Time required: 2 to 5 days (Days 1 and 2 can be taught independently in two class sessions.)
Unit Overview Artist Estelle Ishigo, the European American wife of a Japanese American, was among the American citizens forced out of California during World War II. Ishigo and her husband, Arthur, were first sent to Pomona Assembly Center and later to Heart Mountain Relocation Center, in a remote area of Wyoming. There, Estelle Ishigo continued her work as a painter. This unit focuses on Ishigo's artwork, which provides a rare inside look at life in these camps. Students use primary sources to learn how internees lived and made a home under incredibly constrained circumstances.
When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, World War II was already in its second year. The surprise bombing put the United States into a panic and resulted in the immediate Declaration of War by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. America joined the Allied Forces, with England and Russia, to fight against the Axis Powers, led by Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Longstanding prejudice in our country against Japanese Americans combined with newly inflamed fear and distrust to create unprecedented heights of hysteria. The success of the attack on Pearl Harbor was thought to be the result of espionage by Japanese Americans in Hawaii and on the West Coast. Newspaper articles and pressure groups called for the expulsion of all Japanese Americans.
Evacuation: On February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which dramatically changed the lives of 120,000 civilians of Japanese descent. This order authorized military commanders to remove civilians, primarily Japanese Americans, from designated "military zones." These areas were mainly along the US Pacific Coast, where most Japanese Americans resided. Lt. General John L. DeWitt, in charge of the Western Defense Command at this time, singled out Japanese American residents in the western region to be subjected to curfews and called for their "voluntary" evacuation. One of his first steps was to identify leaders of Japanese American community groups, and to send them to isolation camps. On March 19, 1942, General DeWitt called for a more mandatory evacuation, and eventually internment between 1942 and 1945 (see Chronology) of all residents of California, Oregon, Washington, and parts of Arizona who were as little as 1/16th Japanese. Of the 120,000 people who were ordered to leave their homes and businesses, two-thirds were US citizens by birth (Asian immigrants were not allowed to become citizens until 1952). These men, women, and children were told that this removal to remote, undesirable locations was for their own protection. By contrast, very few Americans of German or Italian ancestry were rounded up and forcibly moved. As later years would tell, not a single Japanese American was found guilty of either treason or espionage.
The first phase of evacuation began in March 1942, when families were transported on notice as short as 48 hours to trains that took them to hastily organized assembly centers in five western states. These were frequently located at racetracks or fairgrounds. Detainees were housed in cramped spaces (sometimes livestock stalls) with inadequate ventilation, power, privacy, and sanitary conditions. Food and medicine were also in short supply. In these first steps of relocation, detainees were guarded by military personnel in guard towers “for their own safety.” The evacuees were allowed to bring with them items listed by government order, but only what they could carry. Other property (including homes, businesses, land, boats, personal possessions) was stored, sold, abandoned, or left in the trust of non-Japanese friends. Some was recovered after the war, but much was not.
Internment and Relocation: The second phase moved large groups, mainly by train, to permanent concentration camps (later to be called internment camps). When the plan for relocation was completed, 10 camps in seven states were in full operation. Those facilities that were located in desert areas were inescapably hot and dusty, reaching temperatures of over 100 degrees F. People in northern camps fought sub-zero winters. The internment camps were surrounded by barbed wire and guard towers. Armed military guards patrolled the perimeter and were instructed to shoot anyone attempting to leave.
Life in the camps was organized around lines: lines for meals, clothing, mail and still more lines to use bathing and restroom facilities. Because of the cramped conditions, the nature of the family changed dramatically. Young members spent more time with their peers, and less with their elders. Rules came from outside the family, eroding family structure and challenging the authority of parents. Morale was an issue. Steps were taken to provide education, work, and other activities for the internees. Some were organized by the Japanese Americans themselves and some was provided by the on-site military organization. Each camp varied, as did each person's experience.
End of Camps: As World War II began to draw to a close, President Roosevelt provided for the return home of internees by ending the exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West Coast (December 17, 1944). Many returned to find their property greatly devalued or in the hands of others. All faced the challenge of rebuilding their lives as individuals, as families, and as a community within the fabric of postwar American life.
Because there are 120,000 different stories from within the camps, none of them should be considered typical. No single account of life there adequately expresses the experience. One story, however — that of Estelle Ishigo — brings with it a wealth of artwork and documentation.
