Marton, Endre(2) (Andrew) (Budapest, 29 October 1910 - New York, 2 November 2005) – Journalist (father of Kati Marton, a well-known American journalist). He obtained a Ph.D. from the Department of Economics of the Budapest Polytechnic. In 1936 he was a member of the Hungarian Olympic fencing team. In 1946 he became a press-correspondent for the American news-service, Associated Press, in Budapest (His wife worked for the United Press). Among others he reported on the show trials in Hungary. In February 1955 he and his wife were arrested on trumped up charges of spying and treason. They were sentenced to 3 years’ detention in November. Freed from prison in August 1956, he continued his reporting activities for the Associated Press during the Revolution and Freedom Fight as well. In January 1957, to avoid being arrested again, he and his family fled to the American Embassy in Budapest and, later, they escaped to Austria and moved to the USA. Initially, they settled in Chevy Chase near Washington, DC. He worked for the Washington Office of the Associated Press as a reporter accredited to the White House. He retired in 1975. Later, he lectured on the press and on foreign affairs at the School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University. In 1985 he retired from his university position but continued lecturing for another five years, already aged 80. He regularly wrote articles and analyses in American and English papers such as the Los Angeles Times and the Economist-ForeignReport. Between 1960 and 1985, under the name Endre Pataki, he was the Washington correspondent for Radio Free Europe. His works include his memoirs: The Forbidden Sky, Inside the Hungarian Revolution (1971). – B: 1672, T: 7456.→Marton, Kati. Marton, Éva (Éva Heinrich) (Budapest, 18 June 1943 - ) – Opera singer (dramatic soprano). She studied singing at the Opera Department of the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest as a student of Jenő (Eugene) Sipos, and graduated in 1968. She had her debute as Kate Pinkerton in Puccini’s Madama Butterfly at the Margaret Island Summer Festival, Budapest. At the Hungarian State Opera, her debute was as Queen of Shemaka in Rimsky-Korsakov’s Le Coq d’Or in 1968. In 1972 she appeared as the Countess in Le Nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro) at the Frankfurt Opera, Germany, and sang Matilde in Rossini’s Guglielmo Tell in Florence, Italy, and Odabella in Verdi’s Attila, Budapest. In 1973 she made her first appearance at the Vienna State Opera as Tosca, and sang Tatiana in Eugene Onegin. Her repertoire includes all the major soprano roles, such as Eva in Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, the Empress in Die Frau ohne Schatten, Elisabeth in Tannhäuser, the title role of Aïda, Leonora in Il Trovatore, the title role of Die Aegyptische Helena, Leonore in Fidelio, the title role of Elektra, and Brünnhilde in Wagner’s Ring Cycle. Her further heroine title roles are: Salome,La Gioconda, and Leonora in LaForza del Destino. She appeared with every major opera company, including the Metropolitan Opera New York, La Scala Milan, Arena di Verona Italy, also in San Francisco, Chicago, Barcelona, Houston, and Washington under the baton of leading conductors, such as Lorin Maazel, Claudio Abbado, Zubin Mehta and Christoph von Dohnányi. She is also one of the most recorded artists. She recorded more than 20 complete operas, as well as solo recitals, aria albums and symphonic works. Her other roles include Kundry in Parsifal in Barcelona and Lisbon, as well as Isolde at the Hamburg State Opera in 2000. She acted and sang in the movie version of the Hungarian National Opera’s Bánk bán by Hungarian composer Ferenc (Francis) Erkel. Her concert appearances and recitals include songs and compositions of Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner, especially Arnold Schönberg and Gustav Mahler. She has been Professor and Chair of the Voice Department of the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Music University, Budapest. Éva Marton has been among the most outstanding dramatic sopranos of the world. She has received many awards and prizes, among them the Silver Rose of the Scala of Milan (1980), Singer of the Year (New York Times) (1981, 1986), Chamber-Singer Vienna (1987), Béla Bartók-Ditta Pásztory Prize (1991), Mario del Monaco Prize (1991), and the Kossuth Prize (1997). – B: 0874, T: 7l03.