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Please refer to the Pennsylvania Standards Aligned System website: (http://www.pdesas.org/module/sas/curriculumframework/SocialStudiesCF.aspx)

for information on the Pennsylvania Curriculum Framework for Social Studies. You will find much of the information about PA Academic Standards, essential questions, vocabulary, assessments, etc. by navigating through the various components of the Curriculum Framework.
LESSON / UNIT TITLE: Chinese Immigrants in the United States

Teacher Name(s): Stacey Dangle, Craig Stage

School District: Northern Tioga School District

Building: Williamson High School

Grade Level: 10-12

Subject: Sociology

Time Required: 4-5 days

Lesson/Unit Summary (2-3 sentence synopsis): Students will investigate the first group of immigrants who were systematically and deliberately discriminated against in the United States. Students will examine how society and government created a life of inequality and hardship for Chinese immigrants. Study will develop a sociological understanding of the impact this had on the Chinese-American citizen, or non-citizen.

Essential Questions for Lesson/Unit

  • How did others perceive Chinese immigrants in the 1870’s?

  • What were the specific provisions of Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?

  • How did the Chinese Exclusion Act affect Chinese-Americans in the early 20th century?

  • What were the historical and social causes and reasons for the negative approach to Chinese immigrants by U.S. citizens?

Pennsylvania Academic Standards Addressed in Lesson/Unit

(Include standards numbers and standards statements.)
8.1.9. A. Analyze chronological thinking.

• Difference between past, present and future

• Sequential order of historical narrative

• Data presented in time lines

• Continuity and change

• Context for events

8.1.9. B. Analyze and interpret historical sources.

• Literal meaning of historical passages

• Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs, and tables

• Different historical perspectives

• Data from maps, graphs and tables

• Visual data presented in historical evidence

8.1.9. C. Analyze the fundamentals of historical interpretation.

• Fact versus opinion

• Reasons/causes for multiple points of view

• Illustrations in historical documents and stories

• Causes and results

• Author or source used to develop historical narratives

8.1.9. D. Analyze and interpret historical research.

• Historical event (time and place)

• Facts, folklore and fiction

• Historical questions

Primary sources

• Secondary sources

• Conclusions (e.g., History Day projects, mock trials, speeches)

• Credibility of evidence

8.3.9. A. Identify and analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from 1787 to 1914.
8.3.9. C. Analyze how continuity and change has influenced United States history from 1787 to 1914.

• Settlement Patterns and Expansion (e.g., Manifest Destiny, successive waves of immigrants, purchase of Alaska and Hawaii)

8.3.9. D. Identify and analyze conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in United States history from 1787 to 1914.

• Immigration and Migration (e.g., Manifest Destiny, eastern and southern European immigration, Chinese Exclusion Act)

Lesson/Unit Objectives

  1. To gain an understanding and to empathize with the Chinese immigrants through personalized accounts and experiences

  2. Analyze primary sources as historical documents in reference to personal journals, narratives, legislation, and historical text

  3. Investigate immigration dates, numbers, reasons, and patterns of Asians coming to the United States

  4. Examine the historiography of the Unites States government’s policy on immigration.

Vocabulary/Key Terms for Lesson/Unit

Chinese Exclusion Act

Burlingame/Seward treaty

Historical Background for Teachers / Research Narrative

Chinese-American Historical Perspective

I am sure many people in our current time believe that coming to the United States was not an almost impossible journey. Many of us were taught that the United States was a melting pot and we welcomed all into our great nation, we would be mistaken. Chinese immigrants have endured a tremendous amount of hardship and sacrifice to become a part of the fabric of the United States of America. Chinese immigrants are not unlike the other ethnic groups wanting to come to the United States; they sought a better life for themselves and their families.

