Maros Hungarian Autonomous Province (Maros-Magyar Autonóm Tartomány – MMAT; Transylvania, Erdély, now in Romania) – The Soviet Union agreed to hand back Northern Transylvania to Romania on 10 March 1945. This is an over 45,000 km² territory that the Second Vienna Award (1940) returned to Hungary as a partial rectification of the unjust Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty (1920). The Russians stipulated that Romania would protect the ethnic rights of the Hungarians. Thus the Romanian government had to set up the Hungarian Autonomous Province (Magyar Autonóm Tartomány – MAT) in Szeklerland (southeastern part of Transylvania with almost 1 million ethnic Szekler-Hungarian population) on 24 September 1952, with Hungarian and Romanian as official languages. The Hungarian population of this area was 77.3 %, while the Romanians amounted to 20.1 %, with a negligible percentage of Germans, Jews and Gypsies, according to the 1956 census. The administrative center of the province was Marosvásárhely (now Tậrgu Mureş). Initially, it was a Romanian propaganda showcase; however it fell victim to the Romanian government’s inability to deal with its own nationalistic ethnic policy.
On 24 December 1960, a governmental decree created the new Maros-Hungarian Autonomous Province with altered boundaries of the former Hungarian Autonomous Province. Its southern part was attached to Stalin Province, later renamed Braşov County, and several other districts were added to it, whereby the purely Hungarian region was merged with ethnic Romanian areas. Consequently the number of its Hungarian population fell from 73.3 % to 62 %. Finally, on 16 February 1968, the Grand National Assembly of Romania extinguished the Maros Hungarian Province “that Hungarian ghetto”, and introduced the judet (county) system. There are now three counties in this region: Mures, Hargita and Covasna. Following the 1989-1990 political changes in Romania, the issue of territorial autonomy of the Szeklerland, with a 10,000 km² of territory, came again to the forefront. – B: 1230, 1031, T: 7103.→Szeklers.
Maros, Miklós (Nicholas) (Pécs, 14 November 1943 - ) – Composer. He finished his studies in composition at the Béla Bartók Conservatory of Music and at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest. He completed his music studies at the Stockholm Conservatory of Music under Ingvar Lindholm and György (George) Ligeti. In 1968 he moved to Sweden. Between 1971 and 1980, he taught music at the Electronic Music Studio, Stockholm, and in the Stockholm Academy of Music, where he also lectured on electronic music. Since 1971 he has been presenting his compositions in concerts and on radio programs in various countries around the world and, since 1972, he has also appeared as a conductor. In 1972 he established a chamber orchestra, the Maros Ensemble that became world-famous; he appears with them all over Europe, mainly performing his modern musical compositions and Swedish and Hungarian musical works. He has been a freelance composer since 1980. In 1980-1981, he was “composer in residence” in West Berlin (DAAD), and Vice-President of the Society of Swedish Composers. He has composed some 150 works, among them chamber operas, as well as works for symphony orchestras and choirs; most of his compositions are in the areas of vocal, instrumental and electronic works. In 2005, his opera, entitled Castrates, had its world premiere in Stockholm. Since 1989 he has been a regular member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music. He was awarded the Swedish Christ Johnson Prize in 2005. – B: 1674, T: 7684.→Ligeti, György. Maros, Rudolf (Rodolphe) (Stachy, Bohemia, 19 January 1917 - Budapest, 2 August 1982) – Composer, music educator. After completing his studies at the Conservatory of Music of Gyõr (1937), he attended the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest, and studied under Zoltán Kodály and Albert Siklós. Between 1942 and 1949 he was a professor and Director of the Pécs Conservatory of Music, while, from 1949 to 1978, he taught chamber music, composition, music theory and orchestration at the Academy of Music, Budapest. He went to Berlin on a scholarship (1971-1972) and served as an officer for the International Society of Modern Music (IGNM) from 1971 to 1975. Maros’s early works showed the influence of Zoltán Kodály and Hungarian folk music, a style he broke away from radically at the end of the 1950’s. During this period, he built the experiences of his contemporaries’ musical orientation into his compositions. Prominent among his orchestral tonality studies is the Euphony series (1963-1965). His unique themes and translucent forms were enriched with a freely interpreted dodecaphonic technique. Later, he endeavored to synthesize traditional tools with the new musical language, while remaining receptive to folklore as a source of inspiration. His major works include Mineworkers’ Ballad(Bányász-ballada) (1961); Weekday Requiem (Hétköznapi requiem) (1962); CinqueStudi (1967); Quadros Soltos (1968); Reflexionen (1971); Metropolis (1972), and The Poltroon (1972). He received the Erkel Prize (1954, 1955, 1957) and the titles of Artist of Merit (1973) and Outstanding Artist (1980). – B: 0883, 0886, T: 7657.