→Opera House; Erkel, Ferenc; Liszt, Ferenc; Dohnányi, Kristof von; Mahler, Gustav. Marton, Kati (Katalin, Kate) (Budapest, 4 February 1956 - ) – Writer, journalist, actress. With her parents, she emigrated to the USA after the crushed 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight, and is now an American citizen. She married the late TV personality Peter Jennings, and is now married to Richard Holbrooke, former UN Ambassador and leading American diplomat. Kati Marton is an enthusiastic supporter of the rights of Hungarians living in the neighboring states, the so-called successor states. In the 1970s Kati Marton was sending reports and news items about Hungary and other Central European countries. She is President of the International Women’s Health Coalition, and one of the heads of the Committee to Protect Journalists. She is the author of articles in the press, radio programs, and a number of books (published since 1980), e.g. An American Woman (1987); The Polk Conspiracy (1990); Death in Jerusalem (1996), and Hidden Power: Presidential Marriages that Shaped our Recent History. The most successful of her works was the one entitled: Nine Hungarians, who left their Country and changed the World (2007), dealing with the lives and achievements of nine Jews from Hungary who had to escape to the West from the political developments of National Socialism in all Central European countries. These nine personalities were: Endre Friedmann (Robert Capa) photographer, Andor Kertész (Andre Kertész) photographer, Mihály Kertész (Michael Curtiz) film director, Sándor Korda (Alexander Korda) film director, Artur Kösztler (Arthur Koestler) writer, János (John) von Neumann mathematician, Leo Szilárd physicist, Ede (Edward) Teller physicist, and Jenő (Eugene) Wigner physicist. Since its publication, it has had four editions and has also appeared in Hungarian translation, on the occasion of which she was presented with the distinction of the Pro Cultura Hungarica Prize on 10 January 2008. – B: 1893,T: 7456.→Marton, Endre (2);Capa, Robert;Koestler, Arthur; Curtiz, Michael; Kertész, André; Korda, Sir Sándor; Neumann, von John; Szilárd, Leo; Teller, Ede; Wigner, Eugene Pál. Márton, László (Ladislas) (Budapest, 23 April 1959 - ) – Writer. In 1983 he completed an Arts Degree, majoring in Hungarian, German and Sociology. He became a correspondent for the book publishing firm Helikon. In the 1980s his novels show him as determining a generation: he breaks with the traditional narrative logic as well as with the epic requisite of causality with its relatedness to reality. His world, the internal order of his novels, is defined by the contingency, the state of having no center and self-annihilating situations. Several of his works may be interpreted as “philosophical jokes”. His dramatic works are re-interpretations of earlier stage works, which include Asylum (Menedék) novel(1985); Select Onesand Mingling Ones (Kiválasztottak és elvegyülők (1989); Carmen, play (1991); The True Story of Jacob Wunschwitz(Jacob Wunschwitz igaz története) novel (1997), and Shady Main Street (Árnyas főutca) (1999). He received numerous prizes, among them the Bölöni Prize (1985), Milán Füst Prize (1988), Tibor Déry Award (1991), Dezső Kosztolányi Prize (1993), Imre Madách Prize (Soros) (1996) and the Attila József Prize (1997). – B: 1257, 0878, T: 7456.
Marton-Lefèvre, Júlia (Marton, Júlia, Budapest, 1944? - ) – Environmental scientist and diplomat. As a young girl (aged 12) she left Hungary with her parents, who were political refugees after the crushed 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight. She settled in France, where she spent most of her adult life and completed her education. She married a Frenchman, Lefèvre, raised her two sons and became a French citizen. She studied History, Ecology and Environmental Protection. Eventually, she moved to the USA and, as a US citizen, she began her work as an environmental scientist and diplomat, organizing international conferences and cooperation in environmental planning. Julia Marton-Lefèvre has assumed a number of important positions in her career. She regards herself as a global citizen. She worked as Executive Director of LEAD International (Leadership for Environment and Development), a program established by The Rockefeller Foundation to train scientists and leaders in the field of sustainable development. She established the world’s largest nature-conservation network as Director General of the World Conservation Union (IUCN), and became Rector of the University of Peace (UPEACE), founded in Costa Rica, with campuses in several places in the world. It was mandated by the United Nations to provide education, training and research on issues related to peace and conflict. She was Program Specialist in Environmental Education under a joint UNESCO-UNEP Program. She was also Executive Director of the International Council for Science (ICSU), based in Paris. Its First Scientific World Congress (jointly with UNESCO) was held in Budapest in the summer of 1999, and was, to a considerable degree, her achievement. She gave university lectures in Thailand as a Peace Corps Volunteer. She was Vice-Chair of the World Resources Institute and is currently on the Board of Directors of the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Her main published work is the book entitled Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflict Resolution (Global Environmental Accord) (2007); she also published many papers and co-authored a number of books. She is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society of the United Kingdom. In 1999, she received the American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS Award for International Cooperation in Science. – B: 1406, 1892, T: 7456.
