Márk, Tivadar (Theodore) (Budapest, 11 May 1908 - Budapest, 27 September 2003) – Costume designer. He completed his higher studies at the Academy of Applied Arts, and at the University of Budapest, where he read Philosophy and History of Arts. He worked as a trainee at the Opera House, Budapest (1934-1935). From 1935 to 1937 he was its costume department manager. Between 1937 and 1980 he was costume designer of the Opera House. He became a life member of the Opera House in 1990. He taught at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest. His major works are: Mussorgsky’s Khovanshchina(Hovanscsina); Tchaikovsky’s Pique Dame; Mozart’s Don Giovanni; Verdi’s Aïda; Kodály’s The Szekler Spinning Room(Székelyfonó); Háry János; Erkel’s Bánk bán; Shakespeare’s Richard III; Bartók’s Wooden Prince(A fából faragott királyfi); Puccini’s Turandot; Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde; Szokolay’s Blood Wedding(Vérnász); Khachaturian’s Spartacus; Mussorgsky’s Boris Godunov, and Wagner’s Lohengrin. His costume designs are well known not only in Hungarian Theaters (Budapest, Győr, Debrecen), but also in Europe, Chile and Kuwait as well. He received the Silver Prize of the National Society of Applied Artists (1940), the Kossuth Prize (1952), and the Merited and Outstanding Artist titles (1969, 1974). – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7103.
Márki, Sándor (Alexander) (Kétegyháza, 27 March 1853 - Gödöllő, 1 July 1925) – Historian. He was a Bachelor of Arts student at the University of Budapest (1872-1875). From 1875 he was a high school teacher in training. In 1878 he obtained a Ph.D. in Art from Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania). He taught in Arad from 1877, and in Budapest from 1886. He was an honorary lecturer from 1888, and a professor (1892-1918) at the University of Kolozsvár. From 1922, following the dismemberment of Historic Hungary by the Trianon Peace Dictate of 1920, he was a professor at the University of Szeged. He also penned for Jókai’s journal, Comet (Üstökös), and worked as a correspondent for twenty years. He established a bibliographical monthly, the Literary Gazette (IrodalmiÉrtesitő) and was its Editor from January 1874 to December 1875. Peasant uprisings and freedom wars formed the center of his scholarly work, and he wrote in a positive manner, with a romantic attitude and patriotic feelings, in a lively, even poetic style. He also wrote High School Geography and History textbooks. Among his works are: George Dózsa and his Revolution (Dózsa György és forradalma (1883); Ferenc Rákóczi II, vols. i-iii (II Rákóczi Ferenc, I-III) (1907-1910), considered as his most valuable work; History and Writing of History (Történet és történetirás) (1914); History of the Turanian People (A turáni népek története), (1923), and the Hungarian Middle Ages (Magyar középkor) (1914). He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1892; regular 1912). – B: 1257, 0883, T: 7456.
Markó, Árpád (Rozsnyó, now Rožňava, Slovakia, 12 October 1885 - Budapest, 17 September 1966) – Military historian. He completed his studies at the Military Academy of Wiener Neustadt in 1906, and entered the army. In 1921 he was transferred to the War Archives and retired in 1940 as Colonel and Head of the old Archival Section. He obtained his Ph.D. in History in 1965. He started to publish his studies, dealing with military historical questions of the 17th-19th centuries, in 1927. His works on the life and activity of Miklós (Nicholas) Zrinyi, and some problems of the Ferenc Rákóczi’s Freedom Fight from Habsburg rule are of lasting value. From a military historical angle he also highlighted Field Marshal Count András (Andrew) Hadik, and compiled the biographies and scientific activities of the military members of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. His works include PrinceFerencRákóczi II, theMilitaryLeader (II. RákócziFerencahadvezér (1934), and The Prose Works of Count Miklós Zrinyi (Gróf Zrinyi Miklós prózai munkái (1939). He was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences between 1934 and 1949. – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.→Zrinyi, Count Miklós; Hadik, András. Markó, Béla (Kézdivásárhely, now Targu Secuiesc, Romania, 8 September 1951 - ) – Hungarian writer, poet and politician in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). He completed his high school studies in Kézdivásárhely (1970), and received a Degree in Hungarian and French Literature from the Babes-Bolyai University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) in 1974. He taught between 1974 and 1976; edited the journal True Word(Igaz Szó) (1976-1989), was its Editor-in-Chief from 1989; a Senator of County Maros (1990), and President of the RomanianHungarian Democratic Alliance (Romániai Magyar Demokratikus Szövetség – RMDSZ), the only Hungarian party in Romania from 1990. He was a Cabinet Minister in various Romanian Governments, including Deputy Prime Minister. In the 2008 vote, RMDSZ became one of the opposition parties. At the beginning of 2011 it was announced that he did not want to be a nominee for the Presidency of the RMDSZ; however, he did not want to leave politics. He wrote children’s poems in his favorite sonnet form. Some of his publications are: In theCity of Words (A szavak városában) poems (1974); The Eternal Postponement (Az örök halasztás) poems (1982); Everybody’s Bus (Mindenki autóbusza) sonnets (1989); Let’s Read Together(Olvassunk együtt), verse interpretations (1989); Cannibal Time (Kannibál idő) selected poems (1993); Cycling Time(Karikázó idő) children verses (1996); The Transylvanian Cat (Az erdélyi macska) stories, critics (1999); The Forgetful Europe (A feledékeny Európa) speeches and lectures (2000), and Dismantled World(Szétszedett világ) collected poems (2000). He translated from Romanian L. Blaga1s’ drama: Manola Master (1984). His selected poems were published in Romanian translation in 1989. – B: 0874, 0875, 0878, 0879, 0882, 0877, 1257, T: 7103.