China during the 18th and 19th centuries was in a state of flux. The Ming Dynasty had ended in a terrible civil, leaving the land and people ravaged. Under the Qing Dynasty the people were ruthlessly controlled and they suffered severe hardships to rebuild the empire. Common people were bound to their land and lived a very poor agricultural existence. The fighting way of life re-emerged in southern China during the Taiping Rebellion from 1850-1864. This rebellion also was a motivator for people to leave china for a chance at a new life. In China, the Qing Dynasty established laws that prohibited the emigration of Chinese citizens to overseas nations. So for many Chinese the journey to American began in places like British controlled Hong Kong, or the Portuguese colony of Macau.

Both the British and Portuguese had companies that would transport Chinese laborers to America on a credit-ticket system. This indentured servitude was a contract between the Chinese men and the transport company in exchange for transportation they would work to pay off the trip. These indentured Chinese laborers were often called “coolies” and their contracts were called coolie contracts. Coolie later becomes a racial slur used in disgust of all Asian-Americans. Rules of these contracts prevented all men, with the exception of Chinese merchants, to bring their wives or children. So a vast majority of Chinese immigrants came to America and left their families behind in hopes to send enough money home to bring them to America at a later time. Some will never be allowed to see their families again because of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.

The first and still the majority of all Chinese immigrants came to America on the West coast, and most specifically San Francisco. Passenger ship companies like the Pacific mail Steamship Company and the Occidental and Oriental Steamship Company who were hired by the coolie agencies, hiring agencies that sent people to china to hire laborers, docked in San Francisco. San Francisco was and still is seen as the center of Chinese-American culture and heritage.

There were a few definitive opportunities that led Chinese looking for a better life to the United States: the 1848 California gold rush, the transcontinental railroad, and agriculture. Each of these reasons also brought a resentment and backlash from the American citizens and Europeans who were vying for the same economic opportunities.

The California gold rush began in 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill. Thousands of people poured into the California mountains in search of gold, including Chinese immigrants. At least 15,000 Chinese men worked in the gold mines during the 1850’s, almost 1 in 4 of all gold miners. Chinese miners worked in large groups because they had to protect themselves from attack from the white gold miners. The Chinese had few or no rights during the 1850’s. Robbery and assault claims by the Chinese were rarely looked into, so to protect themselves they worked in the worst areas and in large organized groups. Because of their hard work and excellent organization, the Chinese miners thrived and did very well.

In the 1850’s laws were passed that further restricted the rights and freedoms of the Chinese miners. In 1852 a special foreign miner’s tax was established. This tax was specifically aimed at Chinese immigrants since they were banned from becoming citizens. The tax was three dollars a month, the average income at that time for Chinese miners was six dollars per month. In 1854, the Supreme Court ruled in People v. Hall that Chinese were not allowed to testify as witnesses before the court against citizens. Both of these laws dealt a devastating blow to the rights of the Chinese immigrants. This ruling also practically made it legal to commit violent acts against the Chinese living in the United States. Because of this many Chinese laborers were forced out of the mines and into the service industry, like house servants, restaurants, and the laundries.

After the gold rush, came the transcontinental railroad project that would require a large and cheap labor force. This was an ideal fit for the Chinese laborer. From 1865 to 1869, Chinese laborers worked on the transcontinental railroad. Charles Crocker of the Central Pacific Railroad is credited with idea of using Chinese workers to build the railroad. He specifically recruited Chinese mine workers, because of the tremendous work ethic and organizational ability. The Central Pacific Railroad’s portion cut through the worse parts of the American landscape, including going through the Sierra Nevada mountain range. This required dangerous tunneling and bridge building, all handled by the Chinese laborers. During this time, the typical Chinese railroad worker made only one dollar a day, while the white workers made up to three dollars a day. In 1867, the Chinese laborers went on strike for one week to receive two things, better food and better pay. After one week they received one third more food and a twenty-five cent raise, and went right back to work. Thought to be weak and fragile, Chinese laborers built the Central Pacific Railroad’s portion of the transcontinental railroad in record time. They finished a full seven years ahead of the government’s deadline. Many Chinese railroad workers went on to build other sections of major railways in the united states at that time. But this only increased the anti-Chinese sentiment.

