Akhenaton focused all of his energies on reforming Egyptian religion. Using Chapter Two in Echoes from the Past: World History to the 16th Century, describe religion, art and the role of
the Pharaoh in Egypt before Akhenaton came to power, how he changed these aspects of Egyptian life, and what happened after he died.
Role of the
Women in Ancient Egypt
Using Chapter Two from Echoes from the Past: World History to the 16th Century, fill in the
Degree of Political Equality
Legal and Economic Equality
Political and Economic roles in ancient Egypt
Legal roles in ancient Egypt
Roles (consider religion too)
Degree of Social Equality
Evolution of Egyptian Burial Practices
Using Chapter Two in Echoes from the Past: World History to the 16th Century as a source, fill in the following chart on Egypt’s economy and trade.
Description and Impact on Egypt
Types of Imports
Types of Exports
Egyptian Trade Routes
On this map of the Mediterranean, indicate the flow of trade goods to and from Egypt. Make your map visually appealing by using arrows to indicate the flow of goods, labeling your map, using a key and incorporating relevant images.
Religion and Its Effect on Continuity and Stability in
Ancient Egypt Name: Date:
Using your textbook, provide a definition for each of the key features of Egyptian
Theology at the centre of the diagram.
Respond to the questions that surround the centre by reading the relevant pages from
your text and then creating a hypothesis for each circle.
Civilization / Era: Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom of Egypt
General History of Civilization
- Old Kingdom was from 2686 BCE to 2150 BCE, and the Middle Kingdom from 2050 BCE to 1700 BCE
- Old Kingdom - Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. Lower represented by red crown, and Upper represented by white crown.
- King Menes was believed to unite these to parts, and wore a double crown to symbolize unity.
- Central Government broke down at the end of the Old Kingdom
-civil wars thrust Egypt into 150 years of anarchy now referred to as the First Intermediate Period.
- Theban Kings ruled Egypt at his time, and would for the next 250 years
- Was a time when Egypt experienced 2 centuries of peace and stability during which the nation prospered
Geography of Civilization
- 4 major geographical locations surrounding Egypt that influenced the culture and civilization: The Nile Valley, The Nile Delta and the Faiyum, Deserts, and the Mediterranean Sea
- Nile Valley was the wealth of Egypt, and depended on the water of the Nile was made up the White Nile and Blue Nile. Tigris and Euphrates River also depended on their fortune.
-They feared the Nile but at the same time depended on it.
- The area where the Nile empties into the Mediterranean was known as the Nile Delta
- This was the largest fertile land in Egypt, and was the third largest settlement in Egypt
- The Nile Valley was between 2 deserts, Eastern and Western Desert, which protected Egypt from invasion and was also the source was minerals, supplies, gold, tin, copper, and natron
Centralized Government / Leaders
King Menes: He is believed to have been the first to unite Egypt and wore the double crown symbolizing the unity Egypt and wore the double crown symbolizing the unity of the two kingdoms and he also had absolute power in Egypt.
Imhotep: Imhotep was one the great leaders of Egypt although he was not a Pharaoh. But his life was extremely important. He was considered a genius. His contributions to Egyptian society were so great that he rose to become the right hand man of the Pharaoh Djoser.
Political Structures: They believed Pharaohs where the earthly embodiment of the god Horus, son of Amon-Re. The King or Pharaoh had absolute power. The king was expected to govern to rule of Ma’at.
Agricultural Intensity /
Way of Life
- Important influence on Egyptian culture and civilization was The Nile River.
- Water from the Nile, came from the white Nile and the blue Nile which did the flooding during July and October.
- The flood had left behind a rich moist soil, which gave a fertile soil for agriculture
- They were able to plan with some certainty the planting and harvesting of crops concluding the outcome of the Nile
- They feared the Nile because they became reliant on the flooding for harvest and growth.
- Egyptian prosperity and stability were dependent on abundant harvests and the ability to manage food supplies in order to survive years in which harvest declined.
- The abundance of food supplies was the measure of Egypt’s wealth. Full granaries, plenty of wildlife and fish, and thriving herds were the signs of prosperous times.
- Agriculture production was organized to provide a stable food supply for both the living and the dead. Surplus food was used in trade with neighbouring people.
- Trade had initiated culture change, which began to form religion at this time.
Gods: One of the gods that where really important to the Egyptians was there National God Amon-Re which was the Son god Re and Amon a local Theban Deity merged together.