Markó,Iván (Balassagyarmat, 29 March 1947 - ) – Ballet dancer, choreographer. He studied at the State Ballet Institute of Budapest in 1967, and was a student of Hedvig Hidas. He was a member of the State Opera House Budapest (1967-1972), a free-lance dancer (1971-1972), and a member of the Béjart Ensemble of Bruxelles (1972-1979). He founded the Ballet of Győr (Győri Balett) (1979), was its leading soloist, choreographer (1979-1991) and manager (1981-1991). He was founding Director of the Dance School of Győr. In 1985 he became choreographer of the Bayreuth Festival (Bayreuther Festspiele)(1985); he was ballet-master and choreographer of the Rubin Academy in Jerusalem (1991); he was guest choreographer in Vienna, Paris and Sydney (1992); he has been ballet master of the Hungarian Festival since 1996. He is one of the most outstanding and productive ballet dancers in Hungary. His major works include Swan Lake(A hattyúk tava);Giselle;The Wooden Prince (A fából faragott királyfi);Sylvia, and Firebird(Tűzmadár). He also choreographed his own roles and films: Jesus, the Son of Man(Jézus, az ember fia;,Lord of Dreams(Az álmok ura), Hungarian-German co-production (1998); Sons of the Motherland (A haza fiai), French, (1989); Wailing Walls (Siratófal), Hungarian-Israeli co-production (1993), and Quetzalcoatl, Mexican (1995). Some of his other choreographic works are: Beloved of the Sun(A Nap szerettei); Samura;The Miraculous Mandarin(A csodálatos mandarin);Glowing Planets (Izzó planéták);Bolero; Chairs(Székek);Two Faces of Bluebeard (A kékszakállu két arca);Joseph and his Brothers (József és testvérei), and Viva Verdi. He received the Merited Artist title (1981), the Kossuth Prize (1983) and the Prize For Hungarian Jewish Culture (2000). – B: 0874, 1445, 1105, T: 7684.
Markó,Károly Sr. (Charles) (Lőcse, now Levoča, Slovakia, in former County Szepes, 25 September 1791- Campagna, Italy, 19 November 1860) – Painter. After studying engineering in Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) and Vienna, he studied painting at the Vienna Academy. During the years in Vienna, he made a living from miniature and portrait painting, landscape and porcelain painting. His early works were mostly landscapes. He moved to Italy, lived in Rome, but later he settled in Florence. Due to his eye problems, he had to stop working intermittently. In 1853 he visited Budapest amidst lively celebrations. Although he lived most of the time abroad, he kept in touch with the Hungarian art communities and events through his exhibitions and students. He was a master of the Hungarian landscaping art school. His paintings include Visegrád (1826-1830); View of Rome (Róma látképe) (1835); Women at the Well (Asszonyok a kútnál) (1936); The Baptism of Christ in the River Jordan (Krisztus megkeresztelése a Jordánban) (1840-1841); Fishermen (Halászok) (1851), and The Puszta (A puszta) (1853). He is the first Hungarian painter to gain international recognition. His works are in the museums of Budapest, Vienna, Rome and Florence. He was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1840). A Street in Budapest bears his name. – B: 0883, 1078, 1124, T: 7677, 7103.
