia). In 1882 he obtained his Ph.D. with his dissertation: The Beautiful as Magnificent(Aszép mint felséges). Later he became a lecturer at the Lutheran Theological Academy of Pozsony, where he was appointed professor in 1885. From 1895 on he was Rector of the Academy until his retirement in 1917. He worked in the Departments of New Testament and Systematic Theology and took part in the research on Church history and Martin Luther. He edited the Hungarian Luther Monograph (in 6 vols. 1904-1914), so far the largest work in this field. Roman Catholic theologians have criticized his works on church history and the New Testament. He was a member of the Committee of the Hungarian Lutheran Literary Society, and founder as well as Editor of the journal, Theological Review(Theologiai Szaklap) (1902-1917). His better-known works are: Luther Biography (Luther életrajz) (1885); Evangelical Dogmatics (Evangélikus Dogmatika) (1888); Life and Epistles of Apostle Paul, vols. i-vi,(Pál apostol élete és levelei,1-VI), (1895-1900); Did Jesus Have Brothers and Sisters?(Voltak-e Jézusnak testvérei?) (1906),;Life of Jesus(Jézus élete) (1906), and Translation of the New Testament(Újszövetség forditás) (1925). – B: 1050, T: 7456.→Bible in Hungarian. Master (gazda) – (1) The name originally was given to the head of a commune, mostly to the father of the clan, or the oldest male member of the commune, házigazda (owner of the house). In case of the death of the father, the clan assembly elected the most suitable male, the most intelligent member among themselves to be the new gazda.After the election, the community lived under the new master’s guidance and supervision. The gazda collected and handled the fruit of the common labor. His duty was to keep proper account of the collected taxes and to satisfy all material needs of the clan members evenhandedly. If any member of the clan practiced some gainful occupation of his own, he had to protect his own. The gazda assigned the duties to each member of the community, but he was exempt from any physical labor and participated only voluntarily in some activities. To emphasize the significance of his position, he made the first symbolic move where male participation was required. He had the right to taste the food and drink first. The cellar was under his jurisdiction and he measured out the wine portions. He decided the sitting order of the guests at the table, he started the dance at the harvest festival, and his duty was to fend for the livestock on Christmas Eve. He and his wife addressed every member of the community with the familiar “thou” (te) basis, but the members had to use the more respectful “you” in response. (‘Kend’ or ‘magázás’). The gazda’s wife called her husband’s older brother “my senior master” (öregbik uram), his younger brother “my junior master” (kisebbik uram) and addressed them as “you” (magázta őket). Some anthropological researchers attribute this custom to the remnants of an ancient matriarchal social order. (2) In modern usage the word gazda means a yeoman (minor landowner), although, in certain regions, the vestige of the old custom still survives. By use of an affix, the word gazda could specify the main activity or occupation, such as juhos gazda (sheep), szőlős (vinyard), méhes (beekeeper), majoros (poultry), arató (grain), pince (cellar) gazda. (3) The name gazda, in connection with associations or organizations, is the person responsible for the wealth or building management. (4) In plant science or animal husbandry, the name gazda is given to the specimen that is misused by some parasite for their own sustenance. The linguistic origin could be traced back to an expression first used in the ‘Legend of St Margit’ (Margaret), where the community leader is called kazata. This underwent a linguistic metamorphosis throughout the centuries and became házatya, then changed to gazta and finally, in modern use gazda, the word used today. – B: 0942, 1134, T: 3233.
Master M.S. (Mester M.S.) – Painter of the early 16th century, one of the greatest Hungarian Gothic painters, only known by his initials on one of his altar (panel) paintings. He was probably superior to most of his contemporary artists in imagination and craftsmanship in religious (church) painting with great form of culture and rich color scheme, working in the spirit of the Danube School (Donauschule or Donaustil, the name of a circle of painters of the first third of the 16th century in Bavaria and Austria, mainly along the Danube valley). Originally, he prepared a set of eight wall panels for the fortified St. Catherine Church of Selmecbánya (now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia). As a result of later reconstructions and a number of Turkish attacks during the 16th century, the eight panels disappeared. Seven of them have been recovered in the course of the 19th century. His best-known panel paintings include Agony in the Garden (Christ on the Mount of Olives), Christ Carrying the Cross, and Crucifixion, while the painting Resurrection displays his well-preserved initials and the date 1506. These four are held in the Christian Museum of Esztergom. The work called Visitation (Meeting ofMary and Elizabeth) hangs in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, and is considered to be the most valuable medieval Hungarian work of art; part of this painting provided the basis for the illustration of the Master M.S. Prize. Another of the panels is held at a museum in France: in one of the small details, it has the supposed self-portrait of the master. One of the altar-panels is in the local church at Szentantal (Szentantal-Bácsfa, now Băc, Slovakia). For centuries there have only been suppositions about the authorship of the famous altar-panels. According to one theory, they are the work of MasterSebestyén (Sebastian). A German art historians ascribe the painting to Jörg Breu of Augsburg without sufficient evidence. Recently, after fifty-year investigation by Miklós (Nicholas) Mojzer, Director of the Museum Fine Art, Budapest, found a solution to the mystery of the sign M.S: it is the initials of Master Sebestyén (Sebastian), a Hungarian painter, whose name is preserved in a document dated 1507, discovered early in the 20th century at Selmecbánya. Due to recent research, it seems almost certain that he was the master from the mining town, whose art is related to the art of Albrecht Dürer, in the spirit of the Danube school, also of Jörg Breu, and particularly of Matthias Grünewald’s style, suggestive of folk art but individualistic at the same time. Dramatic depth is combined with richly colored decorative forms. Master M.S. studied most likely at a well-known art workshop. He prepared the altar-panels on commission from a well-to-do Hungarian aristocrat. – B: 0872, 0883, 1031, 1138, 1172,T: 7103, 7456.