Anti-Chinese sentiment in America by the 1860’s had already fueled a number of legal actions that restricted the life of Chinese-Americans. People v. Hall already made it impossible for Chinese Americans to protect themselves in court. And in 1862 Anti-coolie acts were popping up all over the western states. These laws were created to impose a tax of $ 2.50 per month on all Chinese residents and it was designed to protect white laborers in competition with Chinese labor.

The ultimate blow to Chinese immigration and Chinese-American rights was the Chinese Exclusion act of 1882. This act made it unlawful for Chinese to enter the United States for ten years and denied naturalized citizenship for Chinese that already lived in the United States. The 1892 Geary Act required all Chinese living in the United States to carry passports at all times. If they didn’t they could be punished by deportation or a year of hard labor. The Chinese Exclusion act was extended in 1902 for another ten years.

Some slightly positive changes did occur for the Chinese American. Although the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was horrible it did allow Chinese immigrants to “claim citizenship” because of lost records. This became known as “Paper Sons or Paper Daughters.”

Angel Island, the west coast Ellis Island, was opened in 1910 to process immigrants coming to the United States on the west coast. This place at first had no real meaning to Chinese immigrants, in time it is the central hub in which almost all Chinese immigrants enter the United States from in the 20th century when the Immigration restriction act of 1924 began to allow a trickle of Chinese immigrants into the United states. It wasn’t until the 1950’s after World War II that immigration and discrimination laws started to be overturned for Chinese Americans.

The Magnuson Act, also known as the Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act of 1943, was immigration legislation proposed by U.S. Representative Warren G. Magnuson. It permitted Chinese nationals already residing in the country to become naturalized citizens. This marked the first time since the Naturalization Act of 1790 that any Asians were permitted to be naturalized. It was passed during World War II, when China was a welcome ally to the United States. It limited Chinese immigrants to 105 visas per year selected by the government. That quota was determined by the Immigration Act of 1924, which set immigration from an allowed country at two percent of the number of people who were already living in the United States in 1890 of that nationality. Chinese immigration later increased with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965.

Chinese Americans throughout American history have been crucial to the success and livelihood of American society, even while being severely discriminated against and persecuted not only by the citizens but government as well. Chinese immigration has increased in the past decades and has allowed the United States to gain momentum in technological and scientific global industries. I am positive that Chinese American contributions to the United States in the future will help shape us as a globally competitive nation.







Instructional Prodedures and Activities

(List/describe the step-by-step sequence of procedures and learning activities.

Students will explore many primary source documents to develop a working knowledge that will help them develop strong foundational answers to the above essential questions.

1. The first document for students to explore is a Champaign County Herald newspaper correspondent’s report from California, published December 3, 1879. Here, correspondent James Faulkner unabashedly derides the Chinese presence in California, warning the nation of the dangers that Chinese immigrants will incur. Students need to read this article carefully, teasing out fact from opinion and listing statements and ideas displaying racial prejudice. Faulkner often argues that the Chinese are inferior using neutral observations or no evidence at all. We can learn a lot about Chinese culture and Western prejudice in this piece. As students dissect it, they should keep the following question in mind:
How did Anglo-Americans perceive Chinese immigrants in the 1870’s?
2. Chinese immigrants came to the United States for a number of reasons over several decades, starting with the California Gold Rush, and moving on through to the building of the transcontinental railroad. During these times many people developed a severe hatred for Chinese immigrants. Students should examine the included Chinese- American Timeline and read the Chinese-American Historical Perspective and use the links to create a list of how, through legal actions (i.e. laws, restrictions, taxes, and mandates) and illegal means, Chinese Americans were kept from being full participating members of U.S. society. As students work together, they should keep the following question in mind:

What were the historical and social reasons for the discriminatory approach to Chinese immigrants by U.S. citizens?
3. Within three years after James Faulkner wrote call for white supremacy, Congress wrote the Chinese Exclusion Act. Students should break into small groups and translate each of the 15 sections into their own words, rendering this 19th century xenophobic legislation into modern English. Much of the act deals with the problem of documenting who can legally stay in the United States and what should be done to those of Chinese ancestry who fail to possess proper papers. It would be appropriate for students to examine modern parallels associated with undocumented immigrants and how this problem should be handled. As students work cooperatively, they should keep the following question in mind:
What was the purpose of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?

4. Shortly after the opening of Angel Island, Chinese immigrants assembled there to gain access to the United States. While at Angel Island many Chinese immigrants went through a rigorous entrance examination. Some Chinese immigrants were routinely detained there for long periods of time. The teacher will need to go to this LINK: http://aiisf.org/pdf/Curriculum_Guide_Lesson_10.pdf

And students will use the student handouts and primary sources provided to investigate the lives and experiences of Chinese immigrants trying to enter the United States at Angel Island. Students should keep in mind the following question as they work on this activity:

What challenges did Chinese immigrants face entering the United States?

Suggested Strategies for Differentiating Instruction


  1. There are many primary sources available on the topic of Chinese immigration ranging from the perspectives of children to adults, men and women. Primary sources can be specifically chosen according to the needs of the students.

  2. The length and number of journal entries can be adjusted to each student.

  3. The rubric and requirements can be changed on a case by case basis if necessary.

Assessment of Student Learning (Formative and Summative)

Students will be involved in two assessment activities. The first will be a differentiated project where students can choose from any form of visual media to create a timeline of Chinese immigration and the injustices they suffered. They will then present these projects to the class. The other assessment will be a collection of journal entries depicting the life of a Chinese immigrant that has come to the United States. Each student will have to write 15 journal entries that accurately and correctly use the knowledge, and vocabulary that was taught in the lesson.

Materials and Resources

(Include text, supplementary resources, primary source documents, websites, handouts, charts, maps, etc.)

Included Background Information and Resources:

  1. Historical perspective (Refer to Historical Background/Research Narrative section.)

  1. Timeline

  1. Notable Chinese Americans

  1. List of books for further reference, and website addresses for more information.

  1. Champaign County Herald newspaper correspondent’s report from California

  1. The Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882

Chinese-American Timeline

From 1842: Chinese peasants look to lands abroad to better their lives because social and economic conditions in China have deteriorated due to Western intervention, rebellions and natural catastrophes.

1848: Gold is discovered at Sutter’s Mill.

1850: 195 Chinese are contracted to work in Hawaii.

1852: More than 20,000 Chinese come to California in search of a better life either in the gold mines or the railroads.

1854: The first Chinese newspaper is published.

1854: The California Supreme Court rules that laws prohibiting the testimony of blacks and Indians in cases involving whites also apply to Chinese. People v. Hall

1865: Central Pacific Railroad Recruits Chinese to build the transcontinental railroad.

1867: 2,000 Chinese workers strike for one week demanding better working conditions and more pay, unsuccessfully

1868: The Burlingame-Seward Treaty – encouraged immigration of Chinese to the United States for the benefit of a cheap labor force.

1870s to 1900: Height of anti-Chinese agitation throughout the West. Rioting is widespread in Los Angeles (1871) and Rock Springs, Wyo. (1885). Laws are passed depriving the Chinese of their livelihood and civil rights.

1882: Congress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act. This act stopped large Chinese immigration for 60 years.

1898: Groups like the Chinese American Citizens' Alliance organize to protect the civil rights of the Chinese in America.

1906: Earthquake devastates San Francisco

1910: Angel Island opens as an immigration processing and detention center. Most of the people who pass through are Chinese. They were detained for anywhere from two weeks to two years...