Márkus, Emilia P. (Emily) (Szombathely, 10 September 1860 - Budapest, 24 December 1949) – Actress. She was admitted to the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest, in 1874, with special permission due to her tender years; she graduated from there in 1878. The National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest, already contracted her in 1877, and she remained its member until her death, spending 70 years on the stage. Her voice, elocution and appearance made her an acclaimed dramatic actress, nicknamed the “Blond Wonder”. Her roles in Shakespeare’s plays included Juliet in Romeo and Juliet; Ophelia in Hamlet; Cordelia in King Lear; Cleopatra in Anthony and Cleopatra; and Desdemona in Othello. Her other roles were Margaret in Goethe’s Faust; Éva in Madách’s The Tragedy of Man (Az ember tragédiája); title role in Ibsen’s Nora, and Noémi in Jókai’s The Golden Man (Az aranyember). She also had film-roles early on: The Dance (A tánc) (1901); The Golden-haired Sphinx (Az aranyhajú szfinx) (1914), and Madame X (Névtelen asszony) (1918). She was a lifetime member of the National Theater (1928), and an honorary professor of the Academy of Dramatic Art (1929). She was awarded the Greguss Prize in 1921. – B: 1160, 1445, 1031, T: 7103. Márkus, György (George) (Budapest, 13 April 1934 - ) – Philosopher, historian of philosophy. Between 1952 and 1957 he was on a scholarship studying at the Philosophy Department of the Lomonosov University, Moscow. Between 1957 and 1966 he was lecturing at the Philosophy Department of the University of Budapest. From 1958 to 1973, he worked as a science correspondent for the Institute of Philosophy in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He obtained his Ph.D. in 1965, and he spent a year on a scholarship at Harvard, Pittsburgh and Stanford Universities. On his return to Hungary in 1973, he was dismissed, together with other members of the György (George) Lukács School of thought and was unemployed until 1977, living on intellectual private work. He left Hungary with his family in 1977. In 1977 and 1978 he was a visiting professor at the Institute of Philosophy at the Freie Universität of West Berlin. From 1978 he was a lecturer, later a professor in the Department of General Philosophy at the University of Sydney, Australia; he retired in 1999. As Professor Emeritus, he is a scientific researcher and a guest lecturer abroad. He is the author of numerous published works. In 1990 he became an external member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. His works include Trendsin the Bourgeois Philosophyof Today(Irányzatok a mai polgári filozófiában) with Zádor Tordai (1964); Die Seele und das Leben, Studien zum frühen Lukács, with Ferenc Fehér, Ágnes Heller and Sándor Radnóti (1977) (Italian translation in 1978); Dictatorship Over Needs, also with Ferenc Fehér and Ágnes Heller (1983), originally in German: Diktatur über die Bedürfnisse (1979); Language and Production (1986); Cultureand Modernism (Kultura és modernitás) (1992); Metaphysics To What End (Metafizika mivégre) (1998), and Culture and Enlightenment, Essays for György Márkus, in Festschrift form (2002). He received the Academy’s Prize (1966). – B: 1672, 0878, 1257, T: 7456.→Lukács, György; Heller, Ágnes. Márkus, László(1) (Ladislas) (Szentes, 19 November 1881 - Budapest, 25 April 1948) – Writer, critic, stage manager, designer and costume designer, theater director. He started his career as an art and drama critic for the daily Constitution (Alkotmány) in 1900. Papers such as The Week (A Hét), the Hungarian Review (Magyar Szemle) and the Art (Művészet) also published his critiques, and art and theater related articles. As a member of the Thalia Society, he took part in the Society’s work as a translator. From 1908 he was a stage manager and designer at the Hungarian Theater (Magyar Színház); in addition, he also designed for the King Theater (Király Színház). In 1919 he was Artistic Director for the film industry and cinema network of the Hungarian Council (Soviet) Republic, then from 1919 to 1922, Art-Director for the Apollo Cabaret. Between 1922 and 1926 he was stage and costume designer for the Renaissance Theater (Reneszánsz Színház). From 1923 to 1935 he was stage-manager for the Opera House in Budapest. During the 1932-1933 season, he was Director at the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), from 1935 to 1944 Director of the Opera House, Budapest,and between 1934 and 1936 President of the New Thalia (Új Thália). He directed several silent films, including Lady with a Golden Eye(Az aranyszemű hölgy) (1920); Love Triumphs Over All (A szerelem mindent legyőz) (1920), and The Old Country (Óhaza) (1920). Between 1945 and 1948, he lectured at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest. He regarded the stage presentation first and foremost as