→Kodály, Zoltán; Siklós, Albert. Maros Szék – One of the Szekler széks, literally meaning “chair” or “seat”, the center of an administrative area with a Law Court. It covered an area of 14,246 km² with Marosvásárhely (now Targu Mures, Romania) as its center, named after the River Maros. Originally the area included the upper valley of the River Kis-Küküllő, the valley of the River Nyárád, and the vicinity of the town of Marosvásárhely. The area came under Hungarian rule at an early stage of the Carpathian Settlement Period in the 10th century, due to the effort of the Szekler relatives of the Hungarians. Mezőség, Sóvidék, Nyárádmente, Murokország and Szentföld are its sub-regions. Some of the important towns are Erdőszentgyörgy (now Singeorgiu de Padure) and Nyáradszereda (now Miercurea Nirejului). Administratively, the Voivode of Erdély (Transylvania) governed it from his office of Voivode-Seat. The region’s population has been overwhelmingly Hungarian ethnically for more than 1000 years with a Romanian-Hungarian mixed population only on its fringe. Following the reorganization of the Romanian county system, the area is now smaller than it originally was. Since then the role of Maros Szék diminished, but recently it is increasing again. – B: 0942, 1134, T: 7103.→Szeklers. Marosán, György (George) (Hosszúpályi, 15 May 1908 - Budapest, 20 December 1992) – Politician. He took part in the Trade-Union Movement from 1923 on. He was a member of the Social Democratic Party between 1927 and 1948. In the Communist Era, he was Minister of the light industry portfolio from 1949 to 1950. He was imprisoned between 1950 and 1956, then, rehabilitated. He became a member of the Socialist Workers’ Party (Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt – MSZMP) of János Kádár, set up with the help of Soviet military forces after they had crushed the Revolution and Freedom Fight of 1956. He participated in the formation of the Kádár government and was Secretary of State from 1957 to 1960. In 1962 he resigned from his posts, and from 1965 to 1972 he worked outside the political party; but, in 1972, he rejoined the Party. In 1989 he became Honorary President of the newly reorganized Socialist Workers’ Party. His works include There is no Return (Nincs visszaút) (1988), and I Had to Stand Up(Fel kellett állnom) (1990). – B: 1257, 0878, T: 7456.
Marosán, Julius (Gyula) (Budapest, 1915 - 2003) – Painter. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest. He emigrated to Canada in 1956. The Association of Hungarian Freedom Fighters published a folio of his drawings. He was well recognized among the leading abstract painters in Europe and in Canada. His works include Fish (1956); Venice (1956), and Adam and Eva (1957). He had exhibits at the Ernst Museum, Budapest (1940), the Műbarát Gallery, Budapest (1942), and at the Park Gallery, Toronto (1958). Some of his one-man shows were at the Minotaur Gallery, Toronto (1963), the Pollock Gallery (1966), and at The Gallery of Fine Art, Toronto (1969). His works are in public and private collections all over the world. – B: 0893, T: 4342.
Marosi, Ildikó (born: Farkas) (Marosvásárhely, now Targu Mures, Romania, 1 February 1932 - ) – Journalist, literary historian. She completed high school in her native town in 1950, then she obtained a diploma in Stage Directing from the College of Dramatic Art in 1954. For five years she worked as the Editor for the journal Cultural Education (Művelődés) in Bucharest, then, after being unemployed for three years, in 1962, she became the Editor for the pictorial magazine, New Life (Új Élet) of Marosvásárhely. From 1975 she worked as a reporter for the magazine, Week (Hét), until her retirement in 1987. Her occasionally published volumes of bibliographical value preserved the unpublished documents of the Hungarian literature of Romania in the interwar years. Her works include Correspondence of Helikon and the Transylvanian Fine Arts Guild 1924-1944 (Helikon és az Erdélyi Szépmíves Céhlevelesládája 1924-0944) (1979) Close-upPicture (Közelkép), interviews, with others (1974), andConversational Bequestwith Count Mihály Teleki (Örökbefogadott beszélgetés gróf Teleki Mihállyal) (1999). She is a recipient of the Áron Tamási Prize (1995). – B: 1257, 0875, T: 7456.