Master Márton (15th century) – Painter. His name was preserved on the back of the middle panel of the altar painting of Jánosfalva together with the date 1491. The lumpy, stiff figures in his paintings are repeated in the works of the Maria Altar in Arnót, and on the Vir Dolorum panels of the Mater Dolorosa in Igló (now Spišská Nová Ves, German: Zipser Neudorf, Slovakia) He was a conservative delegate from the school of Szepes (Cipszer orZipszer region is now in Slovakia) and was active between 1485 and 1500. – B: 1144, T: 7653.
Master Painter of the High Altar of Medgyes (15 century) – According to local legend, he was a master painter working in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania) between 1480 and 1490. His major work is the High Altar of Medgyes (now Mediaş – Mediasch, in Sibenbürgen region in Romania); the passion scenes of the side panels are descendants from the engravings of the Schöngauer work from 1474-1479. Famous are the Altar Panels at Proştea-Mare (before: Gross-Probsdorf in Siebenbügen region, Romania) as well. – B: 1144, T: 7653.
Match, Safety – János (John) Irinyi substituted lead peroxide for the potassium chlorate in the match head and, by doing this, he invented the explosion free, silently igniting safety match in 1836. This match has become a widely manufactured commodity eber since. – B: 1138, 1226, T: 7662.→Irinyi, János. “Match of the Century” – After the Helsinki Olympic Games (1952) the gold medalist Hungarian National Soccer Team received an invitation to England. The Hungarian Team won 6:3 (4:2) the match played at Wembley Stadium on 25 September 1953. The lineup of the team was as follows: Gyula (Julius) Grosics, Jenő (Eugene) Buzánszky, Gyula (Julius) Lóránt, Mihály (Michael) Lantos, József (Joseph) Bozsik, József, Zakarias, László (Ladislas) Budai II, Sándor (Alexander) Kocsis, Nándor (Ferdinand) Hidegkuti, Ferenc (Francis) Puskás, Zoltán Czibor. With this win the Hungarian team broke the English representative team’s undefeated record on home ground. The return match took place in Budapest on 24 May 1954, repeating the victory in England; the Hungarian team won by 7:1 (3:0). Soccer became the most popular sport in Hungary from the early 1950’s, especially due to the world success of the national team. The so-called ‘Golden Team’ won against all leading European and South American teams. – B: 1014, 1031, T: 7675.→Golden Team; Grosics, Gyula; Buzánszky, Jenő Lóránt, Gyula; Lantos, Mihály; Bozsik, József; Zakarias, József; Budai II, László; Kocsis, Sándor; Hidegkuti. Nándor; Puskás, Ferenc; Czibor, Zoltán. Máté, János (John) (Táp, 6 June 1934 - Budapest, 26 February 1998) – Organist, choirmaster, music teacher. His family moved to Budapest in 1942, where he completed his secondary studies at the Lónyai Street Reformed High School, graduating in 1952. At the age of 10, he began his musical studies at a private school; then continued at the Béla Bartók Music Art Secondary School, Budapest. He studied piano in the class of Renée Sándor; in addition, he studied organ with János (John) Hammerschlag from 1951, and composition with Rezső (Ralph) Sugár. In 1955 he received his teacher’s diploma in piano, solmization and singing. In the same year, he was admitted to the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest, where he studied with Jenő (Eugene) Ádám, Lajos (Louis) Bárdos, Zoltán Gárdonyi, Pál (Paul) Járdányi, Erzsébet (Elizabeth) Szőnyi, Zoltán Vásárhelyi and Sebestyén (Sebastian) Pécsi (organ). He earned a choirmaster and singing-master diploma in 1959, and the diploma of organ in 1960. From 1948 he was involved in church music, first as organist at the Rákospalota-Újváros Reformed Church until 1968, then at the Calvin Square Reformed Church, Budapest until his untimely death. He was Chair of the Department of Hymnology at the Reformed Theological Academy from 1979, then that of the Gáspár Károli Reformed University, Budapest. In 1990 he was on a study leave at the Music Academy of Cologne, Germany. From 1993 he taught singing at the reopened Lónyai Street Reformed High School, Budapest. His musical activity is multi-faceted: he performed hundreds of organ concerts in concert halls, town and village churches at home and in 11 countries; played organ works of classical, romantic and modern composers, such as Paul Hindemith, Carel Brons, Jos Kunst, Ahrns, Adriessen, Leclair, and modern Hungarian composers, e.g. Z. Gárdonyi, E. Szőnyi, I. Sulyok, Gy. Geszler, M. Kovács. He was deputy choir master of the Choir of the Health Employees’ Trade Union for 25 