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Social Science Lesson: Change in Society - Exploring the Impact of Western Expansion and Industrial Development on Native Peoples’ Environment, Culture, and Health

Lesson Objectives


  1. The students will research the impact of European colonization and U.S. westward expansion on the environment, culture, and health of the Indigenous people of the region by exploring the interviews and reading segments of the Native Voices Exhibition.

  2. Students will use visual aids like PowerPoint, posters, or overheads to present their findings to the class.

  3. Students will use group discussion to demonstrate knowledge of the overall impact of European colonization and U.S. westward expansion on the Indigenous people.

Grade Level


High school grades 9 to 12

Materials Needed for Lesson


  • A computer with Internet access

  • Index cards

  • Whiteboard, blackboard, or flip chart

  • H.1 - One Native American’s Voice

  • H.2 - The Impact of European Colonization and U.S. Westward Expansion on Indigenous People

  • H.3 - Lesson Rubric

Lesson Time


Four 45-minute periods required to conduct research and put together presentations. (Some outside group classwork may be required.)

One 45-minute period for presentations and follow-up.


Lesson Activator


Students will use this activity to begin thinking about the impact that European colonization and U.S. Westward expansion had on the lifestyle, health, culture, and environment of Indigenous peoples.

Teacher Directions


  1. Ask students to define the word “colonization.” Record responses on a whiteboard, blackboard, or flip chart.

  2. Debrief responses and ask students to begin thinking about the effects of colonization on Indigenous peoples.

  3. Divide the classroom into small groups of four to five students and pass out the worksheet H.1 - One Native American’s Voice. As a group, read the following Quote:

“There are two things I am most grateful for in my life. The first is that I was born a descendant of the genuine Americans, the Indians; the second, that my birth happened in the year 1888. In that year the Indians of my tribe, the Colvile (Swy-ayl-puh), were well into the cycle of history involving their readjustment in living conditions. They were in a pathetic state of turmoil caused by trying to learn how to till the soil for a living, which was being done on a very small and crude scale. It was no easy matter for members of this aboriginal stock, accustomed to making a different livelihood (by the bow and arrow), to handle the plow and sow seed for food. Yet I was born long enough ago to have known people who lived in the ancient way before everything started to change.” – Mourning Dove (1888 – 1936)

  1. In their small groups, ask students to respond to the following questions:

  1. What do you think Mourning Dove meant when she said, “In that year the Indians of my tribe, the Colvile (Swy-ayl-puh), were well into the cycle of history involving their readjustment in living conditions”?




  1. What changes do you think Mourning Dove was referring to when she said, “Yet I was born long enough ago to have known people who lived in the ancient way before everything started to change”?

Bring the class together to debrief their responses. Make sure to emphasize those responses that have to do with health, culture or the environment.


Lesson


In this lesson, students will learn about colonization and westward expansion, and their impact on Indigenous people’s environment, culture, and health.

Teacher Directions


Students will work in groups to research and create a presentation about their findings on the impact of European colonization and U.S. Westward expansion to the class.

  1. Distribute large index cards to the students.

  2. Ask students to jot down their responses to the following question: “What do you think were some of the effects of colonization and U.S. westward expansion on Indigenous peoples’ lives and health?”

  3. On a flip chart, whiteboard, or blackboard, place the headings:

Environment

Culture


Health

  1. Ask students to place their cards into one of the three categories.

  2. Debrief their responses.

  3. Use this list as a starting point for the research activity. Divide students into groups of four or five and assign them a topic area (Environment, Culture, or Health).

  4. Distribute and review the directions for worksheets H.2 and H.3 entitled “The Impact of European Colonization and U.S. Westward Expansion on Indigenous People” and “Lesson Rubric.”

  5. Provide time for students to meet with their groups during class to conduct research and prepare slides using classroom computers.

  6. Have the students give oral presentations using visual aids to explain their findings to the class.

Checking for Understanding


  1. As a large group, review the results from the original exercise, “What do you think were some of the effects of European colonization and U.S. expansion on Indigenous peoples’ lives and health?”

  2. Ask students to decide what they would add, take away, or move to a different category.

  3. Engage students in a discussion about the most important things they learned regarding the effects of European colonization and U.S. westward expansion on Indigenous people.

