Marriage – Burial sites of the Hungarian settlement era (AD 896) provide convincing proofs of monogamous Hungarian family life. For peoples around the Carpathian Basin polygamy was a severe obstacle at the time of conversion to Christianity; but no special legislation was needed for Hungarians. Even the royal family observed monogamy, this basic law of the extended family. While in other royal houses of Europe, children born out of wedlock might inherit the throne, in the Árpád Dynasty, that kind of succession was never allowed. In Hungarian legal books, there is only one reference to polygamy. It is in the Law Book I of King Saint László (Ladislas) I (1077-1095), where paragraph 1, 2 regulated the polygamy of foreign priests who went to Hungary. In comparison to its neighbors, the Hungarian concept of family life was already more advanced. B: 1188, 1020, T: 3233.
Marriage Bread (sweet egg loaf, kalács) – A baked symbol in two forms. One form is when branches are stuck into the braided egg-bread, usually the size of half a table. Then it is decorated with fruits, candles and ginger bread figures. It iscarried in a festive procession from the bride’s house to the house of the groom and, by virtue of its size it is the main attraction. It is eaten with ceremonial formalities; all members of the wedding party receive a piece of it, and even non-attending family members are sent a piece. Their fruit-bearing branch decorations symbolize the tree of life and fertility. The other form has a pretzel-like round shape. It is called ‘keyed milk-loaf’ especially in Transdanubia (Dunántúl), where the dough is encased in a stiff net in the shape of old key handles. A number of them are baked, and the officiating persons wear them on their arm. They play a role especially in wedding processions; sometimes they are distributed among the guests. – B: 1134, T: 7684.
Marriage Oath – The traditional Hungarian marriage vow has been preserved in four languages (Latin, Hungarian, German, Slovak) in the Rituale Strigoniense. It proves that Hungarians attributed the protecting role of marriage to the Boldogasszony (The Blessed Woman). The Female protector of marriage was an ancient deity of early Hungarian mythology, later associated with the Virgin Mother. May God and the Boldogasszony protect me, said the text of the oath. In the most ancient format, the BoldogságosAsszony was in two words but later, it evolved into one single word, Boldogasszony. It is remarkable that in the Latin text she is called Beata Virgo Maria but in the Hungarian text the more ancient Hungarian form has been preserved and associated with the Christian context. In the book of Collectio Rituum, the text uses a new expression: Nagy-Boldogasszony or Nagy-Asszony as variations of the same concept Immaculata Virgin Maria. The collection of archaic prayers bears witness to how wide and complex was the reverence of the Boldogasszony among Hungarians. – B: 0945, 1068, 1020, T: 3233.→Madonna, the Great. Marschalkó, János (John) (Lőcse, now Levoča, Slovakia, 1819 - Budapest, 12 September 1877) – Sculptor. He studied in Vienna; then went on a study tour in Germany, Italy and Paris, before returning to Hungary in 1847. He worked on the statues of the St. Elizabeth Church in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia), the Church in Fót, the Csokonai Theater in Debrecen, the Vigadó in Budapest, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Municipal Concert Hall, and the Rudas Bath, among others. Marschalkó finished István (Stephen) Ferenczy’s busts of Kazinczy and Kölcsey following Ferenczy’s death. Among Marschalkó’s most well known works are the four lions of the Chain Bridge (1852) over the River Danube in Budapest. – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7675.