1941-1945: World War II. Chinese Americans join war industries and the armed forces.

1943: The Chinese Exclusion Act is repealed because China has become an ally in World War II. Chinese are given the right to naturalize, and a token annual quota of 105 is set for Chinese immigration.

1959: Hiram Fong of Hawaii is the first Chinese American elected to the U.S. Senate. He served three terms. No other Chinese American has served as a U.S. senator since.

2011: Ed Lee becomes the first Chinese-American Mayor of San Francisco.



Notable Chinese- Americans

Civil Rights & Politics – Ed Lee – First Chinese- American Mayor of San Francisco

Military – Wah Kua Kong – First Chinese-American fighter pilot

Culture & Religion – Amy Tan – Author of the Joy Luck Club

Inventions – Min Chueh Chang – Co-inventor of the first Birth Control pill

Science & Medicine – Daniel Chee Tsui – 1998 Nobel Prize winner in physics.

Education – Harry and Rosemary Wong – Classroom Management experts

Arts and Music – I.M. Pei – architect who designed the Louvre Pyramid





Annotated Bibliography: Chinese Immigration

Cassel, Susan Lan, The Chinese in America: A History from Gold Mountain to the New Millennium, AltaMira Press, 2002, ISBN 0759100012. This new collection of essays demonstrates how a politics of polarity have defined the 150-year experience of Chinese immigration in America. The book offer engrossing accounts of the lives of immigrants, their tenacity, their diverse life ways, from the arrival of the first Chinese gold miners in 1849 into the present day. The 21st century begins as a uniquely 'Pacific Century' in the Americas, with an increasingly large presence of Asians in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

Chang, Iris (2004). The Chinese in America. A Narrative History. Penguin. ISBN 0142004170. Tells of a people’s search for a better life—the determination of the Chinese to forge an identity and a destiny in a strange land and, often against great obstacles, to find success. This book chronicles the many accomplishments in America of Chinese immigrants and their descendents: building the infrastructure of their adopted country, fighting racist and exclusionary laws, walking the racial tightrope between black and white, contributing to major scientific and technological advances, expanding the literary canon, and influencing the way we think about racial and ethnic groups. Interweaving political, social, economic, and cultural history, as well as the stories of individuals.

Him Mark Lai, Becoming Chinese American. A History of Communities and Institutions: AltaMira Press, 2004, ISBN 0759104581. Discusses the historical and cultural development of Chinese American life in the past century. The book focuses on Chinese American community formation that tested the racially-imposed boundaries on their new lives in the United States.

Lum McCunn, Ruthanne, An Illustrated History of the Chinese in America, San Francisco (Design Enterprises) 1979, ISBN 0-932538-01-0. Traces the history of the Chinese in the United States focusing on their struggle for acceptance by the white population and their contributions to the development of their new country.

Wu, Dana Ying-Hui, Tung, Jeffrey Dao-Sheng, Coming to America. The Chinese-American Experience, Brookfield, CT (The Millbrook Press) 1993, ISBN 1562942719. An illustrated history of Chinese immigration to America provides background information about China, discussing the reasons for emigrating, documenting the history of the Chinese in America, and offering primary source material including diary excerpts and letters.

Main Website for the student directed activities and primary source readings

Lesson Part 4:
http://www.angel-island.com/intro.html - provides stories from people who were kept at angel island in the 1900’s

http://aiisf.org/immigrant-voices/read-a-story - can find more immigrant stories on this site.

Champaign County Herald newspaper correspondent’s report from California

The newspaper clippings are found below and can be printed and enlarged.

Primary Source: Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

Forty-Seventh Congress. Session I. 1882

Chapter 126.-An act to execute certain treaty stipulations relating to Chinese.

