1. Why were many Germans attracted to Chamberlain’s racial theories?
Germans were attracted to Chamberlain’s racial theories because he glorified the “Aryan” race and declared that they were the most pure and most superior race of humanity. The Germans embraced this because the majority of them were blond haired, blue-eyes and fair skinned, which constituted for the physical features of the Aryan race. These people, according to Chamberlain, were destined to be superior to all and that to preserve their purity and superiority; they must not take part in miscegenation. Lastly, to German workers who were fearful of industrialization, urbanization, materialism, class conflict, and alienation, Chamberlain’s assertions about the superiority of German people was extremely attractive and brainwashing.
2. Why is Chamberlain regarded as a spiritual forerunner of Hitler?
Chamberlin was regarded as the forerunner of Hitler because his ideas of the Aryan race and its superiority were adopted by Hitler. Hitler however pushed this view to the extreme asserting that the Aryan race should be the only race in the world and all others should be exterminated.
3. Why is an ideology based on biological racism, as in the case of the Pan-Germanic League, particularly dangerous?
An ideology based on biological racism is particularly dangerous because it undermines whole nations and whole groups of people living in various places in the world. It also undermines various groups of people within the same nation therefore dividing the nation between people who look a certain way and have certain physical characterizes. It also is extremely dangerous because it allows for the murder and oppression of these whole groups of people on the basis that they are not the “superior” race. This is absolutely unfair because no one in any sort of way has any power over how they are biologically born and therefore, they would have been doomed even before birth. In addition, social, governmental, national, military and political issues can arise from this sort of racism.
Document 6 (page 238)
1. What, according to Hermann Ahlwardt, were the racial characteristic of Jews? What, in contrast, were the racial characteristics of Germans?
According to Ahlwardt, Jews were that they were selfish, conniving, lazy parasites, cheaters, and they do not believe in labor culture or German values. In essence, physically, mentally, physiologically, and in every was possible, Ahlwardt believed that Jews were the negative opposite of Germans. For the Germans, he condeded that they were hard working, honest, productive, and pure due to the fact that they exhibited the physical traits of blond hair, blue eyes, long faces, and fair skin. To him, these characteristics were unique among Germans and define purity.
2. What, said Ahlwardt, would be the ultimate result if Jewish immigration into Germany were not stopped?
Ahlwardt believed that if the Jews were not stopped from immigrating to Germany, they would reproduce, overpopulate and take over the German’s and their traditions; leading to the extinction of the Germans and German culture. However, in the near future he declares that the Jews would slowing dominate business, economic and eventually politics therefore, taking over the country. This presents and unfair competition of Germans against Jews in profession and, business that Ahlwardt deems unnecessary and damaging to the German race.
3. How did Ahlwardt’s anti-Semitism differ from traditional Christian anti-Semitism?
Ahlwardt’s anti-Semitism differed from the traditional Christian anti Semitism because his assertions were not based on religion. He claimed the Jews to be an entire different race than Germans or any other race for that matter. He asserted that Jews, due to their characteristics and Jewish nature, were taking over Germany and corrupting the German race. In contrast to the Christian anti-Semitism, Ahlwardt did not believe that Jews can ever be relieved from persecution because they were a part of the lowest species who were condemned due to their biological Jewishness.
4. What qualities, according to Edouard Drumont, separate Jews from the Aryans?
According to Edouard Drumont, the Jews are ethnographically, physiologically and psychologically opposite to Germans. He claims that the Jews have always had a silent and progressive means of penetrating their way into Europe and planning on eventually dominating the world. He asserts that the Jews have always exploited many nations through possession of professions in economic oriented fields so that they many eventually dominate the economy He also states that they have tried to dominate other fields such as art, science, literature etc., in order to spread their Jewish believes and feelings, corrupting the nation. Ultimately, he states that the overall characteristics of Jews all contribute to their goal of greedy and selfish enrichment at the expense of others.
On the other hand, for the Aryans he asserts that they are noble, illustrious, generous, and symbolize the highest for of humanity. He also states that Aryans are enthusiastic, hardworking, heroic, chivalrous, straightforward, heaven like, and ultimately superior. He claims that Aryans are the leaders of the future who look toward the future while the Jews are preoccupied with the moment out of selfishness and greed.
5. Do you see any common threads in the anti-Semitic sentiments voiced by the donors to the Henry Monument?
Many donors to the Henry Monument did show signs of anti-Semitic sentiments and in many cases, asserted for the killing, murder, massacre and expulsion of Jews in France. They all also asserted their desire to have the Jews taken away from France due to their “freeloading” mind frames and their “impure” cultures, traditions and ideas.
6. Why did Theodor Herzl believe that the creation of a Jewish state was the only solution to the Jewish questions?
Herzl believed that the creation of a Jewish state would answer the prayers of all who is wishing to expulse Jews and will solve the historical problem of Jews not being prosecuted for thousands of years. He asserts that if Jewish people were allowed to settle and live in a certain area, preferably Islam, then they would be out of the way of other nations and they would be able to live peacefully in a unified community. In addition, the Jews would take care of each other as a state would, with their own governments and their own lifestyles so as to not be tormented or “corrupt” people of other nations.