- Lower Egypt known as the Delta Kingdom
-was ruled by a monarchy symbolized by the red crown
- Upper Egypt represented by the white crown
- King Menes-believed to be the first to unite Egypt and believed to be the first to wear a double crown symbolizing the unity of the two kingdoms
- Ruler of the middle kingdom-encouraged social mobility through the promotion of members of the middle class
- The Structure of Ancient Egyptian Society, Gods, Pharaoh, Government officials, Soldiers, Scribes, Merchants
Artisans, Farmers, Slaves
Science, Technology, Arts
- In sculpture and painting, the human figure was usually represented with the head in profile, the eye and shoulders in front view, and the pelvis, legs, and feet in profile. This was known as the law of frontality.
- Colour in art was applied in flat tones, and there was no attempt at linear perspective.
- The artist's task was to produce a statement of reality
- Tombs were decorated with domestic, military, hunting, and ceremonial scenes
- Hysksos conquered using technologically superior weapons like improved bows, horse drawn carriages and bronze weapons.
- mastered new weapons and drove out the Hysksos and gained a technological evolution from this 150-year conquest.
- The forms of the Old Kingdom were retained, but the unity of style of the art was broken.
- Increase delicacy of craftsmanship.
Merchant and Trade
- Trade became important, by engaging in trade throughout much of the Mediterranean, and by mining copper in the Sinai Peninsula.
- The Egyptians acquired tremendous wealth in both materials goods and new ideas to gain economic growth.
- Egypt introduced important goods of trade such as timber from Syria, wine and oil from Crete, and the potter’s wheel from Mesopotamia
- Trade begun in the Mediterranean Sea but reached as far as Northern Europe, subtropical Africa, and the Near East.
- The Last Bronze Age ships would travel in a circular pattern starting in Egypt, to Syria and Palestine, and then on to Cyprus, the Aegean Sea before heading back toward North Africa and Egypt.
- Trade of culture became much more important than trade of goods and kept civilizations growing
-Trade was introduced to the barter system
- Egyptians sold goods, paid salaries, collected taxes, and even paid interest on loans through the exchange of goods.
Occupation Specialization / Gender Roles
- Women-same legal rights as men
-did not hold important titles, had little political power, were usually illiterate, and were banned from intellectual and government life
- did a lot of household work
- Men-head of family and passed on the inheritance to his children
- could have as many wives as he wanted
- Pharaoh-owned all land, the people, and their possessions of Egypt
- King-governed a portion of land under the Pharaoh’s name
- any personal wealth, said to be from king
- Government Officials-advised the king, enforced the laws, pleased gods, oversaw the: construction of the pyramids and tombs, sought trade
- were rewarded for their efforts with grants of land and valuable food
- Scribes-recorded the deeds of the Pharaohs, real or imagined, and kept stock of supplies
- filled the role of vizier or prime minister to the king
- Vizier-were the advisors to the king
- Minor Officials-collected taxes etc.
Impact on History / Society
- The Old Kingdom was known for its incredible architecture, designed by Imhotep, who was the founder of Egyptian system of medicine, and was highly regarded for hundreds of years as the best of the ancient world. He designed and supervised the construction of the world’s first pyramid built and designed the fantastic tomb in which he and Pharaoh Djoser’s corpses laid to rest in
- Construction of the three pyramids at Giza.
- The Middle Kingdom changed the world by spreading their vast knowledge of things through a broad trading network.
- centered around the Mediterranean Sea
- interchanging of such a variety of cultures; many ideas, forms of artistic expression, technology, and building methods were developed
- became known for even more of its traditions and technological advancements.
Early Civilizations and Near East:
The New Kingdom of Egypt – Temples
General History Of Civilization
The New Kingdom of Egypt was a civilization that revolved around religion and its traditions. They focused very much on burial practices, and the after life. The king or queen always promoted religion, and would build temples to honour their culture and faith. Every element, every ceremony, had a religious aspect, and was given a religious figure to guide and watch over it.