Among the American citizens forced out of California was artist Estelle Ishigo, the European American wife of a Japanese American. Ishigo and her husband, Arthur, were first sent to Pomona Assembly Center and later to Heart Mountain Relocation Center in a remote area of Wyoming. There, Estelle Ishigo continued her work as a painter. Estelle Ishigo's artwork gives us a rare look, from within, at the conditions in these bleak, roughly constructed camps. The individual experience of these innocent prisoners differs by age, gender, place of incarceration, and what their prewar life had been. Ishigo was able to capture the spirit of Heart Mountain by showing the courage and dignity of the internees in their attempt to make a home under incredibly constrained circumstances. She had to hide some of her work because of the government censors. In addition to her watercolor paintings and black and white sketches, Estelle Ishigo (who died in 1986) left a large collection of papers, including letters, business and government forms, and notes. She also preserved several original scripts, one of which resulted in her book, Lone Heart Mountain. Refer to Estelle Ishigo's biography at http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/4.html.
Chronology of Japanese American Incarceration
September 1, 1939
World War II begins.
December 7, 1941
Surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese, precipitating America's entry into the war.
February 19, 1942
President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066, giving the War Department authority to define military areas in the western states and to exclude from them anyone who might threaten the war effort.
Arthur and Estelle Ishigo are sent to Pomona Assembly Center.
August 12, 1942
Heart Mountain Relocation Center opens with the first group of internees sent from Pomona Assembly Center in California. It is one of 10 camps in the western United States and Arkansas.
Arthur and Estelle Ishigo arrive at Heart Mountain relocation camp.
February 5, 1943
The Wyoming State legislature passes a law denying American citizens at Heart Mountain Camp the right to vote. Similar laws were passed by other interior states where camps were located.
February 8, 1943
A loyalty questionnaire is required of all persons over the age of 17 in the internment camps for the purpose of recruitment into the army.
December 18, 1944
US Supreme Court rules loyal citizens cannot be held in detention camps against their will, the first major step toward the closing of the camps.
August 6, 9, 1945
Atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States.
August 14, 1945
Japan surrenders, ending World War II.
Arthur and Estelle Ishigo are released from Heart Mountain Relocation Center and return to the Los Angeles area.
November 10, 1945
Heart Mountain closes.
Congress passes the McCarran Walter Act, granting Japanese aliens the right to become naturalized US citizens.
President Gerald R. Ford officially rescinds Executive Order 9066.
Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (set up by Congress) holds hearings across the country and concludes the Internment was a “grave injustice” and that Executive Order 9066 resulted from “race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership.”
President Reagan the Civil Liberties Act, apologizing to the Japanese American internees and offering $20,000 to survivors of the camps.
Fred Korematsu receives the Presidential Medal of Freedom. (Korematsu was arrested for remaining in his home and not reporting to the local Assembly Center. He was convicted of violating E.O. 9066. The judgment was later overturned.)
Days 1 and 2: History and Overview
Day 3: Using Primary Resources
Day 4: Prejudice vs. Tolerance
Day 5: Citizenship
See primary sources at the end of this lesson plan:
Item 1. Letter from Ruth Wong to Estelle Ishigo, May 12, 1942
Item 2. Estelle Ishigo. Boarding the Truck to Leave Heart Mountain
Using Primary Sources worksheet, copies for collaborative groups (see Appendix A)
Citizenship worksheet, copies for each student (see Appendix B)
Transparencies or chart paper
Students will obtain historical data through the use of primary sources.
Students will describe elements of the Japanese American Internment during World War II, through discussion and writing.
Students will develop a sense of historical understanding of the internees' experiences during and after the Internment.
Students will relate the themes of tolerance and prejudice to the era.
Students will evaluate the implementation of Executive Order 9066.
Students will define and describe basic human rights and the role of an American citizen.
Days 1-5: Participation in discussion
Day 3: Using primary sources, a collaborative group activity
Day 4: Prejudice vs. Tolerance, homework prompt, individual response
Day 5: Citizenship, questions 1-6, collaborative and individual response
Conceptual Links to Prior Understanding and Knowledge:
This unit works well taught:
After study of the Holocaust/WWII
As a unit on tolerance and the effects of prejudice
After study of points of view
NATIONAL UNITED STATES AND WORLD HISTORY STANDARDS The National Standards for the United States and World History emphasizes historical understanding. "History ... reveals the vast range of accommodations individuals and societies have made to the problems confronting them, and discloses the consequences that have followed the various choices that have been made."
