Learning objectives and study questions section two china “early china and korea before 1279



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HUM 2410: ASIAN HUMANITIES

Instructor: John Hardin



LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND STUDY QUESTIONS
SECTION TWO - CHINA
EARLY CHINA AND KOREA BEFORE 1279” (CHAPTER 3)

terracotta_warriors


Learning Objectives

  • Identify the innovations and artworks of Neolithic China

  • Describe the significant artistic and architectural elements of the dynasties prior to the Period of Disunity (Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han)

  • Discuss the impact the Buddhism had on Chinese art and architecture

  • List the materials and formats used by Chinese painters

  • Describe the architectural and artistic accomplishments of the Tang and Song dynasties

  • Explain the Korean contribution to art and architecture


Study Questions


  1. How does the written language of China differ from languages based on the Roman alphabet, like English?

  2. What is significantly different about ancient China as compared to other ancient civilizations (like Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome)?

  3. When did settled village life likely emerge in China and what evidence has been discovered to help us learn about prehistoric China?

  4. What is the name of China’s oldest political dynasty?

  5. What is considered to be “the first great Chinese dynasty of the Bronze Age”?

  6. What crafts are discussed in the “Materials and Techniques” sections of this chapter?

  7. Describe the social structure of Shang China.

  8. What is significant about the standing figure discovered in Sanxingdui, China?

  9. What is the longest lasting dynasty in the history of China?

  10. What craft reached its peak of technical perfection during the Zhou Dynasty?

  11. What did dragons represent in ancient China?

  12. Who was Qin Shi Huangdi?

  13. In the late-twentieth century, what was discovered in pits that surround the immense burial mound of Qin Shi Huangdi?

  14. What is Daoism?

  15. What is Confucianism?

  16. What is depicted on the silk banner discovered in the Tomb of Dai?

  17. Describe the basic design of a Han house.

  18. What was the Silk Road and why was it significant?

  19. Why was Buddhism well received in ancient China?

  20. What distinguished the design of ancient Chinese architecture from ancient Egyptian halls and Greco-Roman temples?

  21. What tools are typically used in Chinese painting?

  22. What are the most common types of Chinese painting?

  23. Who is the most famous painter of early China?

  24. What are the six “canons” of painting formulated by Xie He?

  25. What spectacular sculpture carved into the face of a cliff at Longman Cave is discussed in this chapter? Why is this site so significant?

  26. Why are the Dunghuang grottoes significant?

  27. What is the Amitabha Buddha and what Buddhist sects is he most closely associated with?

  28. What is the Foguang Si?

  29. Who was Yan Liben and which of his works is discussed in this chapter?

  30. Who was Zhao Kuangyin?

  31. Who was Fan Kuan and which of his works is discussed in this chapter?

  32. Who was Huizong and how did he influence the development of the arts in China?

  33. Describe the basic design and purpose of a pagoda. Which great pagoda is discussed in this chapter?

  34. What painters of the Southern Song period are discussed in this chapter?

  35. What is Ch’an Buddhism and which artist was highly favored by Ch’an monks?

  36. What three kingdoms emerged in ancient Korea?

  37. What significant site in Sokkuram is discussed in this chapter?

  38. What craft were Koryo potters renown for?


EASTERN PHILOSOPHY: CONFUCIANISM (video - these will also be distributed as an in-class worksheet)

confucius-2


Confucius (Kong Fuzi/Kong Zi/K’ung-fu-tzu/K’ung-tzu)

  1. The video opens with the belief that “A man who reviews the old so as to find out the new is qualified to …

  2. What background information on Confucius is given to help us understand his family and life?

  3. What was Confucius’ first career?

  4. What did Confucius see as being “one of the very important pillars of the way in which society was set up”?

  5. What was Confucius’ attitude toward education and its relationship to socio-economic status?

  6. What was a major focus of Confucius’ teachings?

  7. Describe Confucius’ teaching method. Is it familiar? What would Confucius’ do when a student disagreed with him?

  8. What is the first concept in Confucius’ philosophy and what is believed to be the essential trait to being fully human?

  9. Name the Five Virtues of Confucianism.

  10. What behavior often got Confucius into trouble?

  11. What nine practices should guide “a man of virtue” (a jen-tzu or chun-tzu)? Are these familiar?

  12. What is Tao (“Dao”)?

  13. What did Confucius suggest that all humans, no matter how great or small, should cultivate?

  14. What is the name of the collection of Confucius’ (and his students’) writings?

  15. What did Confucius see as being the three essentials, the most important elements of good government? Which would he give up first? Second? Last?

  16. What were Confucius’ views of death and the spirit world?


Mencius (Meng Zi/Meng Tzu/Meng Ke/Meng Ko)

  1. What importance did Mencius have in the legacy of Confucianism?

  2. What career did Mencius pursue?

  3. What was Mencius’ view of human nature?

  4. The influence of Confucian and Mencian thought in China is compared to which schools of thought in the West?


CHINA AND KOREA AFTER 1279” (CHAPTER 4)
Learning Objectivesshen-zhou-landscape

  • Discuss the impact the Mongol emperors had on the arts of China

  • Differentiate Chinese literati painters in the Yuan and Ming dynasties

  • Describe the Ming Imperial City including the Forbidden City and the pleasure gardens

  • Discuss the concept of primordial line in Qing literati painting

  • Elaborate on foreign influence in Chinese arts and culture

  • Summarize the porcelain traditions in China from the Yuan to the present

  • Discuss the impact of Communism on Chinese art

  • Describe the impact of Chinese architecture on Korean architecture

Study Questions


  1. Describe the political upheaval that Asia experienced in the thirteenth century.

  2. Who were Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan?

  3. Who is considered to be “the most famous early European visitor to China” and what did he admire about Yuan China?

  4. Who was Zhao Mengfu?

  5. What does bamboo traditionally symbolize in Chinese art?

  6. Describe the painting of Guan Daosheng discussed in this chapter.

  7. Who were the literati of China? Which artists associated with this group are discussed?

  8. What three arts and crafts are discussed in the “Materials and Techniques” sections of this chapter?

  9. What became “the official source of porcelains for the court” during the Ming dynasty?

  10. What are yin and yang?

  11. Who was Zhu Yuanzhong?

  12. Describe the layout of the Forbidden City.

  13. How do Chinese gardens, like Wangshi Yuan, differ from their Western counterparts?

  14. What purpose did gardens like Lin Yuan serve?

  15. What was the Orchard Factory?

  16. What was a major subject of painters at the Ming Court?

  17. Who was Shen Zhou?

  18. Who was Dong Qichang?

  19. How did Northern and Southern painters differ?

  20. Who was “the finest flower painter of the Ming era”?

  21. What allowed the Manchus to overrun China in the seventeenth century?

  22. Who was “Monk Bitter Gourd” and how did he influence Chinese painting?

  23. What influence did Jesuit monks have in the Qing Court?

  24. What revolutionary political transformation did China experience in the mid-twentieth century?

  25. What was the name of the last Korean dynasty and what contributed to its image of dignity and power?

  26. How did the political structure of Korea change following World War II?


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