Preamble. Whereas, in the opinion of the Government of the United States the coming of Chinese laborers to this country endangers the good order of certain localities within the territory thereof:


Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and after the expiration of ninety days next after the passage of this act, and until the expiration of ten years next after the passage of this act, the coming of Chinese laborers to the United States be, and the same is hereby, suspended; and during such suspension it shall not be lawful for any Chinese laborer to come, or, having so come after the expiration of said ninety days, to remain within the United States.

SEC. 2. That the master of any vessel who shall knowingly bring within the United States on such vessel, and land or permit to be landed, and Chinese laborer, from any foreign port of place, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars for each and every such Chinese laborer so brought, and may be also imprisoned for a term not exceeding one year.

SEC. 3. That the two foregoing sections shall not apply to Chinese laborers who were in the United States on the seventeenth day of November, eighteen hundred and eighty, or who shall have come into the same before the expiration of ninety days next after the passage of this act, and who shall produce to such master before going on board such vessel, and shall produce to the collector of the port in the United States at which such vessel shall arrive, the evidence hereinafter in this act required of his being one of the laborers in this section mentioned; nor shall the two foregoing sections apply to the case of any master whose vessel, being bound to a port not within the United States by reason of being in distress or in stress of weather, or touching at any port of the United States on its voyage to any foreign port of place: Provided, That all Chinese laborers brought on such vessel shall depart with the vessel on leaving port.

SEC. 4. That for the purpose of properly indentifying Chinese laborers who were in the United States on the seventeenth day of November, eighteen hundred and eighty, or who shall have come into the same before the expiration of ninety days next after the passage of this act, and in order to furnish them with the proper evidence of their right to go from and come to the United States of their free will and accord, as provided by the treaty between the United States and China dated November seventeenth, eighteen hundred and eighty, the collector of customs of the district from which any such Chinese laborer shall depart from the United States shall, in person or by deputy, go on board each vessel having on board any such Chinese laborer and cleared or about to sail from his district for a foreign port, and on such vessel make a list of all such Chinese laborers, which shall be entered in registry-books to be kept for that purpose, in which shall be stated the name, age, occupation, last place of residence, physical marks or peculiarities, and all facts necessary for the indentification of each of such Chinese laborers, which books shall be safely kept in the custom-house; and every such Chinese laborer so departing from the United States shall be entitled to, and shall receive, free of any charge or cost upon application therefor, from the collector or his deputy, at the time such list is taken, a certificate, signed by the collector or his deputy and attested by his seal of office, in such form as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe, which certificate shall contain a statement of the name, age, occupation, last place of residence, personal description, and fact of identification of the Chinese laborer to whom the certificate is issued, corresponding with the said list and registry in all particulars. In case any Chinese laborer after having received such certificate shall leave such vessel before her departure he shall deliver his certificate to the master of the vessel, and if such Chinese laborer shall fail to return to such vessel before her departure from port the certificate shall be delivered by the master to the collector of customs for cancellation. The certificate herein provided for shall entitle the Chinese laborer to whom the same is issued to return to and re-enter the United States upon producing and delivering the same to the collector of customs of the district at which such Chinese laborer shall seek to re-enter; and upon delivery of such certificate by such Chinese laborer to the collector of customs at the time of re-entry in the United States, said collector shall cause the same to be filed in the custom house and duly canceled.

SEC. 5. That any Chinese laborer mentioned in section four of this act being in the United States, and desiring to depart from the United States by land, shall have the right to demand and receive, free of charge or cost, a certificate of indentification similar to that provided for in section four of this act to be issued to such Chinese laborers as may desire to leave the United States by water; and it is hereby made the duty of the collector of customs of the district next adjoining the foreign country to which said Chinese laborer desires to go to issue such certificate, free of charge or cost, upon application by such Chinese laborer, and to enter the same upon registry-books to be kept by him for the purpose, as provided for in section four of this act.