The National Standards for the United States and World History encourages students to develop a sense of historical thinking. Middle school students should engage in activities in the following five areas:
Historical Analysis and Interpretation
Historical Research Capabilities
Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making
The National Council for the Social Studies recommends in "Strand 2: Time, Continuity and Change" that "students begin to understand and appreciate differences in historical perspectives, recognizing that interpretations are influenced by individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions."
The National Standards for Civics and Government in "Section V" focuses on the Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy.
DAYS 1 AND 2: HISTORY AND OVERVIEW
Item 1. Letter from Ruth Wong to Estelle Ishigo, May 12, 1942
Item 2. Estelle Ishigo. Boarding the Truck to Leave Heart Mountain
Show Item 1, the letter to Estelle. After reading the letter, ask students to look for clues to determine the time, place, and events that are indicated in its writing. For example:
$1.00 gas and light bill
20th century (movie studio)
Took a bus
Writer cleaned their house
Furniture gone, in storage?
Check hasn't come
Using their things
Thinks they're on vacation
Ask students to predict what has happened to Estelle and her husband, Arthur.
Briefly introduce the Japanese American evacuation, internment, and relocation:
Evacuation: The removal of Japanese Americans from their homes due to Executive Order 9066, signed in 1942 by President Roosevelt. During this period Japanese Americans were kept in Detention Centers (local, temporary quarters also called "Assembly Centers") before being sent to Relocation Camps.
Internment: The period of time from 1942-1945, during which over 112,000 Japanese Americans — two-thirds of them United States citizens by birth — were held in Relocation Camps, sometimes hundreds of miles from their home. There were eight camps in the western United States and two in Arkansas.
Relocation: This term is used in two different ways. Relocation, to the United States government, meant being transferred to the camps. Relocation to the Japanese Americans referred to their experience of transition back into society after the camps closed. For the purpose of this paper, the term relocation camp will refer to the internment experience. The term relocation will refer to the experience after the internment.
Follow-up to Letter to Estelle: Estelle and Arthur Ishigo lived in Los Angeles, California. Estelle was a student in art school and Arthur was a janitor for Paramount Pictures. At the time of the evacuation they had been married for 13 years. Estelle, a European American, decided to join her husband, a Japanese American, in the camps. Estelle and Arthur were taken to the Pomona Assembly Center, then to Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Wyoming. The letter was written to Estelle at the Pomona Assembly Center in May 1942.
Ask students to fill in the exact time, place, and events that lead to the letter.
Los Angeles, California
World War II
The following excerpts match the works of art with the manuscript Estelle Ishigo kept during her experience with the Japanese evacuation, internment, and relocation. The quotes cited are taken from the original rough draft of Lone Heart Mountain, published in 1972. Errors in spelling and spacing are consistent with the rough draft.
Show Item 2, Boarding the Truck to Leave Heart Mountain. Read the following excerpt from Ishigo’s Lone Heart Mountain (Item 3): It was very hard to know what to put in that duffle bag to decide what to take. There was no way of knowing what might happen what we really might need one hundred pounds of baggage read the order no more.
Gathered around the church that early May morning were four hundred and fifty of us standing in groups with bundles and baskets piled at the curb. Red Cross women brought trays of hot coffee, but nothing could quell the fear and bitter weeping of some. the dreadful uncertainty of what might happen what it might be like.
They began loading bundles into trucks, and we saw some of the baggage of those who had not weighed their '100 pounds' carefully left lying in the streets.
Then one at a time the buses came with armed Military Police, pulling up to the curb, soldiers stepped out and ordered us aboard. (Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 5)
Lead class discussion regarding the evacuation. Discussion may include:
What do you think Estelle and Arthur brought with them?
Why did Estelle decide to go with her husband?
Compare what the adults lost in the Evacuation to what the children lost.
Estelle and Arthur were taken to the Pomona Assembly Center. This was a temporary center, held often at fairgrounds, to hold the internees until they could be transferred to the camps. Pomona was only open for three months (May-August, 1942) but processed 5,434 people through to relocation camps.
Show Item 4, Evacuees Behind Fence. Read the following excerpt from Ishigo’s Lone Heart Mountain (Item 5):
The first sight of the barbed wire enclosure with armed soldiers standing guard as our bus slowly turned in through the gate, stunned us with the meaning of this ordered evacuation. Here, was a camp of sheds enclosed within a high barbed wire fence, with guard towers and soldiers with tommy guns. Not 25 miles from home and still in the U.S.A. but suddenly like a foreign land.
