Lesson I power of the Church



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Lesson III Crusades

-Pope Urban II called for Holy War in 1095

-1st crusade to free holy land from Muslims

-1096-1270, Crusades “took up he cross”




  1. Byzantine Empire needed help against the Turks

  2. Free holy land from Muslim infidels-those who do not believe in Christianity who prevented Christians from visiting Holy land

-Knights fought with peasants and peasants fought because

  1. Immediate salvation if you die

  2. Freedom from bonds if you fight

-March to Constantinople to Nicaea across Turkey

-Set up small outposts called “states”, run like feudal territories

-Reached Jerusalem in 1099, controlled it, but it was only 5000 long by 50 feet wide

Muslims take it back in 1140’s, Muslims came back, so 2nd crusade from 1147-1149

-Louis VII of France and Conrad of Germany fought among themselves

-Saladin led Muslims, ran Syria and Egypt by 1181

-July 1187, Saladin took Tiberius and fought crusaders

-Crusaders camped near Horns of Hattin; Muslims surrounded them, set fire and killed crusaders

-Saladin then retook Jerusalem

-Pope Greg VIII called for 3rd Crusade led by 3 kings

-Frederick I of Germany, Richard the Lion Heart of England and Philip II of France

-Started in 1189, but Frederick drowned

-Richard and Saladin fought for and signed a 5 year treaty of peace in 1192

-Pope Innocent III called for 4th crusade in 1198

-Venetian bankers gave ships and supplies to Crusaders attacking by Mediterranean Sea

-They stile from Constantinople, burned libraries, stole valuables

-Crusades now replaced by desire for wealth, greed

-Jerusalem stayed in Muslim control

-Persecuted Jews, Byzantine people lost respect

-However, they interacted with the West and brought classics back to West



-Venice and Genoa in Italy became successful cities

-Crusaders learned ne maps, better ships, better compasses which led to exploration of New World


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