→Kassa;Ferenczy, István; Kazinczy, Ferenc; Kölcsey, Ferenc. Marschalkó, Lajos (Louis) (Hajdúböszörmény, 11 September 1903 - Munich, 20 May 1968) – Newspaper reporter. He started his career with rightist papers: he was an associate for the White Paper (Fehér Újság), Future of Hungary (Magyar Jövő), then Hajdú Land (Hajdúföld). In 1934 he was Chief Editor for the Debrecen News (DebreceniÚjság). In 1936 he moved to Budapest and, from then on, he appeared also as a writer of novels in the columns of the Capital’s newspapers. In 1945 he left for Germany, where he worked as one of the leading figures of the political writers of the emigration; from 1951 to 1954 he was the chief associate for the Brazilian publication New Hungarian (Új Magyarság), from 1960 to 1962 that of the Solidarity (Összefogás) of London and, from 1954, he was one of the editors for the paper, Bridgehead (Hidfő), of London, and then the Almanach of Trianon (Trianoni Almanach) (Munich, 1960). Numerous western organs of the emigrant Hungarians published his articles, some of them written under the pseudonym, Lajos Mátray. His main works include Kőszeg Lost in the Fog (Kőszeg ködbe vész), novel (under L. Mátray, 1948); The Black Star (Fekete csillag), dramatic work (1948); Alone Against Stalin (Egyedül Sztalinellen) (1949); The Red Storm (Vörösvihar),Reminiscences (Visszaemlekezesek) (1954); Neutral Hungary…(Semleges Magyarország...) (1955); World Conquerors (Világhóditók),The Real War Criminals (Az igazi háborúsbűnösök), 2nd revised edition (Munich, 1958), in English: The World Conquerors. The Real War Criminals (1958); The Incriminating Gallows. The True Gravediggers of the Hungarian Nation (Vádló bitófák. A Magyar nemzet igazi sírásói), with Ferenc Fiala (1958); To the Bitter End, Historical Narratives (Mindhalálig), történelmi elbeszélések) (1962), and Conquerors of the Country, From the Emancipation to Mátyás Rákosi (1965). - B: 0883, 1672, T: 7684.→Fiala, Ferenc. Martin, György (George) (Budapest, 5 February 1932 - Budapest, 31 October 1983) – Ethno-choreologist, music-folklorist, folkdance researcher. In 1954 he obtained a Teacher's Degree in Hungarian Literature from the University of Budapest; subsequently he earned a folklorist-museologist diploma from the Institute of Popular Arts, Budapest. He worked at the Folklore Music Research Institute as a folkdance researcher, then, from 1965, at the Musicology Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. From 1951 he collected folk music and folk dances in Hungary and in neighboring countries with a Hungarian population. During his collecting tours, he wrote notes on both Hungarian folkdances and folksongs. Some of his works are Dances of Somogy (Somogyi táncok), co-editor (1954); DasUngarische Mädchenreigen (1968), and Dances of the Hungarian People(A magyar nép táncai) (1973, 1974), in English, French and German. He received the Erkel Prize in 1978. – B: 0886, 1160, T: 7103.
Martin, Lajos (Louis) (Buda, 30 August 1827 - Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 4 March 1897) – Mathematician, inventor. He studied at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Pest. After two years, he switched to Engineering. During the 1848-1849 War of Independence, he was with the artillery at the National Defense; after the defeat he was briefly jailed; then he enlisted in the Austrian Army as a common soldier and worked on perfecting artillery petards. Around 1856 he started to study intensively the problems of rocket technique. Earlier, he taught in Selmecbánya (now Banska Stiavniča, Slovakia), and from 1869 in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia). His inaugural address as Professor at the University of Kolozsvár was on the Force of the BirdWing (A madárszárny erőzete) (1872). He was Rector there in 1895-1896. He constructed a flying machine, the ornithoper that imitated the flight of birds; however, he soon realized that the problems of flying cannot be solved through these means. His interest then turned toward the propeller and wind turbines. He was the first to think about, and apply aileron for airplanes to control the aircraft’s turning directions. In 1893 he patented a new type of aircraft the hovering wheel. He also engaged in problem-solving of the use of wind energy, as well as hydrology. His works include The General Theory of Bird-flying (A madárrepülés általános elmélete) (1881); Displaying the Hovering Wheel (A lebegő kerék bemutatója) (1893), andAbout the Aircraft (A repülőgépről) (1894). He was the first in Hungary to deal with aircraft and airship theory. He is a pioneer of Hungarian aviation. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7675.→Pioneers of Hungarian Aviation. Martinovics, Ignác (Ignatius) (Pest, 20 July 1755 - Buda 20 May 1795) – Monk, revolutionary martyr. He was of Albanian origin. As a young man he joined the Franciscan Order. The Order soon sent him to the University of Pest to study Arts and Theology. Since his favorite subjects were actually Mathematics and Chemistry, after completing his university studies, he was made teacher of mathematics at the Order’s school in Buda. In 1778 he was ordained a priest. After working as an army chaplain for a while, he became Professor of Physics at the University of Lemberg (then in Poland, now Lvov in the Ukraine) in 1783. The first volume of a planned 3-volume textbook on physics deals only with chemistry. In 1791 he left his Chair and was appointed Abbot of Szászváros (now Orǎştie, Transylvania in Romania), then was assigned to the Office of External Affairs at the Court of Emperor Lipót II (Leopold) (1790-1792). Following the King’s early death, Martinovics devoted all his energies to spreading atheism and organizing a conspiracy. He became chief organizer of the Hungarian Jacobite Movement. Initially, Ferenc (Francis) Gyurkovics, Professor of the University of Pest, worked hard to organize a secret society to spread revolutionary ideas. In 1793, he also included Martinovics in his plans; but the French Jacobite Club of Paris charged Martinovics with forming such a Society. In 1794 he began to enroll members first in Vienna. In Hungary, he founded two societies and wrote the catechism Catechisme de l’homme et du citoyen(The catechism of man and citizen). According to him, power is in the hands of the people, who have the right to abolish royalty. Every new member had to swear an oath to spread the ideas of the Society and to acquire at least two new members. Martinovics accepted the role of leading Director, while the immediate governing work was delegated by him to four Directors: János (John) Laczkovics, József (Joseph) Hajnóczy, Ferenc (Francis) Szentmarjai and Count Jakab (Jacob) Sogray. Their plan was to overthrow the existing social order as soon as the membership reached 250,000. However, after three months, Jeline, an initiated member and private teacher, informed the authorities and thus the conspiracy was discovered. On 23 July 1794, Martinovics and a number of his associates were arrested in Vienna, while on 16 August Laczkovics, Hajnóczy, Szentmarjai and several others were arrested in Buda. A letter of indictment with the charge of high treason was submitted on 30 November, and Martinovics, together with his associates, was summoned on 3 December 1794. The inquiries were completed by 20 April 1795. As leader of the conspiracy, he was sentenced to death and forfeiture of property. On 20 May 1795, he and several of his associates were beheaded on the Blood Meadow (Vérmező) in Buda. Among his works are the Systema universae philosophiae (1781), and the French Catechisms (1795). Later, Pál (Paul) Őz and Szolarcsik, two talented young members of the Jacobite Movement, were also executed. Among the many other sympathizers, Ferenc (Francis) Kazinczy, Ferenc (Francis) Verseghy, János (John) Bacsányi and László (Ladislas) Szentjóbi Szabó were sentenced to detention in a Fort. – B: 1031, 1068, 1675, T: 7456.