There was a visitor's day when we went, like prisoners, in our camp cloths to a fenced area where we could sit and talk for a short time with those from the outside under the watchful eyes of armed guards. (Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 6)
Lead class discussion about the assembly centers. Discussion may include:
Why did the War Relocation Authority call this a voluntary evacuation when it was mandatory?
Respond to the quote, "Not 25 miles from home and still in the USA — but suddenly like a foreign land." What does this mean to Estelle? Have you ever felt like this?
From Pomona they were taken to Heart Mountain, Wyoming. The Heart Mountain camp held over 10,000 internees. There were 468 buildings divided into 20 blocks. Each block provided two laundry and toilet buildings. The rooms provided were approximately 16x20 feet to 20x24 feet.
Show Items 6 and 7, Heart Mountain, Wyoming, and Windstorm in Heart Mountain Cemetery. Read Item 8:
There were hundreds of barracks in the mile square enclosure. We went out that first night into the wind, woundering over the rough terrain, to look for the buildings with latrines and a place to get water: and some looked for a friend or relative and lost their way as they wandered far among the rows of black tar paper barracks.
Then at sunrise, we looked beyond the camp, above the bare and rolling swells of ground and saw the face of Lone Heart Mountain tipped with rose from the first rays of morning sun. (Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 13)
Lead discussion about the relocation camps. Discussion questions may include:
Why do you think the internees were taken to Wyoming?
How would you feel as an internee at Heart Mountain Relocation Center?
The relocation camps were bleak; however, the human spirit is resilient. Although life was restricted within the camp, the internees tried to make it as pleasant as possible. Many adults worked on the "local" newspaper, painted, wrote, played musical instruments, or planted gardens. Children still went to school, where they learned, made friends, and played. There were Boy Scouts, sports teams, and other clubs to join for enjoyment and social activity. The internment experience was more difficult for the adults, who had lost their homes, jobs, and security, than for the children, who still had many age appropriate activities available.
Show Item 9, At Home at Heart Mountain. Read Item 10:
Some began making little things of beauty from colored papers or scraps of silk, gorgeous flowers, arranging them according to old traditions or into brightly colored balls to hang on the dark walls or the barrack rooms. Or carving, painting, poetry writing, and even dress making. And many old men sat for long hours over games of Goh; and they would meet together to enjoy these gentle activities in their rooms. (Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 20)
Show Item 11, Japanese American Woman and Child, Internees. Read Item 12:
The women of our barrack shared a catalogue and Grandmother turned the brightly colored pages to embroidering and flowers and she ordered some thread and a packet of garden seeds. She wanted to nurse little growing things in her room Just once again to see the beauty of a young living plant. Dreaming her dream she took her little grandson by the hand and they walked together past rows of barracks and along the fence. A soldier in the tower eyed her with curiosity ad saw her stoop to let her grandchild ride upon her back. (Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 19)
Lead class discussion about the relocation camps. Discussion questions may include:
Do you think the following groups responded to the relocation camps similarly? Why or why not?
Japanese Americans/European Americans
Show Item 13, The Last of Heart Mountain. Read Item 14:
Each person was given $25.00 and transportation to where ever they wanted to go, train loads of people were being scattered to many parts of the country. Some returning to the West Coast were facing no Jap signs and once in a while, a flaming home or a shot fired in the night.
Now we climbed aboard trucks once again, to be carried back to the train. It was night time and the only light on the dark waste land came from the windows of the train. We climbed aboard and put our bundles under the seats and up on racks and then pressed our faces to the window to see for the last time this camp and the mountain; and as the train slowly moved away, the rows of barracks, the guard towers and the fence lay in the moon light and Heart Mountain rested in silver light against the dark sky and they slowly grew smaller as the train crept away through the dark of night. (Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 39)
Lead class discussion about the leaving Heart Mountain. Discussion questions may include:
Where do you think many internees decided to go? Why?
What jobs do you think were available to them?
Show Item 15, Cal Seafood Fish Cannery.
