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AIM: Can religion and science co-exist?

Content Standards:

Key Idea 4: The skills of historical analysis include the ability to: explain the significance of historical evidence; weigh the importance, reliability, and validity of evidence; understand the concept of multiple causation; understand the importance of changing and competing interpretations of different historical developments.

Key Idea 4: The skills of historical analysis include the ability to investigate differing and competing interpretations of the theories of history, hypothesize about why interpretations change over time,


RH1. Use relevant information from documents to support analysis

RH2. Determine the main idea of a document

RH5. Identify and analyze arguments/ideas presented in documents

RH8. Identify and analyze evidence

W1. Write an argument to support claims

W4. Produce writing appropriate to task, purpose and audience

SL1. Initiate and participate in collaborative discussion

SL2. Accurately use multiple sources of information

Motivation / “Do Now”

1) Evolution vs. Adam and Eve (O)

- What do you see?

- Briefly explain both sides.

- Which do you believe in? Why?

- Can you believe in both Evolution AND Creation?

2) “Believing in God is like believing in fairies. You can’t do science all week and then go

to Church on Sunday. - Richard Dawkins (O)

- What is Dawkins saying?

- Do you agree?

- Can you believe in BOTH science AND God?

Transition: Elicit Aim: Can religion and science co-exist?

Mini-Lesson / Content:

1) Galileo’s Discoveries (H)

- Read

- What did Galileo discover? (H)

- Why might this cause problems with the church?

2) Galileo Pics (H) (O)

- What do you see?

- How does Galileo conduct research? (H)

3) Pope Urban Quote (H) (O)

- Who is the pope?

- How does he get his information about the world?

- What is Urban’s message to Galileo? (H)

- If you were Galileo, how would you respond?

- What is a better source of information, scientific observation OR reading the bible?

4) Galileo Response (H)

- How does Galileo respond to Pope Urban? (H)

- What does he say about his critics?

- What does “These men use the Bible and a pretended religion as a shield for their lies.” (the last line

in the quote) mean?

5) Trial of Galileo Picture (HO)

- Describe what you see.

- Which one is Galileo?

- Who are the people surrounding him?

- Who do you think is going to win this trial?

6) The Inquisition of Galileo (H)

- What happened to Galileo? (H)

- What were the charges against Galileo?

- Were these fair?

- What should the Church do to Galileo?

7) Galileo in Prison (O) Picture (HO)

- What was Galileo’s sentence?

- Were these punishments fair?

- What would happen to Galileo if he disobeyed any of these punishments? (Death by Burning)

8) Renaissance Times (H) (ACTIVITY)***

- Which would you do if you were Galileo?

- Does Galileo have many options?

- What do you think Galileo actually does?

9) Reveal Galileo’s decision

10) Pope Absolves Galileo (O) [interesting only if time allows]

- What happened?

Activity: At document 8

  • Have students discuss with their partner what they would do as Galileo and justify their response with 3 reasons.


FORMATIVE assessment

  • Circulate the room and read student responses to the documents

SUMMATIVE assessment –Based on the Application below

  • Exit ticket: Should the President continue or stop Stem Cell research based on the Pope’s objection?


  • Read Headline/ paragraph: Pope Gives Bush Clear Message On Embryonic Stem Cell Research
    - Should the President continue or stop Stem Cell research based on the Pope’s objection?

The Trial of Galileo

AIM: ____________________________________________________________________________

I. Galileo’s Discoveries
Galileo’s research was revolutionary because it did not begin with a preconception (already thought of idea). Instead, he conducted careful observations and experiments before coming to any conclusions. Galileo’s observation contradicted (went against) the medieval notion that celestial objects (objects in space) were made of divine (created by God) substance not found on Earth.

“It is seen that the moon is not at all an even, smooth, or a regular surface. Instead it is rough and unequal and has mountains and valleys like the earth. There are four stars wandering around Jupiter like the moon around the Earth. It takes Jupiter twelve years to circle the sun.”

- Galileo Galilei

What did Galileo Discover?


Why might this cause problems with the church?


II. Galileo’s Research


How did Galileo conduct research?


III. Pope Urban’s Statements
“Human beings are not capable of finding an ultimate test of God’s design. It would be extravagant boldness for anyone to try to limit and confine Divine Power and wisdom to some one particular idea of his own.”

What is Pope Urban’s message to Galileo?


IV. Galileo’s response to criticism
“Some years ago, as your Serene Highness well knows, I discovered in the heavens many things that had not been seen before our age. The newness of these things caused many people to stir against me - as if I had placed these things in the sky with my own hands. These people show a greater fondness for their own opinion than for the truth. If they looked for themselves, their own senses would show them what is in the sky. These men use the Bible and a pretended religion as a shield for their lies.”

How does Galileo Respond to Pope Urban?

V. The Inquisition of Galileo (1633)

Galileo Galilei stood before the Catholic Church Inquisition on April 12, 1633. He was charged with questioning authority of the Roman Catholic Church. In his book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Galileo argued that the sun and not the earth is at the center of the universe.

The Formal Charges Against Galileo

• He openly supported the heliocentric ideas of Copernicus.

• He held that there is equality between the human mind and the divine mind in understanding scientific and mathematical ideas
• He wished to convert those who agreed with the church that the earth was the center of the universe to his own beliefs.

What happened to Galileo?


Galileo in Prison The Trial of Galileo

Renaissance Times

Galileo Found Guilty of Heresy

Punishment to be Determined

The court, which consisted of ten Cardinals of the Catholic Church, found Galileo guilty of heresy but a sentence was to be determined.

Imagine that it is 1633 and you are Galileo. You have just been found guilty of heresy but you are given several options to determine your sentence. Choose one of the following choices and explain your decision with 2 reasons.
1. Admit that that the Catholic Church is the supreme law of the land and whatever the Church says is correct.
2. Stick to your beliefs and research no matter what the church says.
3. Other ____________________


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