→ Most of the persons in the article have their own entry. Martinuzzi, György (George) (Juraj Utje-šenovic, a.k.a. Fráter, György: Padre George) (Kamicic, Croatia, 1482 - Alvinc (now Vinţu de Jos, Transylvania, now in Romania) 17 December 1551) – Archbishop, Cardinal, Governor of Transylvania, statesman. He was born of a Croatian father and a Venetian patrician mother called Martinuzzi. He preferred to use his mother’s name. As a young man, the Szapolyai family employed him and, eventually, he became a Pauline (Pálos) friar at the age of 28, after a brief military career. Later, he was a skilled diplomat and a close adviser of King János I (John) (János Szapolyai or Zápolya, 1541-1551). He succeeded recapturing Buda, the capital city, from the Turks in 1529. In 1534 he became Bishop of Nagyvárad (now Oradea, Romania) and, in 1538, concluded the Treaty of Nagyvárad with Austria, whereby the royal title and the greater part of Hungary were ceded to Zápolya, who promoted him guardian of his infant son, János Zsigmond (John Sigismund), who was proclaimed and crowned King of Hungary as King János II (1556-1571), with Martinuzzi as acting regent. However, it was stipulated that, after the death of János II, the country should be placed in the hands of the Habsburgs. Martinuzzi prevented the plan of the Queen Mother, Isabella Jagello, to bring in the Austrians and he turned to the Turks for help instead. They appeared at the fortress of Buda on 28 August 1541 and, while Martinuzzi was dining with the Sultan in the Turkish camp, the Grand Vizier took Buda. Having recognized the necessity of balancing diplomacy with both Austria and the Turks, Martinuzzi signed a Treaty at Gyalu on 29 December 1541 for the implementation of the Treaty of Nagyvárad, whereby western Hungary fell into the hands of Ferdinand (Habsburg), while Transylvania, which became an independent Principality under Turkish suzerainty, reverted to János Zsigmond. In the meantime Queen Isabella succeeded in creating an alliance between the Turks, Wallachians and Moldovans against Martinuzzi in 1550; but Martinuzzi defeated them one by one. The Diet of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) confirmed a peace treaty in August 1551. Martinuzzi retained the governorship of Transylvania and was consecrated Archbishop of Esztergom, also becoming Cardinal. In 1551, the Turks occupied some castles in southern Hungary; but Martinuzzi and the Imperial General Castaldo combined forces, prevailed against them, and even retook Lippa. When Martinuzzi initiated secret negotiations with the Turks, Castaldo accused him of treachery and, with the endorsement of Ferdinand, he hired Martinuzzi's secretary, Marco Aurelio Ferrari, to stab his master at his Castle of Alvinc. Martinuzzi’s legacy was to restore and maintain the national unity of Hungary, and set up the independent principality of Transylvania. – B: 0883, 1105, 1031, T: 7103.→Pauline Order; Isabella, Queen; János I, King; János II, King. Márton, Áron (Aaron) (Csíkszentdomonkos, now Sindominic, Romania, 12 August 1896 - Gyulafehérvár, now Alba Iulia, Romania, 29 September 1980) – Roman Catholic Bishop (in Transylvania, now in Romania). His parents were Transylvanian Hungarian (Szekler) peasants. He did his high school studies in Csiksomlyó (now Sumuleu Ciuc, Romania), Csikszereda (now Miercurea Ciuc, Romania) and finally at the Seminary of Gyulafehérvár. He sustained some injuries on the Italian front in World War I, and received a number of citations. At the end of the War, he joined the Szekler Division, determined to resist the Romanian occupation of Transylvania. Following the Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty of 1920, he entered the Seminary of Gyulafehérvár and, on 6 July 1924, Bishop Majláth at Gyergyóditró (now Ditrau) ordained him into the priesthood. First he served at Gyergyószentmiklós (now Gheorgheni, Romania), then at Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) but soon returned to Gyulafehérvár and served as Apostolic Regent. In 1933 he established the journal Erdéyi Iskola (Transylvanian School). Pope Pius XI appointed him Bishop of Central Transylvania on 24 December 1938, and he was consecrated on 24 February 1939. Bishop Márton not only preserved the Hungarian heritage entrusted to him, but also enhanced it, despite limited opportunities, and was the pillar of his Church; on occasion he was the lone refuge for ethnic Hungarians under Romanian occupation. In Kolozsvár, on 18 May 1944, in a daring speech, he condemned the persecution of Jews (at that time Northern Transylvania had been returned to Hungary by the Second Vienna Award and his diocese was cut in half by the new borders). In