Toporek, R.L., Gerstein, L.H., Fouad, N.A., Roysircar-Sodowsky, G. & Israel, T. (Eds.). (2005). Handbook for Social Justice in Counseling Psychology: Leadership, Vision, and Action. CA: Sage Publications.
Non-counseling psychologists have begun to publish more extensive research on structural and direct violence in the past several decades. This is true, particularly in the journal of Peace Psychology. Structural violence has negatively impacted multiple facets of today’s society, including the field of psychology. Particularly, intelligence testing is a primary concern for todays’ practitioners due to the biased generalizations in the data. Structural violence is the “unequal access to resources, to political power, to education, to health care, or to legal standing.” Major examples of these violent acts include Nazi Germany and the apartheid in South Africa. In today’s society, it is important for researchers to identify such problems in their communities and understanding the impact of their own practices on their clients.
Structural and direct violence can occur in any group or subgroup of individuals. Although these topics are extremely broad, counseling and non-counseling mental health workers alike should embrace this research to promote health and wellness among the community in which they work. Structural violence often has an impact on the way individuals interact with one another. Therefore, mental health professionals also must be aware of the difficulties working with these clients and the challenges, which may arise, particularly if the client has been a victim in the past.
Schwebel, M. (2011). Victories over structural violence. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 17(1), 85-99.
Structural violence has been inherent in the governance of the United States for almost 200 years. It has been a feature of American society since its inception and, within psychology, it has been associated with the use of intelligence tests from the time they were first introduced in the United States. This article briefly traces the history of structural violence in society at large and in psychology’s use of the IQ test. It examines the past and potential role of psychologists in combating that violence and proposes new directions for that purpose. Finally, it describes an example of how bias in psychology has led the field to ignore a theme that should be highly relevant to peace psychology namely, imperialism as a major basis of structural violence.
Eldridge, J. & Johnson, P. (2011). The relationship between old-fashioned and modern heterosexism to social dominance orientation and structural violence. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(3), 382-401.
This study proposes that broader social systemic factors could have a role in the perpetuation of two types of heterosexism. Old-fashioned and modern heterosexism are discussed and dif- ferentiated. The roles of social dominance orientation and the acceptance of structural violence in the maintenance of het- erosexism are explored. Results indicated that social dominance orientation and the acceptance of structural violence predicted the level of old-fashioned and modern heterosexism in a sample of 129 people. Acceptance of structural violence better predicted both modern and old-fashioned heterosexism than did social dom- inance orientation. Such relationships highlight the possibility that social systemic beliefs may create and support heterosexism.
The author examines violence on college campuses by reviewing its types, prevalence, and underlying factors. Institutional responses to prevent campus violence through tertiary, secondary and primary prevention activities are discussed.
Schwebel, M. (1997). Job insecurity as structural violence: Implications for destructive intergroup conflict. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 3(4), 333-351.
Structural violence, in the forms of unemployment and other negative employment statuses and of debilitating economic insecurity, is a global phenomenon. The psychological and economic consequences of structural violence often result in deteriorated mental health functioning and family disruption. They also lead to both competition for the fewer available opportunities and organized efforts to modify the violence-breeding structures. The thesis of this article is that structural violence, especially the actions taken by those in power to safeguard the economic and political status quo, leads to destructive intergroup conflict. The article highlights the economic and psychological factors that appear to be driving nations in this direction, and proposes policy changes and actions to prevent intergroup job wars.
Goodman, L. A., & Epstein, D. (2008). Listening to battered women: A survivor-centered approach to advocacy, mental health, and justice. Washington, DC US: American Psychological Association.
Listening to Battered Women: A Survivor-Centered Approach to Advocacy, Mental Health, and Justice presents an in-depth, multidisciplinary look at society's responses to domestic violence. Although substantial reforms have been made in the services available to battered women since the 1970s, the book shows how the public and private systems available to victims of domestic violence are still failing to meet the needs of the women who seek help. Using a feminist perspective, authors Lisa A. Goodman and Deborah Epstein explore and critique the current available services in three different arenas: the domestic violence advocacy community, the mental health profession, and the justice system. In recent years, the options available to battered women have expanded dramatically. However, these reforms have been made at the expense of the contextualized, women-centered focus that was once at the heart of the anti-domestic violence movement. The authors argue that a renewed focus on the principles of the early feminist movement--for example, listening to individual women's voices, promoting supportive communities, and facilitating economic empowerment--could result in substantial progress in efforts to protect and counsel battered women. A series of concrete recommendations for improvements in the advocacy, mental health, and justice systems are also discussed. Researchers interested in the fields of violence, gender studies, psychology of women, mental health trauma, and family law, as well as practitioners working with the victims of intimate partner violence, will find this book to be a valuable resource in their efforts.
Resilience by Meredith Berry (Ball State University)
Counseling Psychology Literature (no summary)
Chambers, E., & Fischer, J. M. (2002). Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge and Skills: Directions for Adult Education Training Programs. Journal of Adult Education.
Objective: Given the need to better understand male resilient development, the present study examined the contextual factors that contributed to the resilience of successful, nonviolent adult men who experienced exposure to interparental violence (EPV) as children. Method: Resilience was examined through semistructured interviews with 12 adult men who experienced EPV as children and who were identified as successful, nonviolent adults. Results: Male participants identified factors vital to their resilient development such as having key safe relationships with caring adults and a safe haven outside of the home, using positive coping strategies like extracurricular activities and sports, and gaining professional and personal achievements.
Conclusion: Study findings suggest that clinicians and researchers should implement and evaluate interventions that leverage broader social supports, use extracurricular activities, focus on developing safe spaces, and redefine male gender role norms. Researchers also should expand assessment of resilience to include more diverse coping strategies.
