Lasted from 1300-1520ce aztecs emerged in Mexico

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SPICE Chart Topic: AZTEC

Social Political Interaction Cultural Economic

Lasted from 1300-1520CE

Aztecs emerged in Mexico

Aztecs were influenced by the Olmec and Toltec cultures.

Polytheistic Religion included the feathered serpent god named Quetzalcoatl, the hummingbird god called Huitzilopochtli, and the jaguar god entitled Tepeyollotli.

Rigid social hierarchy

The Aztecs believed that the sun drew energy from human blood, requiring mass executions.

Rituals involving human sacrifice in order to please the gods and executions were administered by priests.

Capital city of Tenochtitlan on Lake Texcoco .

Population of 200,000 people.

An elite social class of militant warriors was placed in ranks based on their skill.

Commoners were given simple military training strong army which conquered surrounding

city states

Aztecs were a symbol for powerful authority inspiring modern Mexican states.

Aztecs were conquered by Cortez in the 1519 at their capital. (CAM) Cortez relied on the support of tribes that had been taken over by the


Aztecs conquered neighboring tribes and decentralized city-states in present day Mexico

At its peak, the Aztec ruled 10 million people.

The Aztecs developed mathematics (number system), the canoe, the highly specialized Aztec calendar, and helpful forms of medicine

Writing system based on glyphs, similar to hieroglyphics

Created pyramids, great works of architectural engineering.

Pyramids were used for religious rituals.

Agrarian based economy using villages and chinampas (floating man-made islands) in food production.

Food from chinampas was transported by canoe year round and brought to villages and city-markets.

Chinampas increase in

land cultivation

Means of exchange: cacao beans were used as currency; some bartering was also evident.

SPICE Chart Topic: INCA

Social Political Interaction Cultural Economic

The Incan Empire was located in the Andes Mountains; it was the most advanced Andean civilization.

It included parts of modern day Peru, Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina.

Existed from around 1300 C.E until its decline in 1536 C.E due to the invasion of Francisco Pizzaro.

Important precursor civilizations: Chavin, Tiawanaku, Moche and Chimu.

Centralized empire

Based in Cuzco- capital located in modern day Peru.

Incan Empire rose due its powerful army and growing trade

Government provided food for its people so that no one starved.

Bureaucracy- allowed central administration

of taxes, census

facilitated by Chasqui, messengers who delivered messages by running on the exten-sive network of roads and bridges

(communication via infrastructure)

Decline: Francisco Pizarro- overthrew Incan Empire in the early 1500s (PIP)

Roads- 13,000 miles,  governmental stability

Interactions focused on trade among people within this vast empire

(see the map below)

map of south america - inca population

>Weaving and metallurgy were prominent cultural achievements of the Incan

>Made tools and weapons from copper and bronze for their large professional army. >Used gold and silver to make decorations for their temples and leaders.

>Were able to perform successful skull surgeries.

>Llama wool and cotton was used by females to produce textiles.

>Quipu was used for recordkeeping.

Technologyeconomic growth: Widespread irrigation and terrace farming allowed agriculture to flourish.

Major crops consisted of: corn, sweet potatoes, squash, and beans.

>Road networks encouraged trade of goods such as gold, silver, and clay pots.

>Relied heavily on barter system.

SPICE Chart Topic: MAYA Be able to visualize the location: Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

Social Political Interaction Cultural Economic

Populations were generally small

Very few lived permanently in the urban centers

Stratified into five groups

The pre-classical era began near to 2000BCE and lasted until 300CE

It flourished until 900CE.

The post-classical period began in 900CE and lasted to 1500CE

Maya settled in the Yucatan Peninsula in southern Mexico and dense forests in Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, and other parts of southern Mexico

>Government based upon small hierarchy and warring city states

>Policies that were made by hereditary rulers

No single king managed to control a large amount of land  decentralized and delegated gov’t (Some aspects of both) Also could be considered a theocracy

Due to religious influence

Main city during the classic period was Tikal.

Temple at Tikal

War broke out between different members of royal families

Made murals and sculptures of rulers and leaders

Influenced by the Olmec (Neolithic, Olmec statutes)


Invented hieroglyphic writing system.

The map below shows the Yucatan Peninsula on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico

Heaven was reserved for those who have been hanged, sacrificed or died during childbirth

Hell was for everyone else.

Religious ceremonies involved dancing, competition, dramatic performances, prayer, and sacrifice, polytheistic

Accurate calendar based on the movement of the sun

Concept of zero

Maize production was their key economic activity

Swidden agriculture/ slash and burn farming

Irrigation systems

Raised farms so canals could reach them.

Traded stone tools, ceramics, salt, obsidian and more.

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