Key Idea 4: The skills of historical analysis include the ability to: explain the significance of historical evidence; weigh the importance, reliability, and validity of evidence; understand the concept of multiple causation; understand the importance of changing and competing interpretations of different historical developments.
Key Idea 4: The skills of historical analysis include the ability to investigate differing and competing interpretations of the theories of history, hypothesize about why interpretations change over time,
RH1. Use relevant information from documents to support analysis
I. Galileo’s Discoveries Galileo’s research was revolutionary because it did not begin with a preconception (already thought of idea). Instead, he conducted careful observations and experiments before coming to any conclusions. Galileo’s observation contradicted (went against) the medieval notion that celestial objects (objects in space) were made of divine (created by God) substance not found on Earth.
“It is seen that the moon is not at all an even, smooth, or a regular surface. Instead it is rough and unequal and has mountains and valleys like the earth. There are four stars wandering around Jupiter like the moon around the Earth. It takes Jupiter twelve years to circle the sun.”
III. Pope Urban’s Statements
“Human beings are not capable of finding an ultimate test of God’s design. It would be extravagant boldness for anyone to try to limit and confine Divine Power and wisdom to some one particular idea of his own.”
IV. Galileo’s response to criticism “Some years ago, as your Serene Highness well knows, I discovered in the heavens many things that had not been seen before our age. The newness of these things caused many people to stir against me - as if I had placed these things in the sky with my own hands. These people show a greater fondness for their own opinion than for the truth. If they looked for themselves, their own senses would show them what is in the sky. These men use the Bible and a pretended religion as a shield for their lies.”
How does Galileo Respond to Pope Urban? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
V. The Inquisition of Galileo (1633)
Galileo Galilei stood before the Catholic Church Inquisition on April 12, 1633. He was charged with questioning authority of the Roman Catholic Church. In his book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Galileo argued that the sun and not the earth is at the center of the universe.
The Formal Charges Against Galileo
• He openly supported the heliocentric ideas of Copernicus.
• He held that there is equality between the human mind and the divine mind in understanding scientific and mathematical ideas
• He wished to convert those who agreed with the church that the earth was the center of the universe to his own beliefs.
What happened to Galileo? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The court, which consisted of ten Cardinals of the Catholic Church, found Galileo guilty of heresy but a sentence was to be determined.
Imagine that it is 1633 and you are Galileo. You have just been found guilty of heresy but you are given several options to determine your sentence. Choose one of the following choices and explain your decision with 2 reasons. 1. Admit that that the Catholic Church is the supreme law of the land and whatever the Church says is correct.
2. Stick to your beliefs and research no matter what the church says.
3. Other ____________________