years, and choir master of a couple of church choirs. Together with his wife, Julianna (Juliana) Lőrincz he performed many choir pieces, including the St. Mark Passion and cantatas of J. S. Bach, works F. Mendelssohn and Lajos (Louis) Vass; pieces of B. Britten, Z. Gárdonyi and F. Ottó. With the Ráday Choir he toured Transylvania (now Romania), Northern Hungary (now Slovakia), Sub-Carpathia (now Ukraine), Austria, Belgium, Holland, Sweden and France (1991, 1995). From 1958 he participated in the training of Reformed Church Organists and Cantors. He edited an Ecumenical Hymnbook, a Reformed Hymnbook, wrote several articles and studies, and designed new organs. He corresponded with Albert Schweitzer and made several recordings. He was one of the outstanding Hungarian Reformed Church musicians of the second part of the 20th century. – B: 1088, 1679, T: 7103.→Most of the persons in the article have their own entries. Maternal Lineage – A social order where the family name, social status and the fortune of the family are inherited on the mother’s side. In Hungary, family names are inherited on the paternal line except in in-law relationshipsat some locations – for instance in Kalotaszeg – where the child receives the mother's or the grandmother’s family name. In some cases, maternal and paternal family names might appear jointly, mostly in cases when inheritance is involved, when the first-born female offspring had the priority right to the maternal wealth. – B: 1134, T: 3233.
Máthé, Elek(Alec) (Pécs, 6 September 1895 - Budapest, 22 January 1968) – Minister of the Reformed Church, teacher, literary translator, Hungarologist. Besides his theological studies he also attended a course in Classical Philology at the University of Budapest. After World War I, he furthered his studies in Scotland at the College of Glasgow. He traveled through Greece and Italy several times. From 1926 he taught at the Reformed High School of Budapest. He encouraged several of his students, among them the poet Gábor (Gabriel) Devecseri, to study and practice the ancient Greco-Roman culture. At the end of the 1930s he was the Parish Minister in Kiskunhalas. In 1940 he visited the Hungarian Reformed congregations in the USA and wrote a book about his experiences. In 1945 he joined the Hungarian Radical Party, and he was associated with the World Federation of Hungarians until his retirement. He translated the ParallelLives of Plutarch (ca. 46-120 A.D.), and also translated from the works of W. Scott, U. Sinclair, E. Hemingway, A. Miller and S. Fitzgerald – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.→Devecseri, Gábor. Máthé, Erzsi (Elizabeth) (Erzsébet Mertz) (Budapest, 16 May 1927 - ) – Actress. In 1948, after completing the Art School of the National Association of Actors, Budapest, she played at the Comedy Theater (Vígszinház) of Budapest. Between 1942 and 1952 she performed at the National Theater of Pécs (Pécsi Nemzeti Színház) and, from 1952 to 1983 she acted at the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest; and from 1983 at the József Katona Theater (Katona József Színház). She is a multi-faceted actress. Her regal posture and deep, sonorous voice predestined her for playing tragic roles. Early in her career, she also played a number of classical leading heroine roles. Her capacity for humor and caricature renders her eminently suitable for comedies. Her roles include Clytemnestra in Aeschylus’ Oresteia; Gonerilin Shakespeare’s King Lear(Lear Király); Queen Margaret in Shakespeare’s Richard III; Camillain Ede Szigligeti’s Lilomfi; Mrs.Jourdain in Molière’s Le Bourgeois gentilhomme(Az úrhatnám polgár), andJuli Szabó in F. Karinthy’s Thousand Years (Ezer év). There are more than 30 feature films to her credit, including Smugglers (Csempészek) (1958); Stolen Happiness (Lopottboldogság) (1962); Palm Sunday (Virágvasárnap) (1969); Szinbád (1971), and Stolen Pictures(Lopott képek) (2005).Among her more than 35 TV films are We are not Angels (Nem vagyunk angyalok) (1967); The Black City (A fekete város) (series, 1971); Sunflower (Napraforgó) (1976); Glória (1982), Man and Shadow (Ember és árnyék) (1985), and Peasant Decameron(Paraszt Dekameron) (2001). She received a number of prizes, including the Mari Jászai Prize (1956, 1971), the Artist of Merit title (1976) and Outstanding Artist title (1981), the Kossuth Prize (1985), the Middle Cross of Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (1997), was made Life Member in the Company of Immortals (1998), as well as Actress of the Nation (2000). – B: 1445, 1031, 1105, T: 7456.