a series of theatrical pictures, influenced by the new art trends at the turn of the century, the schools of Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) and Gödöllő, as well as Max Reinhardt and Gordon Craig. The ideas he formed about acting emphasized the importance of depicting the psychological processes by means of natural gestures. His program policy was based on the balance between classical and contemporary works. He was stage manager and designer for works such as Rostand’s L'Aiglon (A sasfiók); Shakespeare’s Hamlet; Goethe’s Faust; Ibsen’s Peer Gynt, Wagner’s Parsifal, and Debussy’s Pelléas etMélisande. Among his books is the Ethics of the Theater (A színház etikája) (1934). – B: 1445, 0883, T: 7456. →Opera House. Márkus, László(2) (Ladislas) (Budapest, 10 June 1927 - Budapest, 30 December 1985) – Actor. Árpád Lehotay was his first tutor in Szeged; thereafter he continued his studies at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest, from where he graduated in 1951. He started his acting career at the Csokonai Theater (Csokonai Színház), Debrecen. From 1957 until his death, he was a member of the Madách Theater (Madách Színház), Budapest. He was a versatile and popular actor on stage, radio, TV and film. He acted in more than 40 stage plays, including Rodrigo in Shakespeare’s Othello; Caludius in Hamlet; Buckingham in Richard III; Krehl in F. Molnár’s Olympia; Prince Albert in F. Molnár’s The Swan (A hattyú); Turai in The Play’sthe Thing (Játék a kastélyban);Hlesztakov in Gogol’s The Inspector General (A revizor); Orgon in Molière’s Tartuffe; Harpagon in The Miser(A fösvény); Colonel Pickering in Shaw’s Pygmalion; and Crofts in Mrs. Warren’s Profession (Warrenné mestersége). There are more than 50 feature and TV films to his credit. Some of his memorable film roles were in Sleepless Years (Álmatlan évek) (1959); Two Half Times in Hell (Két félidő a pokolban) (1961); Eclipseof the Crescent Moon, i, ii (Egri Csillagok I, II) (1968); The Fifth Seal (Az ötödik pecsét) (1973); the Heart of the Tyrant (A zsarnok szíve) (1982), and the Gardener’s Dog (A kertész kutyája) (1985). He created memorable figures on the stage and in films, as well as in TV plays. He received, the Mari Jászai Prize (1956, 1963, 1972), the titles of Merited and Outstanding Artist (1976, 1980), and the Kossuth Prize (1983). – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7103.→Lehotay, Árpád. Márkus, Mihály (Michael) (Komárom, 16 August 1943 - ) – Bishop of the Reformed Church, theologian, church historian. He studied at the Reformed Theological Academy, Budapest (1961-1966), then at the University of Münster, West Germany (1982). He was Assistant Minister in Körmend and Szentgyörgyvölgy (1966-1967) and Parish Minister in Szentgyörgyvölgy (1967-1970); then in Pápa (1970-1975), and finally in Tata from 1975. He became Bishop of the Transdanubian Church District in 1991. He was Vice-President of the General Synod (1989-1991); General Secretary of the World Alliance of Reformed Hungarians (1991-1996), then its Vice-President (1996); President of the Ecumenical Council of Hungarian Churches; Acting President of the Hungarian Bible Council; and has been a professor at the Reformed Theological Academy, Pápa since 1999. He retired in 2009. His articles and essays appeared in ecclesiastical papers and periodicals. He authored the books: Jézus (1977), and Komáromi Csipkés György (George Komáromi Csipkés) (1981). He is recipient the Middle Cross of Merit of the Republic of Hungary. – B: 0910, T: 7103.→Reformed Church in Hungary. Markusovszky, Lajos (Louis) (Csorba, 25 April 1815 - Abbazia, now Opatija, Croatia, 21 April 1893) – Physician. He studied Law in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), then he undertook private coaching in Pest, while he was completing medical studies at the University of Pest. János (John) Balassa recognized his talent and obtained a scholarship for him. As a result, he continued his studies at the University of Vienna in 1844. Here he became acquainted with Dr. Ignác (Ignatius) Semmelweis and formed a life-long friendship with him. From 1847, he was a demonstrator under János Balassa. In 1848 he taught surgery in the army, and later became Chief Physician of the Military Hospital and Surgeon-Major in General Görgey’s army. After the collapse of the War of Independence against the Habsburg rule in 1849, the Habsburg authorities retaliated and did not allow him to return to the University of Pest. For a time, he was a private assistant and a follower of Balassa. The Medical Faculty refused his application for the position of a honorary lecturer because of his Protestant faith. In 1857 he launched the journal, Medical Weekly (Orvosi Hetilap), editing it for 32 years. In 1863 he founded the Hungarian Medical Book Publishers Association (Magyar Orvosi Könyvkiadó