One Native American’s Voice (H.1)


“There are two things I am most grateful for in my life. The first is that I was born a descendant of the genuine Americans, the Indians; the second, that my birth happened in the year 1888. In that year the Indians of my tribe, the Colvile (Swy-ayl-puh), were well into the cycle of history involving their readjustment in living conditions. They were in a pathetic state of turmoil caused by trying to learn how to till the soil for a living, which was being done on a very small and crude scale. It was no easy matter for members of this aboriginal stock, accustomed to making a different livelihood (by the bow and arrow), to handle the plow and sow seed for food. Yet I was born long enough ago to have known people who lived in the ancient way before everything started to change.” – Morning Dove (1888 – 1936), Mourning Dove: A Salishan Autobiography

  1. What do you think Morning Dove meant when she said, “In that year the Indians of my tribe, the Colvile (Swy-ayl-puh), were well into the cycle of history involving their readjustment in living conditions”?

  2. What changes do you think Morning Dove was referring to when she said, “Yet I was born long enough ago to have known people who lived in the ancient way before everything started to change”?


The Impact of European Colonization and U.S. Westward Expansion on Indigenous People (H.2)

Student Directions:


You will work in small groups to conduct research and present your findings to the class. Each group will present a 10-minute PowerPoint presentation on its topic area.

Students should be able to respond to the following questions in these topic areas:


Environment


  • What reasons did the settlers have for European colonization and U.S. westward expansion?

  • What was the impact on the environment?

  • How was the practice of medicine impacted?

  • What lifestyle changes came as a result of colonization?

Culture


  • What cultural changes were experienced as a result of colonization?

  • What traditions were sacrificed, and what ones were salvaged?

  • What new traditions came as a result of western expansion?

  • What did different Indigenous tribes do to try to preserve their culture?

Health


  • What diseases were the Indigenous people exposed to as a result of European colonization and U.S. westward expansion?

  • Was disease used to purposely annihilate native tribes within the United States?

  • What impact did European colonization and U.S. westward expansion have on the traditional practices of medicine?

  • What forms of western medicine were indoctrinated into the medical practices of the Indigenous people?

Use the resources below as a starting point to conduct research on your assigned topic area. You may need additional resources to complete this assignment.

Recommended Resources

Environment


  • Missing environment elements (water, deer, buffalo), Chief Leonard Crow Dog: http://apps2.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/interviews/index.cfm?mode=video&speaker=76&clipId=5

  • Placement of Reservations, James Hena: http://apps2.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/interviews/index.cfm?mode=video&speaker=23&clipId=4

  • 1820s: Commercial agriculture and whaling transform Hawai`i: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/268.html

  • 1851: Roads and railroads move into the West: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/319.html

  • 1872: General Mining Act gives rise to the taking of tribal lands: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/350.html

  • 1965: Nuclear weapons tested in Aleutian Islands: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/511.html

  • 1998: More than 1,000 reservation dumps need cleanup: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/607.html

  • 2009: Class action settled over mismanagement of Indian accounts, lands: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/624.html

Culture


  • Environmental Change caused by the dam, Tex Hall: http://apps2.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/interviews/index.cfm?mode=video&speaker=74&clipId=17

  • AD 1638: Puritans force Quinnipiac onto the first reservation: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/212.html

  • 1848: Commercial whaling destroys Yup’ik, Inuit traditions: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/312.html

  • 1906: Allotments take land from Alaska Native villages: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/401.html

  • 1953: Dam floods hospital, one-quarter of reservation: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/489.html

  • 1957: Celilo Falls fishery, village destroyed by Dalles Dam: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/632.html

  • 1971: Native Hawai`i movement protests eminent domain: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/527.html

Health


  • Cancer from contaminated water, Wilmer Stampead Mesteth: http://apps2.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/interviews/index.cfm?mode=video&speaker=72&clipId=25

  • 1848: California Gold Rush brings miners and diseases: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/311.html

  • 1925: Clean water, sewers needed on most reservations: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/439.html

  • 2009: Many reservation homes lack clean drinking water: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/616.html


Lesson Rubric (H.3)


Visual aids contain a title with group participants listed.


10

Visual aids use bullet points and images to convey ideas to the audience.


15

The responses to each question are well thought out with a demonstrated understanding of the question.


40

Each person in the group took an active role in the oral presentation.


20

Presenters used good eye contact and spoke with a clear voice.


15

Total Points

100


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