Norman Conquest: Invasion and conquest of England by the French (William the Conqueror). Changed English language significantly, bringing into English a great deal of French vocabulary (especially in the realm of cooking and law). (English became a blend of Germanic and Latin vocabulary). William drafted rules of law that the people of England were now subjected to (centralized government = greater homogenization). It took 250 years for the Normans and Saxons to blend themselves into one English nation
Crusades: battle of Christians and Muslims for ideological and geographical dominance.
Magna Carta: limited the power of King John and gave greater power to barons (similar to today’s “parliament”) = greater power for the people = more democratic