Márton, Lili (Lilian) (pen name: Kata Kászoni) (Budapest, 12 December 1914 - Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 27 March 2000) – Journalist. She completed her high school studies in Kolozsvár in 1932. The well-known writer Elek Benedek (she regarded him as her model) discovered her writing talent. Later on, she created a symbol to his memory in her biographical novel, Granddad Elek (Elek nagyapó) (1975), and in her lyric stage work, There was, there was not (Hol volt, hol nem volt) (1983). Between 1934 and 1940 she was theatrical reporter for the paper Opposition (Ellenzék). In 1937 she won a prize with her comedy, Back Alley (Sikátor), at the drama competition of the journal Transylvanian Helikon (Erdélyi Helikon). The Thalia Theaterof Budapest (Thalia Szinház) presented it in 1938. From 1941 she reported to the Budapest papers, Today (Mai Nap) and Theater Magazine (Színházi Magazin). Until 1951 she worked as a correspondent for the paper, Brightness (Világosság), in Kolozsvár. She was also freelancing from 1941. During the 1950s she could only write under a fictitious name and translate works from Romanian. Transylvanian Theaters staged many of her plays, such as If We Were Alive (Ha élnénk) (1948); Merry Magician (Vidám varázsló) (1967), and The Bad Boy (A rossz fiú), (1980), first as a youth novel (1960). Her stories for children and teens achieved great popularity. Her works include Aunt Anna’s Vacation (Anna néni nyaralása) story (1949); The Barrow King (Taligás király) tales (1957); Four Towns and a Little Boy (Négy város meg egy kisfiú) juvenile novel (1961); Suburban Wedding (Külvárosi menyegző) novel (1970); Mothers Don’t Die (Az anyák nem halnak meg) novel (1970); Humans, Scenes, Stories (Emberek, tájak, történetek) (1993), and Adventure in the Land of Legends (Kaland a legendák földjén), novel (1995). Her literary translations are also significant. She was a recipient the Helikon Drama Prize (1937) and the Gold Pen Prize (1976). – B: 1257, 0875, 1031, T: 7456.→Benedek, Elek.
Mártonfy, Lajos (Louis) (Szilágysomlyó, now Şimleu Silvaniei, Romania, 21 May 1857 - Szamosújvár, now Gherla, Romania, 20 December 1908) – Paleontologist, geologist and teacher. From 1876 he studied Natural Sciences at the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania); and, from 1878 to 1880, under the famous Antal (Anthony) Koch, he carried out geological research. After obtaining a Ph.D. in Education in 1880, he became a teacher at the High School of Szamosújvár, where he became Principal in 1895. He was interested mainly in the natural science of Transylvania, mainly its mineralogical-geological aspects, and he also carried out important collecting work. His studies appeared in the journal Bulletin of the Society for Studies on Medical-Natural Science (Orvos-természettudományi Társaság Értesítője) (Kolozsvár).He also wrote a popularizing scientific essay. He was the author of the work (in Hungarian): Paleontological studies on foraminifers(Őslénytani tanulmányok a Foraminiferákról) (Kolozsvár, 1880). – B: 0883, T: 7456.
Marton, Veronika (Veronica) (Rábapatona, 1944 - ) – Historian, Sumerologist and writer. After completing her studies at the Miklós Jurisich High School in Kőszeg, she was unable to enroll at a University for political reasons. After her marriage, she lived in Czechoslovakia for three years, and obtained advanced degrees in the Czech and Russian languages. She worked for a long time as a translator and interpreter. She also received a Degree in Library Sciences in 1983 from the High School Teachers’ Training College of Szombathely through correspondence courses, and obtained her teaching qualifications in Hungarian Studies at the Péter Pázmány Catholic University at Piliscsaba. She also studied Chinese for seven years. With the help of Professor Ferenc (Francis) Badiny-Jós, she came into contact with the former Private University of Miskolc. He gave her valuable help in furthering her career. From 1998 she taught Sumerology at the Miskolc Institute of Philosophy for three years, until her retirement. Her published works include Deimel, Anton: Sumerische Grammatik, translation withImre Kálmán (2000); The History of Sumerian Culture (A sumir kultúra története)(2000); The Chaldean Creation Myth (A káldeai teremtés-mítosz - Enuma elis) (2000); The Stones With Runic Script of Somogy (A somogyi rovásírásos kövek) (2001, 2008); The History of Cuneiform Writing (Az ékírás története) (2005), and Prayers from the Age of King András I … (Az I. András király korabeli imák…) (2007). – B: 1935, T: 7690, 7103.→ Hungarian Runic Scrip;Badiny-Jós, Ferenc.