his memorandum of 18 January 1946, he protested against the discriminatory measures the Romanians introduced against ethnic Hungarians in the Romanian occupied Transylvania. The international attention given to his memorandum exposed a series of harassments committed by the Romanian authorities. He fought ceaselessly for the use of the Hungarian language and the maintenance of Hungarian institutions, and also against the confiscation of church properties. The annual Pentecost pilgrimage to the shrine at Csíksomlyó in 1949 remains a memorable event, not only for those of Csíksomlyó, but for all Szeklers of the region: their Bishop in complete Episcopal attire, riding on a white stallion, led 4,000 pilgrims to the statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the shrine. This symbol is inseparable from the history of the Szekler-Hungarians of Transylvania for, apart from its religious element, the statue embodies the resolve of the Szeklers to maintain their Hungarian consciousness and heritage. The Romanian authorities soon discovered the meaning of the pilgrimage and banned this annual event. Following the famous pilgrimage, Bishop Márton was kidnapped from a taxicab on 21 June 1949 on his way to Bucharest, and his whereabouts were unknown until January 1955. When the western press learned about his disappearance, the Oservatore Romano, the official newspaper of the Vatican, delivered a memorial for “The Martyred Bishop of the People” on 1 July 1949. For six years he was at the death-camp of Máramarossziget (now Sighetu Marmatiei, Romania), where prisoners were subjected to a slow starvation. Subsequent to the diplomatic intercession of the Vatican, he was transferred to a prison in Bucharest and released after a six year in detention. The following year, he was placed under house-arrest for 11 years that was only cancelled in 1967, due to the intervention of Cardinal Franz König of Vienna, Austria. All this time, he remained resolute and refused to accept any compromises offered to him and continued to ordain priests of his own choosing. His unwavering attitude worked wonders and gave his church strength comparable only to the Polish Church. His imprisonment and torture took their toll and, upon his own request, Pope John Paul II released him from diocesan functions. While in office, Bishop Márton was in charge of his own diocese as well as the dioceses of Nagyvárad (now Oradea, Romania), Temesvár (now Timişoara, Romania) and Szatmár (now Satmar, Romania), encompassing all of Transylvania (Erdély). He put a great effort into working for moral, social and cultural growth of all ethnic Hungarians and toward ending the prevailing discrimination on the part of the Romanians. Upon his death, his lying in state became a pilgrimage and over 10,000 people paid their respects. Schools, colleges and a book publisher are named after him – B: 0883, 1153, 1257, T: 7456.
Márton, Árpád (Gyergyóalfalu, now Suseni, Romania, 6 October 1940 - ) – Painter. He studied at the Ion Andreescu Academy of Fine Arts in Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania); started out as an art teacher at the Lyceum of Mathematics and Physics at Csíkszereda (now Miercurea Ciuc, Romania), then, from 1974 to 1979, he was working in the artists’ colony of Szárhegy (now Lazarea, Romania), and in 1977 in that of Paczkow, Poland. His individual exhibitions were held in local Transylvanian Hungarian Szekler towns, such as Csíkszereda, Kézdivásárhely (now Targu-Secuiesc, Romania), Székelyudvarhely (now Odorheiu Secuiesc, Romania), Marosvásárhely (now Targu Mures, Romania) and Gyergyószentmiklós (now Gheorgheni, Romania), and also in Kolozsvár, capital of Transylvania. Combined exhibitions were held in New York (1974), Barcelona, (1976), Krakow (1977), Nuremberg (1980), and Washington (1988). In 1967, together with András (Andrew) Gaál and Árpád Pálffy he made a ceramic mosaic, entitled Cantana Profana for the Cultural House of Csíkszereda. He designed, together with András Gaál, the tile-mosaic for the façade of the new cultural house of Gyergyószentmikós. – B: 1036, T: 7456.