Document 1 (page 248)
1. What nationalistic views were expressed in Cecil Rhodes’ “Confession of Faith”?
In Confession of Faith Cecil Rhodes expressed his strong beliefs that the “British race” was the most superior of all human beings. He explains how it is extremely necessary for the expansion of England and in order to spread their values and beliefs and therefore “breed” more Englishmen. In addition, he also contends that all other races, such as in Africa and India, are “despicable specimens of human beings”(243) who should be influence by the “Anglo-Saxons” in order to dominate the world the way that they should. He also declares that in the American Revolution, the United States lost a great asset to them: England; and the Englishmen have the duty to take back their extension and dominate the globe.
2. What role did the concept of race—the English or Angelo-Saxon—play in the arugements of Rhodes? Compare his views with those advanced by Hermann Ahlwardt on page 231.
The concept of race played an enormous role in the arguments of Cecil Rhodes. He contended that the English were “the finest race in the world that the more of the world [they] inhabit the better it is for the human race”(243). This view was strikingly similar to the nationalist anti-Semitism of Hermann Ahlwardt. Ahlwardt also asserted that his race, the German race (Aryan) was the most superior race and that they must preserve and spread their race in order to better humanity and to finally achieve their obligation of being themost superior race. These two views reflect extreme nationalism and correspond to the justification of imperialism and even extermination. Rhodes, like Ahlwardt, believed that all other races were inferior to his and that it is their job (duty by God) to influence other races into becoming or serving the superior race.
3. How did Chamberlain define the national mission of the “great governing race”? What were the economic benefits of that mission?
According to Joseph Chamberlain, it was the mission and duty of the British people, the most superior race preordained by God, to spread Christianity and civilize the barbarians of Africa and Asia. He strongly felt that the spread of the superior values and the superior race would complete their mission of eventually dominating the world. In addition, he also argues that Britain as a nation depended on the preservation of their government and values. To preserve the “British way” and aid Britain into becoming the most superior nation in the world, the British must expand and conquer to increase trade, acquire raw materials and achieve the subordination of all inferior races.
4. How did Karl Pearson define the difference between inferior and superior race?
Karl Pearson explained that the “white man” was the most superior race were as, the Asians, red (Indian) people and the black people, since they had no forms of civilized (modern) government or ways of life, they were inferior to them. In essence, those who have the most technology, science, expansion of their nation, economy and people are the most “fittest,” powerful and most deserving to survive in an ever changing world. This would include with keeping up with the modern times and developing and spreading the superiority of the white man.
5. What measures did Pearson advocate for keeping a nation such as Britain at its highest potential?
Pearson advocated for the complete extermination of all inferior people. He contended that the only healthy alternative of the survival of the superior race would be to “completely drive out the inferior race” (247). He used America as an example of this when they expanded from Britain and took over the nation and the Indian people. He declared that the Indians did not contribute anything to the work and thought of the world therefore; they should be replaced with a race that would work towards the betterment of humanity and contribute to the “common stock of civilized man” (247). In addition, he asserted that the expansion of the white man’s race is necessary for their survival. He identifies that in the world as well as between nations, people are fighting for survival as per the natural resources they acquire. The purpose of expansion was not only to spread the superior race and its values but, to inhabit the world so that the race may populate different areas acquiring all the natural resources so as that inferior races would have to compete with them for it as well. Hence, Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest nation who can dominate the world and exterminate all inferior races.
Document 3(page 250)
1. Why did Friedrich Fabri view the colonial question as a matter of life or death for Germany?
Fabri contended that Germany was at a state of “bitterness and poisonour partnership” (250), and therefore must open up a new course of national development thought expansion. He also identifies the economical and national need of development and , in order to do s, Germany must educate themselves on expansion and spread the German culture. In addition, he also states that in order to maintain their political power, (although he continuously states that it is not based on political power), Germany must expand in order to sustain their superiority and “keep up with the modern times” of imperialism. In essence, Fabri identified Germany’s need to compete with England, America and France in order remain powerful.
2. What did Fabri see as the benefits of colonial expansion for Germany?
According to Fabri the colonial benefit of Germany would be a change in the negative path of nationalism that Germany was facing, economic growth, national development and the spread of the German people and German culture. In addition he also asserted that in order for the nation to stay the best in the world, they would have to expand and colonize.
3. What qualities did Fabri say England possessed that the Germans still needed to learn?
According to Fabri the Germans need to learn the importance of colonization and it’s driving force, nationalism. In that, he contends that England understand the importance therefore they strongly spread there culture and their values which, as seen during that time, was an obvious source to their power, expansion and national pride. In addition, due to this national pride and expansion, England is power and therefore maintains its superiority in the world.
4. What was seen as Germany’s “cultural mission” in the world?
Germany’s cultural mission in the world was seen as the preservation of German culture by spreading it through expansion and colonization. This would therefore increase and maintain national power in the world, increase the economy, future national development and restore Garman superiority.
Document 3 (page 265)
1. How did Cecil Rhodes gain control over the riches in Lo Bengula’s land? Did his methods match the good intentions expressed in his “Confession of Faith” (see page 242)?
