Social Political Interaction Cultural Economic
Aztecs were influenced by the Olmec and Toltec cultures.
Rigid social hierarchy
The Aztecs believed that the sun drew energy from human blood, requiring mass executions.
Rituals involving human sacrifice in order to please the gods and executions were administered by priests.
Population of 200,000 people.
An elite social class of militant warriors was placed in ranks based on their skill.
Commoners were given simple military training strong army which conquered surrounding
Aztecs were a symbol for powerful authority inspiring modern Mexican states.
Aztecs were conquered by Cortez in the 1519 at their capital. (CAM) Cortez relied on the support of tribes that had been taken over by the
At its peak, the Aztec ruled 10 million people.
Writing system based on glyphs, similar to hieroglyphics
Created pyramids, great works of architectural engineering.
Pyramids were used for religious rituals.
Food from chinampas was transported by canoe year round and brought to villages and city-markets.
Chinampas increase in
Means of exchange: cacao beans were used as currency; some bartering was also evident.
It included parts of modern day Peru, Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina.
Existed from around 1300 C.E until its decline in 1536 C.E due to the invasion of Francisco Pizzaro.
Important precursor civilizations: Chavin, Tiawanaku, Moche and Chimu.
Based in Cuzco- capital located in modern day Peru.
Incan Empire rose due its powerful army and growing trade
Government provided food for its people so that no one starved.
Bureaucracy- allowed central administration
of taxes, census
facilitated by Chasqui, messengers who delivered messages by running on the exten-sive network of roads and bridges
(communication via infrastructure)
Interactions focused on trade among people within this vast empire
(see the map below)
>Made tools and weapons from copper and bronze for their large professional army. >Used gold and silver to make decorations for their temples and leaders.
>Were able to perform successful skull surgeries.
>Llama wool and cotton was used by females to produce textiles.
>Quipu was used for recordkeeping.
>Road networks encouraged trade of goods such as gold, silver, and clay pots.
>Relied heavily on barter system.
Very few lived permanently in the urban centers
The pre-classical era began near to 2000BCE and lasted until 300CE
It flourished until 900CE.
The post-classical period began in 900CE and lasted to 1500CE
Maya settled in the Yucatan Peninsula in southern Mexico and dense forests in Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, and other parts of southern Mexico
>Policies that were made by hereditary rulers
No single king managed to control a large amount of land decentralized and delegated gov’t (Some aspects of both) Also could be considered a theocracy
Due to religious influence
Main city during the classic period was Tikal.
Temple at Tikal
Made murals and sculptures of rulers and leaders
Influenced by the Olmec (Neolithic, Olmec statutes)
Invented hieroglyphic writing system.
The map below shows the Yucatan Peninsula on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico
Hell was for everyone else.
Religious ceremonies involved dancing, competition, dramatic performances, prayer, and sacrifice, polytheistic
Accurate calendar based on the movement of the sun
Concept of zero