Márton, Árpád Ferenc (Francis) (Magyarlapos, now Targu Lopus, Romania, 25 March 1955 - ) – Actor, politician. He studied at the College of Dramatic Art of Marosvásárhely (now Targu-Mures, Romania). From 1979 to 1989 he acted at the Theater of Sepsiszentgyörgy (now Sfintu Gheorghe, Romania). In 1990 he was a town counselor, then secretary and, still later a member of the Covasna District Parliament. Between 1992 and 1996 he was the secretary of the special committee for culture and the Press. His roles include Samu Bobek in János Kodolányi’s Earthquake(Földindulás); his productions include Antigone (1988) and Philoctetes (1990) of Sophocles, also C. Petrescuás’ Venetian Story (1986). He has been a parliamentary representative of the RomanianHungarian Democratic Alliance (Romániai Magyar Demokratikus Szövetség – RMDSZ) in Bucharest, and he is a deputy parliamentary representative of Romania at the Parliament of European Union, Brusseles. He publishes parliamentary reports, political comments and editorials in papers such as the European Time Europaildo, Orient Express and WeeklyHungary(Heti Magyarország). – B: 1036, T: 7456.→Kodolányi, János. Marton,Edwin (Edvin) (Lajos Csűry) (Tiszaújlak, now Vilok, Carpatho-Ukraine, 1974 - ) – Violin virtuoso, composer. He showed his musical talent at an early age. He studied at the Tchaikovsky Academy, Moscow (1983), and at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest (1991). He plays on a Stradivarius violin (its value ca. 4 million dollars) that Hungary lent to him for life. He is one of the top Hungarian violinists, mostly known for his performances for skating championships. Evgeni Plushenko, Stéphane Lambiel and other famous skaters have often skated to his music. His compositions are a combination of classical music with modern beats and violin, alternating between pop and classics. The secret of his success is his virtuoso playing and his understanding of how to link up people of different cultures and ages. He appeared with his Monte Carlo Quintet in great shows, such as the 2006 Olympic Games in Turin, Kings on Ice, and the Stradivarius Show. He has toured Germany, Switzerland, Russia, Hungary (Debrecen, Szombathely), and the Middle East. His music reached nearly all countries of the world. He frequently appeares in TV and Radio shows. He is also recorded and has produced albumssuch as the Sarasate (1996); Strings’N’Beats (2001); Virtuoso (2004). and Stradivarius (2006). He is one of the few Hungarian performers to establish himself as an artist and personality on a world scale. – B: 1051, 1750, T: 7103.
Marton, Endre(1) (Andrew) (Budapest, 17 March 1917 - Near Esztergom, 12 October 1979) – Theater and stage manager. He obtained an actor’s diploma from the School of Dramatic Art of the National Actors’ Association in 1941, then worked as an assistant stage manager in the Madách Theater (MadáchSzínház), Budapest, run by Andor (Andy) Pünkösti. In 1945 he became Stage Manager at the Comedy Theater (Vígszínház), where he staged, among others, the plays of Béla Balázs, Béla Zsolt and Aldous Huxley. In 1948 he was Head Manager there. The National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest, engaged him as Stage Manager in 1949. From 1950 he taught at the Academy of Dramatic Art, first in the Department of Stage Management, then in that of Acting. From 1971 until his retirement in 1978 he directed the National Theater. He was a man with an organized mind, who could create concerted action. Clarity and texture characterized his productions. He rescued some Hungarian dramatic treasures. He applied to the stage the almost forgotten drama of the great poet Mihály (Michael) Vörösmarty, Czillei and the Hunyadis, also Imre (Emeric) Madách’s Mózes. As Theater Director, he included plays of modern Hungarian writers such as Lajos (Louis) Nagy, Tibor Déry, Ernő (Ernest) Urbán, Endre (Andrew) Vészi, Imre (Emeric) Dobozy, László (Ladislas) Németh, Károly (Charles) Szakonyi, Miklós (Nicholas) Hubay, Lajos (Louis) Maróti and Magda Szabó. He was also stage manager at the Operetta Theater (Operett Színház), Budapest. Linked to his name are film directions, TV productions and radio plays, among them the most important is the Military Music (Katonazene), a movie adapted from the short story of Sándor (Alexander) Bródy. Marton died suddenly while he was preparing to shoot a new film for TV. His stage productions include Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina; Mihály Vörösmarty’s Csongor and Tünde; Imre Madách’s The Tragedy of Man,(Az ember tragédiája); Checkov’s Three Sisters; László Németh’s Gregory VII;Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, King Lear, and Goethe’s Faust. He received the Mari Jászai Prize (1954), the Kossuth Prize (1957, 1970), Artist of Merit title (1960), and the Outstanding Artist title (1966). – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7456.→Most of the persons in the article have their own entry.