When the Relocation Camps closed at the end of the war, the internees were each given $25.00 and transportation to the destination of their choice. Many communities, however, did not welcome the Japanese Americans, and even posted signs warning them to stay away. Estelle and Arthur returned to Southern California. The government provided trailer camps, referred to as relocation centers, for some of the internees to live in until they could reestablish themselves. Estelle and Arthur lived in a trailer camp (Relocation Center) and worked in fish canneries in San Pedro. Two years later Arthur went to work for the Los Angeles International Airport. Arthur passed away in 1957. Estelle stayed in seclusion until her death in 1972.
Lead class discussion about the relocation centers. Discussion may include:
Why did the government provide trailers for housing as relocation centers?
What do you think life was like for the Japanese Americans now?
Compare circumstances before and after the internment experience.
During the 1970s and 80s a concerted effort was made by a range of Japanese American community organizations and legislators to "obtain an apology and compensation from the United States government for its wrongful actions towards them during World War II." (Brian Niiya, editor. Japanese American History, An A-to Z Reference from 1868 to the Present. Facts on File, New York, 1993, pp. 289-292).
In 1990, 45 years after the closing of the camps, President George Bush issued an official apology for the "serious injustices" that were done to the Japanese Americans during World War II. This included $20,000 per internee and an acknowledgment that we can never fully right the wrongs of the past. Unfortunately, many of those who had suffered most by losing their jobs and homes, by this point, had passed away. Estelle and Arthur had no survivors; therefore, no one received the apology on their behalf.
Lead class discussion about the Official Apology. Discussion questions may include:
What was the significance of the Official Apology? What do you think it would have meant to Estelle and Arthur?
What do you think would happen if the government issued Executive Order 9066 today? Would things be different?
DAY 3: USING PRIMARY RESOURCES Materials:
Two Estelle Ishigo primary source items
Worksheet, Appendix A
Activity Divide the class into collaborative groups and give each group one sketch/painting to answer the following questions. (Make copies for each group from the worksheet in Appendix A.)
Suggestions for discussion are included for teacher use:
The works of Estelle Ishigo are primary sources. Why is this important? Primary sources are uninterpreted documents of a historical event. Secondary sources are based upon primary sources, but include interpretation. Textbooks are a secondary source. It is important to go as directly to the source as possible.
Why did Estelle Ishigo paint this picture? Historians consider the intent behind the creation of a source. Was it created for a public audience or for personal reasons? Estelle did not create her works for an intended public audience, although she did publish Lone Heart Mountain in 1972. Estelle painted to express herself during a time of conflict.
Did she actually experience the event, or did she paint based upon what others told her? Her paintings established firsthand knowledge of the events while they were happening. This makes the source more reliable.
Did Estelle paint during the experience, or did she recall it after the fact? Why is this important? Estelle painted during her time at Heart Mountain. The closer to the actual event, the more reliable is the source.
What part of the Japanese American Internment does your painting portray? (e.g., The Evacuation, Pomona Assembly Center, Heart Mountain Relocation Center, the relocation center/trailers) Answers will vary.
Why is the work of Estelle Ishigo important to us today? The paintings of Estelle Ishigo document the evacuation, internment, and relocation of Japanese American citizens in the 1940s. They are reliable and authentic. Her work documents her experience for future generations.
DAY 4: PREJUDICE VS. TOLERANCE Activity Ask students to individually respond to the question "What is prejudice?" They may list examples, phrases, or include a definition.
In collaborative groups have students share their individual responses and produce a group definition of prejudice. This may be written on transparencies or chart paper to display for the entire class.
Class Discussion Lead class discussion to check for understanding. Include in discussion the differences between prejudice and tolerance.
On chart paper around the room place the following headings:
Placing one-third of the class at each chart, ask students to list brief phrases to describe life during that time. After eight minutes have students rotate to the next chart, review the phrases listed, and add to the list. Repeat once more.
As a whole group, review the charts for accuracy and student understanding. Finally, go back and cross off all acts of prejudice. Is there one section that had more acts of prejudice than the others? Ask students to consider cause and effect.
Was the Japanese American Internment an act of prejudice? Explain.
What other options could have been considered?
How were the rights of American citizens violated?
Of those interned, about two-thirds were American citizens. Immigrants from Japan were not allowed to become naturalized citizens until 1952. Their children, born in America, were American citizens. Both human rights and the rights of American citizens were violated during the Internment. It is important to distinguish the difference.
Show item 16, Are We Americans Again?
This sketch is of Arthur Ishigo. Discuss the question Estelle raised, "Are We Americans Again?" Also discuss the symbolism involved in the sketch.