Martonyi, János (John) (Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 5 April 1944 - ) – Politician, lawyer. He studied Law at the University of Szeged and graduated summa cum laude in 1967. He practiced law until 1979, and between 1979 and 1984 worked as Commercial Secretary in Brussels specializing in European integration. Between 1984 and 1989 he was General Counsel at the Ministry of Trade. In 1989 and 1990 he was Commissioner for Privatization (Deputy Minister); in 1990 and 1991, State Secretary in the Ministry of International Trade; from 1991 to 1994 State Secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Between 1994 and 1998, he was managing partner of the Budapest Office of Baker & McKenzie International Law Firm. From 1998 to 2002 he was Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Orbán Government. Since 1984 he has been teaching at various universities and law schools (Budapest, Szeged, Bruges, Natolin), and was Head of the Institute for International Trade Law at the University of Szeged. From 2010 he is again Minister of Foreign Affairs in the 2nd Orbán Government. He has written numerous articles and essays in various languages in the field of international trade law, competition policy and law, European integration, and international politics. His main works are: The Legal Status of Transnational Corporations (A transznacionális vállalatok jogállása);Central Europe and the European Integration (Középeurópa és az európai intergráció), and Europe, Nation, Rule of Law(Európa. Nemzet, Jogállam). – B: 1017, T: 7103.→Orbán, Viktor. Martsa, István (Stephen) (Pozsony, now Bratislava, Slovakia, 23 June 1912 - Budapest, 3 February 1978) – Sculptor. In 1920 he trained as an electrician; then worked as an assistant for the Electrical Works of Esztergom. In 1945 he was a student in Béni (Benny) Ferenczy’s class at the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest where, in 1949, he became demonstrator. In 1951 he began working as a teacher in the High School of Art and Applied Art, Budapest. He started his career with modeling small plastic art pieces and small portraits. Later he created a great number of medals, e.g. those of Marx, Van Gogh, showing a fine talent for graphic art. From the mid-1950s he received commissions for preparing outdoor statues. For the buildings of the Housing Estate of Újpest (suburb of Budapest) he designed a series of reliefs. He prepared a Female Nude in front of the Hospital of the Town Council of Ózd. In 1960 he completed his statue Loving Couple(Szerelmespár) and, in 1965, the Martyrs of Auschwitz memorial. His Woman with Parasol (Napernyős nő) expresses graceful charm, while his composition of two figures in front of the Esztergom Hospital expresses gentle solicitude. The open-air statues he prepared for Kalocsa in 1968, and for Vaja in 1969, show solemn peasant figures. In the 1970s he sculpted the equestrian figure of Bottyán Vak for Esztergom, and the memorial statue of János Nagy-Balogh for Kispest, a suburb of Budapest. During his career as a sculptor, he created 62 emblems, 57 small plastic art pieces and 40 statues. Between 1952 and 1978, he appeared regularly in collective exhibitions and shows in Hungary with his medals, plastic art pieces and open-air sculpture designs. In 1956 he organized an exhibition, together with his wife, painter Ilona (Helena) Szűcs. In 1973 he presented one-man shows in Budapest and Esztergom. – B: 0883, 1160, T: 7456.→Ferenczy, Béni. Marsigli, Count Luigi Ferdinando (Marsili) (Bologna, 20 July 1658 - Bologna 1 January 1730) – Military officer, diplomat, natural scientist. He was born into an Italian noble family of Bologna. His formal education was left incomplete, but he accumulated extensive knowledge of history, geography, the natural sciences and politics. From 1682 to 1704 he served in the army of Emperor Leopold I (Lipót) of Austria-Hungary (1654-1705), partly as an engineer, and attained a high rank. During these 22 years, he took part in the war against the Ottoman Turks. In 1683 he fell into Turkish captivity and became a water-hauling slave; while doing this, he pried into the weak points of the defense system of Buda Castle, which knowledge he made good use of later. He was freed on 25 March 1684, and continued fighting against the Turks. He took part in the recapture of Buda in 1686. Among others, it is due to him that a number of the famous volumes of the