Learning objectives chapter 15

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learning objectives CHAPTER 15

  1. Explain why it’s hard to define the boundaries of middle adulthood. Discuss the factors that produced the Baby Boom generation and the effect that generation had on the study of development.

  2. Define cohort, and list some of the cohort effects that have helped shape the development of the Baby Boomers. Discuss how development in middle adulthood is characterized by both inter- and intra-individual variability.

  3. Distinguish between primary and secondary aging changes. Describe changes in appearance and body build that occur during middle adulthood. List the risks associated with “middle-age spread” and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Describe the changes that occur in mobility and strength during this stage of adulthood. Define sarcopenia and discuss what can be done to strengthen muscles.

  5. Describe the normal changes that occur in the visual system during middle adulthood and how people adapt to them. Describe the normal changes that occur in hearing as well.

  6. Discuss how structural changes in the cardiovascular system affect the heart. Discuss the causes and risks of hypertension and the effects of adapting a healthy lifestyle.

  7. Discuss the declines in lung capacity in smokers and non-smokers in middle adulthood. Discuss age- and gender-related changes to the urinary system.

  8. Describe the reproductive changes seen in women during middle adulthood. Discuss the health and psychological implications of menopause.

  9. Explain why the use of the term “andropause” is controversial. Discuss the risks of testosterone replacement therapy. Define erectile dysfunction and list its numerous causes.

  10. Differentiate between acute and chronic illnesses. Discuss how genes, behavior, and the environment affect health in midlife.

  11. Define stress and discuss its long-term effects on the body. Distinguish between Type A and Type B personalities and discuss the health risks associated with the former. Discuss the factors that can protect people from the effects of stress.

  12. Explain the limitations of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of intelligence. Differentiate between crystallized and fluid intelligence and discuss their implications.

  13. Define the Flynn effect and cite the reasons offered to explain it. Explain how expertise allows adults to compensate for cognitive declines.

  14. Discuss the relationship between intellectual functioning and cognitive complexity of work. Discuss how the processes of selection and optimization help aging workers continue functioning optimally.

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