Hernandez, P., Gangsei, D., & Engstrom, D. (2007). Vicarious resilience: A new concept in work with those who survive trauma. Family Process, 46, 229-241.
This study explores the formulation of a new concept: vicarious resilience. It addresses the question of how psychotherapists who work with survivors of political violence or kidnapping are affected by their clients' stories of resilience. It focuses on the psychotherapists' interpretations of their clients' stories, and how they make sense of the impact that these stories have had on their lives. In semistructured interviews, 12 psychotherapists who work with victims of political violence and kidnapping were interviewed about their perceptions of their clients' overcoming of adversity. A phenomenological analysis of the transcripts was used to describe the themes that speak about the effects of witnessing how clients cope constructively with adversity. These themes are discussed to advance the concept of vicarious resilience and how it can contribute to sustaining and empowering trauma therapists.
Hill, N. A., Woodson, K. M., Ferguson, A. D., & Parks, C. W. (2012). Intimate partner abuse among African American lesbians: Prevalence, risk factors, theory, and resilience. Journal of Family Violence, 27, 401-413.
The purpose of this article is to present an intersectionality-based model for conceptualizing the risk factors associated with intimate partner abuse (IPA) among African American lesbians. The available literature on prevalence and risk factors associated with IPA suggests that: (a) estimates of prevalence rates for African American lesbian IPA could range from 25 % to 40 %, with the higher end of the range representing the inclusion of nonphysical forms of abuse (i.e., verbal abuse, intimidation, and coercion); and (b) the risk factors most likely to be associated with IPA for this population include poverty, history of trauma and mental health symptoms (including substance abuse), in addition to distress caused by multiple and intersecting forms of oppression (i.e., racialized, classist sexism and heterosexism). The model demonstrates the manner in which all of these risk factors intersect to create disproportionately high risk for this underresearched and underserved population. A psychodynamically based model is also presented that illustrates the cycle of abuse within an African American lesbian relationship. Finally, a model depicting the most likely protective factors segues into a brief concluding discussion about the implications for intervention, prevention, policy, education, and future research.
McDowell, T., Libal, K., & Brown, A. L. (2012). Human rights in the practice of family therapy: Domestic violence, a case in point. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy: An InternationalForum, 24, 1-23.
In this article the authors introduce a human rights framework into the practice of family therapy. In particular, the authors explore the relevance of human rights to the practice of liberation-based work, arguing for situating individual experience within collective human rights discourse; drawing from human rights movements to promote resistance and resilience; and using a human rights framework to promote restorative justice and accountability. Domestic violence is offered as a case in point.
Shen, C-T. (2010). The resilience of young adults experiencing inter-parental marital violence and child maltreatment. Chinese Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 27, 115-160.
Based on the concept of resilience, this study aimed to understand the process through which young adults overcame the adversity of experiencing both parental marital violence and child maltreatment during childhood. Qualitative method and semi-structured guidelines were employed to interview six young adults. Research participants were aged between 22 and 27 years old. They were recruited mainly by advertisements posted in BBS in 2005. Research results indicated that most participants experienced parental marital violence and child maltreatment since early age. Their life stories are presented to show their unique strengths that enabled them to overcome this adversity. Several themes emerged from the research results, including positive self-concept and positive thinking, self-awareness and knowledge how to handle feelings, support from significant others, determination, effort, and the opportunity to leave violent homes. The interaction of these multiple protective systems helped the research participants cope with the dual-violence's impact and overcome these disadvantaging experiences. The need for interventions addressed at young adults experiencing dual violence during childhood was highlighted in this study.
Singh, A. A. (2009). Helping South Asian immigrant women use resilience strategies in healing from sexual abuse: A call for a culturally relevant model. Women & Therapy, 32, 361-376.
This article calls for the counseling and psychological field to construct a culturally relevant model for working with South Asian immigrant women survivors of sexual abuse to support their resilience and healing. Patriarchal norms of South Asian culture and acculturative stressors in the United States are examined to understand how they influence survivors' abuse experiences. The literature on South Asian women's experiences of intimate partner violence is reviewed in addition to resilience studies with women of color who have survived sexual abuse. Practice and research implications are presented.
Windham, C. R., Hooper, L. M., & Hudson, C. R. (2005). Selected spiritual, religious, and family factors in the prevention of school violence. Counseling and Values, 49, 208-216.
The mass-casualty school shooting incidents in recent years have heightened concern about the safety of U.S. schools and prompted responses that, in many cases, have centered mainly on bolstering security on school campuses. Some researchers have concluded, however, that the most effective prevention efforts are those that are more comprehensive in scope. This article explores selected spiritual, religious, and family value factors that research has indicated may play an important protective role in strengthening resilience in young people and minimizing at-risk behavior that may be associated with school violence.
Zaghrout-Hodali, M., Alissa, F., & Dodgson, P. W. (2008). Building resilience and dismantling fear: EMDR group protocol with children in an area of ongoing trauma. Journal of EMDRPractice and Research, 2, 106-113.
A number of studies indicate that EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) may be efficacious in treatment of children and young people with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. However, reports are limited in the use of the EMDR psychotherapy approach in situations of ongoing violence and trauma. This case study describes work with seven children in an area of ongoing violence who were subject to repeat traumas during the course of an EMDR psychotherapy intervention, using a group protocol. Results indicate that the EMDR approach can be effective in a group setting, and in an acute situation, both in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic and peritraumatic stress and in "inoculation" or building resilience in a setting of ongoing conflict and trauma. Given the need for such applications, further research is recommended regarding EMDR's ability to increase personal resources in such settings.
Non-Counseling Psychology Literature (not reviewed)