Collaborative Groups (Based on a class of 35) Before giving each student the attached worksheet, fold on the dotted line. Students may use the rights listed in the box for the following group questions. Students may add some of their own. They should not look at the questions that follow until directed. Based upon the worksheet, ask each group to underline the human rights and circle the rights of American citizens.
Japanese Americans / adults
some are citizens, some are not
Japanese Americans / children
most are citizens
Americans not interned
20 students, 4 groups of 5
some are citizens, some are not
US government officials
Whole Class Discussion
Stand up if you are not an American citizen. What rights do non-citizens have?
Stand up if you are a child. What rights do children have? Are they different than the rights of adults?
Stand up if you are an American, not interned. What are the rights of this group? How did the general public feel about the internment? Where did they get their information?
Stand up if you are a government official. What responsibilities do government officials have?
Make copies of the Citizenship worksheet (see Appendix B) and give one to each student. Ask students to open their worksheet page and complete the following questions individually. (Suggestions for discussion are given below for teacher use.)
Underline the human rights and circle the rights of an American citizen.
During the internment, which of the above rights did the Japanese American citizens keep? Japanese American citizens kept the right to an education, religion, culture, and life. There were schools provided in the camps, although their resources were limited. As well, many established their own churches and practiced their cultural traditions and beliefs to the extent possible within the confines of the spartan environment.
Which did they lose? Why? They lost the human rights of privacy, respect, liberty, freedom, and dignity. Citizens also lost the right to vote and the right of due process.
What did the local public think about the internment camps? Where did they get their information? The general public was unaware of the reality of the camps at the time. Generally, they received their information through the media. The War Relocation Authority promoted the camps as a pleasant experience
How did this promote prejudice in our society? Prejudice is created through fear and misunderstanding. Categorizing a person by ethnicity rather than personal action is prejudice.
What responsibilities do government officials have? All people in authority have the responsibility to be truthful and fair. They must make decisions that promote human rights and honor the rights of the citizens.
What does it mean to be an American citizen? Human rights belong to all people all the time. The rights of American citizens go above and beyond, and are guaranteed by the laws of the United States.
View primary sources online at http://www.calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu/jarda/lesson_plans/are-we-americans.html
Item 1: Letter from Ruth Wong to Estelle Ishigo, May 12, 1942 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb609nb6qd/?order=1&brand=jarda Item 2: Estelle Ishigo. Boarding the Truck to Leave Heart Mountain, drawing, May 10, 1942 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb758011b2/?query=&brand=jarda Item 3. Estelle Ishigo. Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 5. Available online at: http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb6290111f/?order=7&brand=jarda Item 4: Estelle Ishigo. Evacuees Behind Fence, drawing, c. 1942-1945 Available online at: http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb567nb6mv/?query=&brand=jarda Item 5: Estelle Ishigo. Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 6 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb6290111f/?order=7&brand=jarda
Item 6: Estelle Ishigo. Heart Mountain, Wyoming, pencil drawing, c. 1942-45 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb6w10119t/?query=&brand=jarda
Item 7: Estelle Ishigo. Windstorm in Heart Mountain Cemetery, pencil drawing, c. 1942-1945 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb0w1005sp/?query=&brand=jarda Item 8: Estelle Ishigo. Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 13 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb6290111f/?order=15&brand=jarda
Item 9: Estelle Ishigo. At Home at Heart Mountain, watercolor, December 1942 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb3199p1ck/?query=&brand=jarda
Item 10: Estelle Ishigo. Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 20 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb6290111f/?order=22&brand=jarda
Item 11: Estelle Ishigo. Japanese American Woman and Child, Internees, watercolor, c. 1942-1945 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb6c6010gn/?query=&brand=jarda
Item 12: Estelle Ishigo. Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 19 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb6290111f/?order=21&brand=jarda
Item 13: Estelle Ishigo. The Last of Heart Mountain, drawing, November 9, 1945 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb1489p0mr/?query=&brand=jarda
Item 14: Estelle Ishigo. Lone Heart Mountain ms., page 39 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb6290111f/?order=41&brand=jarda Item 15: Estelle Ishigo. Cal Seafood Fish Cannery, August 1948 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb6000102c/?query=&brand=jarda Item 16: Estelle Ishigo. Are We Americans Again? 1945 Available online at http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb3h4nb4vv/?query=&brand=jarda
Bunting, Eve. So Far From the Sea. Clarion Books, New York. 1998.