Marosvásárhely (Latin: Novum Forum Sicolorum; Romanian: Tậrgu Mureş German: Neumarkt) – Main town in Szeklerland, seat of former County Maros-Torda, now Judeţ Mureş, in Transylvania, since 1920 part of Romania, located on the right bank of the Maros (Mureş) River. After World War I, the town, along with the whole of Transylvania, was ceded to Romania as a result of the Dictated Peace Treaty of Versailles-Trianon in 1920. During World War II, for a few years (1940-1945), together with the northern 2/5 of Transylvania, the town was returned to Hungary by the Second Vienna Award (1940); but, after 1945, it was again ceded to Romania. Then it became the center of the Magyar Autonomous Region of Transylvania for a few years. It has a fortified citadel, containing a Reformed church built in Gothic style in 1446. There are also several Catholic churches in the town, numerous fine public buildings, a monastery, a county hospital, a museum building, as well as the Count Teleki Palace, which houses the famous 18th c. Telekiana Library (Teleki Téka) of over 70,000 volumes, containing valuable manuscripts, together with a mineral and antique collection. Count Samuel Teleki, Chancellor of Transylvania, founded the Teleki Téka in 1802. It became a library museum after 1822. Some of the Baroque mansions formerly belonged to the Hungarian magnate Teleki and Bánffy families. On the large Széchenyi Square in the town center, there is the imposing Cultural Palace, which contains an Art Gallery, an Ethnographic Museum, a Library and a Music Conservatory; there are also the statues of Louis Kossuth (work of the sculptor Miklós Köllő), and the Honvéd General József Bem. It had a population of 19,522 in 1901, almost wholly Magyar (Hungarian) in ethnic composition and partly Reformed and Roman Catholic by religion; in 1930, 80% (38,116) of the population was Magyar. In 2002, the town population was 150,041, including 75,533 Romanians, 70,110 Hungarians, 3,660 Gypsies, 304 Germans, and 434 others. The inhabitants pursue wine-production, grain and fruitgrowing (especially melons), and also tobacco production and the timber trade; they are engaged in the preparation of leather straps, footwear and pottery. The town has a brewery, a mill, a distillery, a brick factory, and a sugar factory; there is a Roman Catholic High School, a Reformed College with a library and a print shop; also a special school for wood and metalwork, as well as a Teachers College. It also has an ancient Reformed Castle Church. There is a Szekler Industrial Museum, a Theater, a Court of Law, a Medical-pharmaceutical College, and a tobacco warehouse. The history of the town began in the 12th century and it soon developed into a cultural center. In 1704, when Prince Ferenc (Francis) Rákóczi II was proclaimed “Reigning Prince”of the Transylvanian, part of Hungary at Gyulafehérvár (now Alba Iulia), the Szekler center of Marosvásárhely, found itself in a prominent position. In 1876, a large section of the town was destroyed in a great fire, but was rebuilt. A severe atrocity against Hungarians occurred on 19-20 March 1990 at Marosvásárhely. In February, some 100,000 Hungarians demonstrated for the reinstallation of a Hungarian school and university. The Vatra Romanesca nationalist organization regarded this and the observation of Hungarian National Day on 15 March as a provocation against the Romanian State. On 19-20 March, groups of Romanians rushed upon the protesting Hungarians and beat them up, turning the city into a place of street clashes. The result of the “Black March” pogrom was three dead and 100 wounded. Not a single Romanian, but many Hungarians were arrested, accused and sentenced to prison terms. – B: 1031, 1068, 1582, 1816, 1789, 7456, T: 7456.→Versailles-Trianon Peace Treaty; Vienna Award II; Maros Hungarian Autonomous Province; Marosvásárhely Lines; Marosvásárhely Manuscript’s Szekler Alphabet; Teleki, Count Sámuel; Atrocities against Hungarians. Marosvásárhely Lines – also known as the Commentaries of Marosvásárhely. Elek (Alec) Farczády discovered this language relic from the first quarter of the 15th century at the Bólyai Library of Marosvásárhely (now Targu Mures, Romania) as part of the Koncz Codex, on page 102b and 103. The seven lines on page 102b are a Latin summary of the Bible’s second Book of Kings, 17th chapter verses 8-10. – B: 1150, T: 3240. →Codex Literature. Marosvásárhely Manuscript’s Szekler Alphabet – István (Stephen) Lakatos, a parish priest in Csikkozmás prepared a chart of nine runic letter lines in 1702. As the author noted in the chart, the letters originate from the 17th century. The chart appeared in the work Siculia Accuratius, intended for printing, but never published, although the manuscript was widely spread. Apparently these letters were in use much earlier than their recording in the Marosvásárhely manuscript of 1753. – B: 1289, T: 7669.