SEC. 6. That in order to the faithful execution of articles one and two of the treaty in this act before mentioned, every Chinese person other than a laborer who may be entitled by said treaty and this act to come within the United States, and who shall be about to come to the United States, shall be identified as so entitled by the Chinese Government in each case, such identity to be evidenced by a certificate issued under the authority of said government, which certificate shall be in the English language or (if not in the English language) accompanied by a translation into English, stating such right to come, and which certificate shall state the name, title, or official rank, if any, the age, height, and all physical peculiarities, former and present occupation or profession, and place of residence in China of the person to whom the certificate is issued and that such person is entitled conformably to the treaty in this act mentioned to come within the United States. Such certificate shall be prima-facie evidence of the fact set forth therein, and shall be produced to the collector of customs, or his deputy, of the port in the district in the United States at which the person named therein shall arrive.

SEC. 7. That any person who shall knowingly and falsely alter or substitute any name for the name written in such certificate or forge any such certificate, or knowingly utter any forged or fraudulent certificate, or falsely personate any person named in any such certificate, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor; and upon conviction thereof shall be fined in a sum not exceeding one thousand dollars, an imprisoned in a penitentiary for a term of not more than five years.

SEC. 8. That the master of any vessel arriving in the United States from any foreign port or place shall, at the same time he delivers a manifest of the cargo, and if there be no cargo, then at the time of making a report of the entry of vessel pursuant to the law, in addition to the other matter required to be reported, and before landing, or permitting to land, any Chinese passengers, deliver and report to the collector of customs of the district in which such vessels shall have arrived a separate list of all Chinese passengers taken on board his vessel at any foreign port or place, and all such passengers on board the vessel at that time. Such list shall show the names of such passengers (and if accredited officers of the Chinese Government traveling on the business of that government, or their servants, with a note of such facts), and the name and other particulars, as shown by their respective certificates; and such list shall be sworn to by the master in the manner required by law in relation to the manifest of the cargo. Any willful refusal or neglect of any such master to comply with the provisions of this section shall incur the same penalties and forfeiture as are provided for a refusal or neglect to report and deliver a manifest of cargo.

SEC. 9. That before any Chinese passengers are landed from any such vessel, the collector, or his deputy, shall proceed to examine such passengers, comparing the certificates with the list and with the passengers; and no passenger shall be allowed to land in the United States from such vessel in violation of law.

SEC. 10. That every vessel whose master shall knowingly violate any of the provisions of this act shall be deemed forfeited to the United States, and shall be liable to seizure and condemnation on any district of the United States into which such vessel may enter or in which she may be found.

SEC. 11. That any person who shall knowingly bring into or cause to be brought into the United States by land, or who shall knowingly aid or abet the same, or aid or abet the landing in the United States from any vessel of any Chinese person not lawfully entitled to enter the United States, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction thereof, be fined in a sum not exceeding one thousand dollars, and imprisoned for a term not exceeding one year.

SEC. 12. That no Chinese person shall be permitted to enter the United States by land without producing to the proper officer of customs the certificate in this act required of Chinese persons seeking to land from a vessel. And any Chinese person found unlawfully within the United States shall be caused to be removed therefrom to the country from whence he came, by direction of the United States, after being brought before some justice, judge, or commissioner of a court of the United States and found to be one not lawfully entitled to be or remain in the United States.

SEC. 13. That this act shall not apply to diplomatic and other officers of the Chinese Government traveling upon the business of that government, whose credentials shall be taken as equivalent to the certificate in this act mentioned, and shall exempt them and their body and household servants from the provisions of this act as to other Chinese persons.

SEC. 14. That hereafter no State court or court of the United States shall admit Chinese to citizenship; and all laws in conflict with this act are hereby repealed.

SEC. 15. That the words "Chinese laborers", whenever used in this act, shall be construed to mean both skilled and unskilled laborers and Chinese employed in mining.

Approved, May 6, 1882.

Reference: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/chinex.htm

Author(s) of Unit/Lesson Plan

Stacy Dangle, Craig Stage, Northern Tioga School District, Williamson High School

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