Corvina Library of King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 458-1490) were saved: he actually managed to traverse the one-time King’s Palace and Library after its recapture and collect as many of the precious volumes as he could. The Emperor also sent Count Marsigli on diplomatic missions to the Pope and on peace negotiations with the Turks. One unfortunate outcome of this was the surrender of Breisach on the Rhine in Baden to the French again, though it was ceded to the Emperor in the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697. During the War of the Spanish Succession, when Imperial troops threatened the Papal States in 1708, it was Marsigli who headed the Papal army. Later (about 1715), he inspected the defenses of the Papal States against possible Turkish raids on the Adriatic coast. In 1702 he built an observatory in his Bologna palace. He founded the Accademia delle Scienze dell’Istituto di Bologna in 1712, which became an active center of scientific research. He decided to investigate the structure of mountains as well as the natural condition of the sea, lakes and rivers, leaving some useful local observations for natural science. In 1724 he published a treatise on oceanography, entitled Histoire physique de la mer. With his engineering and natural scientific knowledge, he prepared a richly illustrated scientific description of the rivers of Hungary of the Carpathian Basin, the fish in the Danube, also the birds, minerals and fossils of the realm, including its hydrographic map, showing mine sites and some geology, still useful for archeologists. He went to London in 1722 to be made a member of the Royal Society and met the famous physicist and mathematician, Isaac Newton. – B: 1882, 1703, T: 7456.→Corvina; Mátyás I, King; Budavár, Recapturing of, Reconquest of Buda in 1686. Martyn, Ferenc (Francis) (Kaposvár, 10 June 1899 - Pécs, 10 April 1986) - Painter, graphic and ceramic artist. He spent his youth in the home of the well-known artist József (Joseph) Rippl-Rónai. He studied at the Budapest Academy of Fine Art under the direction of Gyula (Julius) Rudnay, János (John) Vaszary and István (Stephen) Réti. From 1926 to 1940 he lived in Paris, became associated with the leaders of the latest artistic trends, took part in their exhibitions, and traveled all over Europe. In 1940 he returned to Hungary, and in 1945 settled permanently in Pécs. He did some sculpting as well. Apprehension of the scene and its memory in geometric, abstract forms characterize his art. His works express the power of experience and the object seen. Loud harmony of dynamism and pure colors dominate his paintings. His more important works are Three on the Seashore (Hárman a tengerparton) (1943); Rooster (Kakas) (1955); Memory of the Sea (Tengeri emlék) (1964); Balaton Landscape with Birds (Balatoni táj madarakkal) (1973), and Birds (Madarak) (1977-1979). Apart from his independent graphic compositions, he produced excellent illustrations for famous literary works, e.g. Petőfi’s The Apostle (Azapostol); Cervantes’ Don Quixote, and Joyce’s Ulysses. In ceramics he created dishes and vases in the porcelain factory of Pécs. He exhibited between 1934 and 1980. He received the Munkácsy Prize (1962) the title of Merited Artist, and title of Outstanding Artist (1970, 1978) and the Kossuth Prize (1973). – B: 0883, 0934, T: 7456.→Rippl-Rónai, József; Rudnay, Gyula; Vaszary, János; Réti, István. Martzy, Johanna (Temesvár, now Timişoara, Romania, 26 October 1924 - Glarus, Switzerland, 13 August 1979) – Violin virtuoso. She studied at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest, with Ferenc (Francis) Gábriel (1932-1942). As a student, she won the Reményi and Hubay Prizes and was the winner of the musical competition in Geneva (1949). In 1948 she moved to and settled in Switzerland and started performing violin concertos of classical and romantic masters under the baton of Eugene (Jenő) Ormandy, Ernest Ansermet, Otto Klemperer, Paul Klezky, and other famous European and American conductors. From 1966 she performed chamber music as well, with pianist István (Stephen) Hajdu. Her recordings include Brahms and Mendelssohn Violin Concertos, Franck and Ravel Violin Sonatas, Mendelssohn and Mozart Concertos and her own work The Art of Johanna Martzy. She was a widely known violinist. She owned Hubermann’s famous Stradivarius violin. – B: 0883, 1676, T: 7103. →Ormandy, Eugene.