→ Hungarian Runic Script; Runic Writing Research. Maróthi, György (George) (Debrecen, 18 June 1715 - Debrecen, 16 October 1744) – Theologian of the Reformed Church, mathematician, educator, pioneer of Hungarian choir singing. He came from a well-to-do family. After completing his studies at the Reformed College of Debrecen, he set out on a long study trip abroad. Between 1732 and 1738, he studied at the Universities of Basel, Zurich, Bern, Switzerland, and Groningen, den Haag, Utrecht, Leyden and Amsterdam, Holland. In Basel, he obtained a clergyman’s diploma. He studied Theology, Natural Science, Classical Philology, Mathematics and Astronomy. He also immersed himself into the classical languages: Latin, Greek and Hebrew, as well as German, French, English and Dutch. While in Zurich, and later in Basel, he began advanced studies in Music, and amassed a library-size collection of books for both the Debrecen College and himself. In 1738 he was appointed Professor of Rhetoric, History and Mathematics at the Debrecen College. In 1743 he published his Arithmetica orthe Art of Calculation (Arithmetica vagy számvetésnek mestersége) that became the textbook of the century. In it he discussed the elements of Arithmetics in the Hungarian language; in the foreword, ahead of his time, he outlined his views of teaching mathematics. He pioneered the use of the mother tongue as the language of instruction in pre-schools. In 1740 he reorganized the College Choir on the model of Swiss universities, and called it the Collegium musicum; he also established the still-existing choir, the Kántus of the College. During 1740 and 1741 he completed his educational plan, whereby he attempted to implement the educational aspirations of the Enlightenment. This proposal laid down the teaching system of the College for the entire 18th century, by urging instruction in national and relevant subjects. He wrote new textbooks. He initiated the construction of the Physics Auditorium, and he formally opened it with a speech in 1742. Then he resumed his work in Music Pedagogy. In 1743 he published the first Hungarian language choir work on Psalms for four voices: On the Method of Singing Four-part Tunes…according to Harmonious Scores (A’ Soltároknak Négyes Nótáik…a harmoniás kóták szerént való éneklésről...) and, with it, he popularized polyphonic singing. This also became the standard text up to the end of the century. He pioneered instruction in the mother tongue. In his short lifetime, Maróthi transplanted into the College, thus into all Hungary, his educational aspirations, ideals and the substance and views of the latest scientific developments of Europe. – B: 0883, 1257, 1068, T: 7456.
Maróthi, János (John) (Maróti) (ca 1366 - 1435) – Army leader, bán. He came from the Gutkeled Clan. In defending the Queen, the wife and daughter of Louis the Great (1342-1382), he was wounded and imprisoned, but was soon freed. In 1391 he won two battles against the Ottoman Turks; thereupon King Zsigmond (Sigismund of Luxembourg) (1387-1437) made him an officer of his bodyguard. In 1393 he fought in the Battle of Nicopolis (now Bitka pri Nikopol, Bulgaria), where he was seriously wounded and escaped only with difficulty. Recovering from his wounds, he held up the invading Turks and Bosnians in County Pozsega, north of the Szava River, on the southern frontier-line of the Kingdom of Hungary. As a reward he was promoted to Bán of Macsó, an area now forming northern Serbia proper, south of the Szava River, at the time, one of the southern tributary lands of the Hungarian Kingdom. During the period of László (Ladislas) Nápolyi’s attempt to claim the throne, Maróthi prevented the unification of the Hungarian and Dalmatian insurgents. In 1414 he became Regent of Friaul. In the defense of the southern frontier of the realm, he lost a battle, was captured, but was freed after 3 years for 40,000 gulden. He was over 60 when he set out in a severe winter to reoccupy Wallachia, a former tributary area of Hungary (1369-1396) but he did not succeed. – B: 1078, 0883, T: 7456.
Maróthy, János (John) (Budapest, 23 December 1925 - Budapest, 10 August 2001) – Musicologist, music esthetician. In 1948 he obtained a Degree in History of Art Aesthetics and History of Music from the University of Budapest and, in 1951, obtained a diploma in Composition. He was Editor for the Singing People(Éneklő Nép) (1950-1951), then of the journal New Musical Review (Új Zenei Szemle) (1950-1951). He was a postgraduate student from 1951 to 1954, an assistant lecturer from 1955 to 1957, and a research fellow at the Academy of Music. From 1961 he worked at the Bartók Archives of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and was a research fellow in its Institute of Music. From 1974 he was an assistant professor; and from 1980, a professor at the University of Budapest. He obtained a Master’s Degree in 1959, and a Ph.D. in Music in 1966. His works include The Birth of European Folk Music (Az európai népdal születése) (1960), The Way of Ferenc Szabó (Szabó Ferenc útja) (1975), and Musicand Man (Zene és ember) (1980), in Italian (1987). He was awarded a number of prizes, among them the Ferenc Erkel Prize (1961), and the 4 April Order of Merit (1985). – B: 1257, 0878, T: 7456.