Társulat). Together with Endre (Andrew) Lengyel, he edited the Medical-Pharmaceutical Dictionary. From 1867 he was working as lecturer on Medical Education in the Ministry of Education, later lecturing on all university matters until his retirement in 1892. In 1893 he became an honorary professor at the Medical Faculty of the University of Budapest. His achievements include the modernization of medical training, the establishment of the Chair of Public Health, development of the clinics and the launching of a medical postgraduate extension course. In articles published in the Medical Weekly, he addressed all these issues. The progressive Hungarian doctors grouped around him and Balassa. He was the leading medical officer to hasten the reforms in public health. He was behind the establishment of the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) and was a leading force behind raising both universities (those of Budapest and Kolozsvár) to European standards. He was one of those who wrote the text of the Public Health Act for the Parliament (1876). In 1886 he founded the Society for National Public Health. The Szombathely Hospital, named after him, established a Markusovszky Memorial Medal. He was member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1863, honorary 1890). A Square in Budapest bears his name. – B: 0883, 1730, T: 7456.→Balassa, János; Semmelweis, Ignác. Marky, de Paul (Paul) (Gyula, 15 May 1897 - Montreal, 16 May 1982) – Pianist, composer, teacher. He studied Music in Budapest with István (Stephen) Thomán, and made his debut there in 1921. He moved to Canada in 1924, and gave his first concert in Toronto on 9 October 1926. He went to Montreal and performed with the Montreal Symphony Orchestra and taught at the McGill Conservatory of Music (1929-1937). He also performed elsewhere in Canada, the USA and Europe. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) frequently featured him until 1948. In his retirement, he gave private piano lessons until 1972. His compositions include Piano Concerto in B-Major (1948); piano pieces, such as After a Farewell (1949); Nightingale (1949); Amber Mountain (1949); Echo Island (1949); Valse-Etude (1944); Tales from the Vienna Woods, arranged for recital (1944), and Spring Voices, arranged for performance (1944). His collected papers are held at the National Library of Canada. – B: 0893, T: 4342.→Thomán, István. Marlyn, John (sometimes he used Vincent Reid as a pen name). (Nagybecskerek, now Zrenjanin, Serbia, 2 April 1912 - Canary Islands, 16 November 2005) – Novelist and playwright. Although born in what was then Hungary, he became a Canadian novelist. He emigrated to Canada as a child with his parents and settled in Winnipeg, Manitoba – the setting for his novels. In the 1930s, he worked as a script reader for a studio in England, but returned Canada just before World War II and began to write for the Government. He taught drama and creative writing at Carleton University, Ottawa (1963-1967). His works include Under the Ribs of Death (1957, 1961); Putzi, I Love You, You Little Square (1982), and the Baker’sDaughter (2000). Marlyn also published short stories and plays in periodicals. His collected papers are held at the University of Calgary. He received the Beta Sigma Phi First Novel Award (1958), the Canada Foundation Award (1958), the Canada Council Senior Arts Awards in (1969, 1976) and the Ontario Arts Council Award (1975). – B: 0892, 1031, 1672, T: 4342.
Maróczy Géza (Szeged, 3 March 1870 - Budapest, 29 May 1951) – Chess champion. He completed the Zürich Polytechnic, and later, he took part in the preparations for the construction of the waterworks at Káposztásmegyer to provide Budapest with water. From 1903 to 1919 he taught mathematics and descriptive geometry. During the Council (Soviet) Republic of Hungary of 1919, he was an administrator for state-run theaters. In 1920 he emigrated to the Netherlands, then visited the USA. In 1927, he returned to Hungary, headed the chess column of the daily paper, Pest News (Pesti Hírlap), and became Captain of the Hungarian Chess Association. He started playing chess in his high school years at the age of 15. He was a student of Master Sámuel (Samuel) Jakobi. He won the International Chess Mastership at Hastings in 1895, and he came second after Lasker at Nuremberg in 1896. Thereafter, he won a series of championships: Paris 1900, placing 3rd, Munich 1900 1st, Monte Carlo 1902 1st, 1904 1st, Ostende 1905 1st, Barmen 1905 1st, Vienna 1908 1st, and 1921 3rd. Maróczy became the most famous Hungarian chess player and a world champion. He was an outstanding chess teacher who wrote a number of works on chess, among them The Guidebook ofModern Chess (A modern sakk vezérkönyve) (1940), and The Theory of Openings(A megnyitások elmélete) (1951). – B: 0883, 1068, T: 7456.→Council (Soviet) Republic of Hungary.