Hamanaka, Sheila. The Journey: Japanese Americans, Racism, and Renewal. Orchard Books, New York. 1990.
Mochizuki, Ken. Baseball Saved Us. Lee and Low Books, New York. 1993.
Uchida, Yoshiko. The Bracelet. Philomel Books, New York. 1976.
Young Adult Literature:
Houston, Jeanne Wakatsuki and Houston, James D. Farewell to Manzanar. Bantam Books, Toronto. 1973.
Uchida, Yoshiko. Journey to Topaz: a Story of the Japanese American Evacuation. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 1971.
Uchida, Yoshiko. Desert Exile: The Uprooting of a Japanese American Family. Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle. 1982.
Wolff, Virginia Euwer. Bat 6. Scholastic Press, New York. 1998.
Chan, Sucheng. Asian Americans: An Interpretive History. Twayne Publishers, Boston. 1991. Synthesizes existing literature on Asian Americans to build a general interpretive history; presents the camp experience in historical context.
Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. Personal Justice Denied. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. December 1982.
Daniels, Roger. Prisoners Without Trial: Japanese Americans in World War II. Hill & Wang Publishing, New York. 1993. This short text provides an overview of internment and includes a chapter on the redress movement and passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1988.
Gesensway, Deborah and Roseman, Mindy. Beyond Words. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 1987. Compilation of visual art created by Japanese Americans in camp with commentary by the authors.
Higa, Karin editor. View From Within: Japanese American Art From the Internment Camps, 1942-1945. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 1992. The exhibition catalogue for Japanese American National Museum, UCLA White Art Gallery and UCLA Asian American Studies Center includes plates and an essay from the curator.
Inouye, Mamoru. The Heart Mountain Story: Photographs by Hansel Mieth and Otto Hagel of the World War II Internment of Japanese Americans. M. Inouye, Los Gatos, California. 1997.
Ishigo, Estelle. Lone Heart Mountain. Anderson, Ritchie & Simon, Los Angeles. 1972. Sketches and text about the author's experience at Heart Mountain. (Currently out of print, check local libraries.)
Niiya, Brian, editor. Japanese American History, An A-to Z Reference from 1868 to the Present. Facts on File, New York. 1993.
Okada, John. No, No Boy. University of Washington, Seattle. 1976.
Okubo, Mine. Citizen 13660. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 1983.Book of line drawings and text based on the author's experiences at Tanforan Assembly Center and Topaz.
Uchida, Yoshiko. Desert Exile: The Uprooting of a Japanese American Family. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 1982. A memoir by the noted children's author of her family's experiences before and during internment, with a moving epilogue about postwar rebuilding.
Weglyn, Michi. Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America's Concentration Camps. William Morrow & Co, New York, 1976. Overview of the removal and detention of Japanese Americans during WWII.
American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming http://www.uwyo.edu/ahc/ :
The American Heritage Center (AHC) is a research facility at the University of Wyoming. The AHC collects, preserves and catalogs manuscripts, photographs, maps, audio-visual materials, rare books, and artifacts related to, among other things, Wyoming and the West.
See AHC Primary Sources in the Classroom - Heart Mountain Relocation Center: A Lesson Using Primary Source Documents To Critically Analyze The Relocation Of Japanese Americans To Wyoming. http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/ahc/classroom/hm/index.htm
Japanese American National Museum: http://www.janm.org
Calisphere: http://www.calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu Calisphere is the University of California’s free public database of thousands of primary source materials from university and other collections. The Estelle Ishigo Papers have been digitized, and can be found at: http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/ and through the Calisphere at http://www.calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu/ Japanese American National Museum is the first museum in the United States dedicated to sharing the experience of Americans of Japanese ancestry. Through building a comprehensive collection of Japanese American objects, images and documents and through a multi-faceted program of exhibitions, educational programs, films and publications, the Museum tells the story of Japanese Americans around the country to a national and international audience.
National Archives and Records Administration:http://www.nara.gov/ The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent federal agency that preserves our nation's history and defines us as a people by overseeing the management of all federal records. NARA's mission is to "ensure ready access to the essential evidence that documents the rights of American citizens, the actions of Federal officials, and the national experience."
See Research Room: http://www.nara.gov/research/
See Digital Classroom: http://www.nara.gov/education/classrm.html
Days of Waiting, 1990.