Maróthy-Meizler, Károly (Charles) (Keszthely, 8 June 1897 - Buenos Aires, 7 September 1964) – Journalist, politician. He studied Law at the University of Budapest and was qualified as an attorney. In the early 1920s he was secretary of the Christian Socialist Party. From 1925 he was a legal adviser for the Catholic League of Nations. In 1936 he became a Member of Parliament on the ticket of the Christian Economic Party of Keszthely. In 1937 he took part in the formation of the Christian National Socialist Front, and was again elected an MP in 1939. In the same year he launched the daily, Pest News (PestiÚjság), and was its Editor until 1944. He emigrated to the West early in 1945, and he settled in Argentina. In Buenos Aires he edited the Hungarian People (Magyar Nép), the weekly of the free Christian Hungarians of South America (1949-1954). The journal Carpath (Kárpát) also published his articles. His works include The Unknown Mindszenty, his Biography and Description of his Era (Azismeretlen Mindszenty, Életrajz és korrajz) (1958), and Prohászka, the Revolutionary Clad in Sunshine, vols. i,ii (Prohászka, a napbaöltözött forradalmár, I-II) (1960, 1961). – B: 1672, T: 7456.
Maróti, Géza (Rintel) (Barsvörösvár, now Červený Hrádok, Slovakia, 1 March 1875 - Budapest, 6 May 1941) – Sculptor, architect, industrial designer. He started out in apprenticeship, later he became self-educated in Budapest and Vienna. This self-made, multi-talented artist distinguished himself mainly with monumental compositions of sculpture. He was also engaged to create façade statues for palatial buildings of Budapest, including the Gresham Palace (1905), façade work on the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest (1904-1907), and to design exhibition halls. The permanent Hungarian Pavilion at the Venice Industrial Arts Exhibition is one of his works. He provided high-style ornamentation to the Hungarian section of the Milan Applied Art Exhibition building (Milano, 1906); for the Mexico City Teatro Nacional (Mexican National Opera Theatre), today called the Palacio de Bellas Artes, he designed sculptures and mosaic work (1908). His other works include the World Exhibition Pavilion, Torino (1911); the bronze and granite sculptures for the Fischer Building of Detroit; the white marble Livingston Memorial Lighthouse (1927-1932), and the reconstruction plans for golden vessels at the Jerusalem Solomon Temple. He returned to Budapest, became a professor at the Academy of Applied Art, and a lecturer at the Budapest Polytechnic. Prior to the outbreak of World War I, in 1938 he created the Országzászló (National Flag) on Heroe's square; but it remained unfinished due to the war and Soviet takeover of power in 1945. He also built his curious summer cottage at Zebegény (in the Danube Bend north of Budapest) to be used as a hermit cave. In 1930 he traveled through the Near East on horseback and made a reconstruction plan for the Solomon Temple (held by the British Museum). He wrote a 600 pages book entitled Atlantisz on the cultural history of Atlantis, but it remained unpublished. In 1937 he settled permanently in his summer cottage at Zebegény. He was unemployed when died in Budapest in 1941. – B: 1078, 0883, 1031, T: 7675.
Maróti, Lajos (Louis) (Budapest, 18 November 1930 - Budapest, 14 July 1982) – Poet, writer. He studied at Pannonhalma (the site of the famous old Abbey), and in 1949 he joined the Benedictine Order and studied Philosophy on higher level. He left the Order in 1951. In 1955 he completed the course in Mathematics and Physics at the University of Budapest, and became a research physicist in the Institute of Vehicle Development. From 1961 he was a referee of the book-publishing firm Gondolat (Thought), where he headed the literary section (1970-1980). From 1978 he worked as a correspondent for the Theater Institute. His entire career was based on the double attraction of art and science. His works include The Sightless (A világtalan) novel (1967); The Monastery (A kolostor), novel (1968, 1972 2nd ed., 1979 3rd ed.), in it he featured a dictatorship with its usual fanaticism; and The Ostracized (A számkivetett), play (1979). He received the Attila József Prize (1975) and that of the National Council of the Trade Unions – SZOT-Prize (1981). – B: 1257, 0878, T: 7456.→Pannonhalma, Archabbey of the Benedictine Order.