Celcil Rhodes gained control over the riches (metal and minerals) in Lo Bengula’s land by tricking him into sighing a document that gave all rights to the Englishmen to mine their natural resources. His intensions to control, colonize, and civilize Africa are reflected in this action along with his intention to spread the British race and undermine the inferior African people. In addition, his method of obtaining control over the minerals in Lo Bengula’s kingdom reflected his hatred and degradation of the lack people and their” primitive” and “inferior” status to the British.
2. According to Churchill, why did the Muslim tribesmen believe they were going to triumph? Why did he view the battle as a conflict between medievalism and modernity?
Churhchill recalls the Muslim tribesmen cheering for God and through their faith believed that they were going to win the battle. He recalls them charging with extreme courage despite their disadvantages in number, weapons and machinery. He identified the battle as a conflict between medievalism (pertaining to the faith, weapons and method of battle) for the Muslims and modernity (pertaining to the modern machinery, weaponry, modern expansion purpose of battle, and method of battle) for the British and Egyptians. In addition, the method and weaponry that the Muslims used were rifles from all times, spear and lance, this “inferior” weaponry led to Churchill declaring them medieval.
3. Why did the Casement Report create such an international furor?
The Casement Report created international furor because the African people were declaring that they were massacred, humiliated, starved, mutilated, hunted, killed, degraded, and ill treated by government officials and their officers. It also glorifies the dangers that the Africans faced when they were going into the deep forest to gather large bundles of rubber. This made an impact on the way that these people were viewed and how colonization and expansion was viewed in general. Eventually, the Casement Report allowed for investigations on the treatment of Africans and the eventual relief of King Leopold I, who was allowing for the maltreatment of Africans who were gathering rubber.
4. Describe Richard Meinertzhagen’s attitude toward Africans he encountered.
Meinertzhagen had a negative attitude towards the Africans he encountered because he saw them revolting and behaving like savages. He thought them all to be primitive and inferior to him because they had bizarre customs, no technology and no education. Ultimately, he killed many Africans, massacred villages and also viewed them as unchangeable and “contagious”. He however, did not agree with massacring women and children, although he was surprised that his men did so as well.
5. What was Meinertzhagen’s attitude towrd colonial service in East Africa? Did he change his attitude during his four years there?
Meinertzhagen felt that the colonial service in Africa degraded moral and reasonable men. He contended that, due to the harsh climate, mingling with the African savages, seeing so much distress, terror, disorder, savagery and the culture clash between Africans and Europeans, caused him to become lesser and degraded. He claimed that the savage behavior, due to the circumstances found themselves in white solders who were away from their families and customs for a long , made them depressed, anxious, stressed, lonesome, irrational and ultimately adopt savagery. His character changed and he yearned to go back home at the end of his 5 year service. He changed his attitude from wanting to carry out his duty in colonizing Africa, to an hopeless attitude which found it of no use to try and civilize the Africans. In addition, he also identified that many uneducated whites where being recruited in the civil service and therefore, many horrible things were being done to the Africans by these officers.
6. How did German settlers regard the Herero?
The German settlers regarded the Herero as inferior people, the equivalent to animals. They asserted that the only way they may be of help to the development of humanity and civilization would be through their labor and service to the superior Germans. As a result of the Herero retaliating and fleeing from German control, General von Trotha declared for their exile, extermination and any one who was left (prisoners of war) would be sentenced to work on the labor camps that he had established.
7. What was General von Trotha’s policy towards the Hereros? How did he justify his policy?
General von Trotha called for the extermination of all Hereros and to position prisoners of war in labor camps. He massacred thousands of Herero, leaving them in the desert to starve or capturing them and putting them through strenuous work without adequate food or treatment. He justified this in the sense that these people were non compliant with his unjust terms and therefore, they should not be the cause of waste of food and resources for the Germans. He concluded for their extermination before any more damage can be done to the German race by them.
Document 4 (page 270)
1. According to the author of the article The Edinburgh Review, what specific benefits did Europeans bring to their overseas possessions?
According to The Edinburgh Review, Europeans had brought civilization, science, rationality, order, fertility, values, and skill. In essence, they are allowing the “savages” to adopt their ideas in order for the savages to contribute tot the development of humanity. They would ion tern, become educated and reasonable men who do not waste the land or waste their lives.
2. Why, in Hobson’s opinion, was the pax Britannica an “impudent falsehood”?
According to Hobson, pax Britannica was an impudent falsehood because expansion was not based on humanitarianism rather, it was based of selfishness and greed. Hobson declares that the assertion by European countries that they wanted to expand to spread civilization, skills, religion, order etc, was false and there was an underlying economic factor involved in imperialism. I addition, he concludes that with the actions that Europeans are exhibiting oversea (cruelty etc), there is proof of the falsehood of pax Britannica.
3. One ideal of imperialism was to spread the civilizing influences among native populations. How did Hobson interpret this sense of mission?
He interpreted this mission as extremely false and a front for the power-seeking, greedy, and unjust reasons for imperialism. He declares that it is for national prestige, economic development, capital investment and parasitic purposes that European counties want to expand.