A documentary film about Estelle Ishigo, focusing on internment. 28 minutes/Color/NHS-NTSC video-tape. Copyright owned by Mouchette Films. Produced and directed by Steven Okazaki. Department of Special Collections Backlog #146433.
E.O. 9066: The Incarceration of Japanese Americans during WWII. CD-ROM. Available from the Japanese American National Museum (JANM) Store (213- 625-0414).
The following items are from the Japanese American Research Project (JARP) Collection: 2010, Series 1 (Personal Papers), Sub-series 11: The Estelle Ishigo Papers, 1941-1957. The papers were donated by Estelle Ishigo to the Department of Special Collections, Young Research Library, University of California Los Angeles. A finding aid for the JARP collection is available through the Online Archive of California at http://www.oac.cdlib.org/. The Estelle Ishigo Papers have been digitized, and can be found on the World Wide Web at http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/ and through Calisphere at http://www.calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu/.
Estelle Ishigo pencil sketch of Arthur Ishigo with the caption of "Are we Americans, Again?" Box 78. Folder 5. Estelle Ishigo Papers (Collection 2010). Department of Special Collection, Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles. http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/surrogates/html/b78f5/7805009.html
Estelle Ishigo pencil drawing of a "Baggage Truck Preparing to Leave for Heart Mountain Camp," May 1942, 7:00 a.m. Box 719. Estelle Ishigo Papers (Collection 2010). Department of Special Collections, Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles. http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/surrogates/html/b719/719018C.html
Estelle Ishigo watercolor painting, "Home," Heart Mountain, December, 1942. Box 719. Estelle Ishigo Papers (Collection 2010). Department of Special Collections, Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles. http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/surrogates/300dpi/b719/719007C.jpg
Letter from Ruth to Estelle Ishigo, May 12, . Box 77. Folder 3. Item 27. Estelle Ishigo Papers (Collection 2010) Department of Special Collections, Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles. http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/surrogates/html/b77f3/7703020.html
Estelle Ishigo untitled pencil drawing (Meeting at Fence). Box 78. Folder 5. Item 6. Estelle Ishigo Papers (Collection 2010) Department of Special Collections, Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles. http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/surrogates/html/b78f5/7805006.html
Estelle Ishigo pencil sketch of "A Stormy Day, Heart Mountain," September 1944. Box 783. Estelle Ishigo Papers (Collection 2010) Department of Special Collections, Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles. http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/surrogates/html/b783/783001C.html
Estelle Ishigo untitled watercolor painting of a woman holding a child on her back at Heart Mountain Relocation Camp. Box 719. Estelle Ishigo Papers (Collection 2010). Department of Special Collections, Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles. http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/surrogates/html/b719/719003C.html
Estelle Ishigo pencil drawing "Boarding the Train to Leave Heart Mountain Relocation Camp," Heart Mountain, November 9, 1945. Box 719. Estelle Ishigo Papers (Collection 2010). Department of Special Collections, Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles. http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/surrogates/html/b719/719019C.html
Estelle Ishigo mounted watercolor "Cal Seafood Fish Cannery Trailer Camp for Evacuees." Box 781. Folder 1. Estelle Ishigo Papers (Collection 2010). Department of Special Collections, Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles. http://hamachi.library.ucla.edu/ishigo/surrogates/html/b781/781002C.html
Japanese American Research Project: Ishigo Papers, Collection Number 2010. Copyright assigned to the Regents of the University of California and the UCLA Asian American Studies Center. All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the head of the Department of Special Collections, UCLA. Permission for publication is given on behalf of the Department of Special Collections, UCLA and the UCLA Asian American Studies Center as co-owners of the physical items and copyright.
ESTELLE ISHIGO: USING PRIMARY RESOURCES
The works of Estelle Ishigo are primary sources. Why is this important?
Why did Estelle Ishigo paint this picture?
Did she actually experience the event, or did she paint based upon what others told her?
Did Estelle paint during the experience, or did she recall it after the fact? Why is this important?
What part of the Japanese American Internment does your painting portray?
Why is the work of Estelle Ishigo important to us today?
APPENDIX B: CITIZENSHIP
Underline the human rights and circle the rights of an American citizen.
1. During the internment, which of the above rights did the Japanese American citizens keep?
2. Which did they lose? Why?
3. What did the local public think about the internment camps? Where did they get their information?
4. How did this promote prejudice in our society?
5. What responsibilities do government officials have?