student rebellion, see n by many as the a poth eo si s of the rise of youth in western culture after 1945 .
The second was second-wave fe minism (or the wome n's liberation movement) as it emerged very suddenly in 1 9 6 9-70, giving rise to struggles for equal opportunities in work , pay, education, and for an end to discrimination in language and dep ic tion .
The third was the emergence of gay liberation in the late 1960s, heralded by liberalisation of laws on homosexuality .
Fourth was the collapse of many European empires in the 1960s an d 1970s (those of Britain , Portugal, France, Belgium a nd Holland), making way for European aware ne s s of the structures of Orientalism an d race prejudice embedded in western white cu lture and intellectual though
the rise of black consciousness with in the United States and western Europe, allied to liberation movements in d eveloping nations and to the a anti-apartheid movement in S out h Africa, in all of which race discrimination and racial stereotyping