Centralized Government / Leaders
- Declared herself the queen
- Reigned for the longest of the four female rulers (15 years)
- Only female to rule when not under dynastic crisis
- Expanded Egyptian trade, had a massive tomb built and two obelisks
- Inherited throne but did not reign until his late twenties
- Called the “Napoleon of Egypt” as he was very military oriented
- Egypt gained wealth through the money collected from conquered countries
- Focused on reforming religion from the worship of Amon-Re to Aton
- Built a new capital city called Akhetaton (place of the glory of aton) which was far from the centre of Egypt
- Closed temples that worshipped other gods and took their possessions
- Is sometimes called the first monotheist (believed in one god)
- Neglected his role as pharaoh of Egypt and from then the decline began
- Became pharaoh at age of 9
- Changed / stopped Akhenaton’s religion reform
- Changed his name from Tuankhaton to Tutankhamun; rejecting his fathers religion of Aton
- Moved capital back to Thebes
- Died at 18 suddenly from a supposed blow to the back of the head
- Buried in a tomb of a member of nobility which lay relatively undisturbed
-Commonly known for the great wealth found in his tomb (a solid gold coffin)
-Reigned 60 years after Tutankhamun
- Had more buildings and statues built during his reign than any other pharaoh
- Not long after his reign, Egypt fell
- Egyptians were very religious people
- Religion was generally primitive; consisted of the traditions and customs they performed; very important in all aspects of life
- The Egyptians believed that those who created Earth, men, animals etc. were the most significant gods
- They believed that the earth was formed when a hill emerged from the waters of chaos, and Atum, “the perfect one” was standing on the hill, and he then created the air, moisture, sky etc., and each element was represented by a god
- Amon was the god of the kings, and there were gods of death as well
- Each being had a ka, ba, and akh
- The god Khnum created the child on a potter’s wheel and then put it in the mother’s womb, and also created the soul, which was the ka; this was placed in the heart, and left the body at the time of death
- The ba entered the body at birth, and left at death; this was the personality
- The akh was the form that the mummy took that could live in the after world
- The Egyptian values and morals were order, justice and truth, called the Ma’at; they used these to achieve peace with the gods and to be allowed in the after world
- For Egyptians, death was not a bad thing, but was looked at positively; it was a place where the dead could participate in activities that had made them happy during their life on Earth
- In order to reach the after life, two things were necessary; the items that were to be enjoyed in the after life by the ka, who stayed with the body after death had to be placed in the tomb, and the preservation of the body, through the process of mummification
- The preservation of the body was the main focus of their religious beliefs, and took seventy days to complete, with the organs, including the brain being removed and the body being wrapped in linen
- The religious revolution that occurred, with the King Akhenaton forcing everyone to pray to Aton, was destroying Egypt, and was ended when King Tut came into power, and restored the worship of Amon, the god of kings
- The kings and queens generally contributed much to the temples, helping to promote religion and expand the places of worship
Art in Egypt and Ancient Israel
General History of the Ancient Israel Civilization: Israel is where Abraham was given a new land from God. His Grandson was the one who named it Israel. Some of the people fled to Egypt to avoid drought and famine; however they were enslaved by the Egyptians. Later on Moses led them out of this slavery, (exodus) and back to their land.
Geography of Civilization: Abraham’s land –Shechem in Canaan; which is now called Israel.
Egypt New Kingdom
If you look at the class structure you can see that the Pharaoh was above all and the Government officials came after that. So Pharaohs had a major influence on the government.
-Israel was “God ruled” and Abraham’s grandson had split the people into 12 tribes.
-The Israelites in Egypt had escaped by Moses organizing the tribes into a confederation using a covenant (a solemn agreement.
-After settling in Palestine the Israelites still had no central government.
Way of life
-During this time the Nile had flooded, and therefore dams and canals had to be repaired and maintained.
-Fertile soil was left behind from the river, allowing labourers to sow seeds after surveyors correctly mark the land with ropes.
- To churn the ground, labourers send herds of animals over the soil to stomp the seeds.
-Tax collectors and scribes calculated yield and assess taxes of the land. The harvest produced was send to landowner’s kitchens, town markets, and given to the labourers as payment.
-Farmers were considered very low in class. They are found in the second last level in the structure of Egyptian society.
-The majority of the labour was supplied by conscripted foreigners, like the Israelites.
Their job was to serve in the army, till the fields, have the roads paved, construct temples, and build new palaces and cities.
-Jewish faith was solely based on the concept of the Covenant. Yahweh which was first God made at the time of Abraham and later renewed under Moses
- Hebrews worship Yahweh as their only god, in which return they were to be Yahweh’s chosen people and were promised the land of Canaan
- Yahweh was just one god among many that were worshipped in the Near East such as Baal, Enlil, Marduk, and Amon-Re, he was the main and only true god, thus laying the foundations for a monotheistic (one god) religion
- Hebrews believed that their god intervened in human affairs and forgave those who truly regretted their wrongs
- Prophets also played a big roll to the success and development of Judaism they were the corruption of society and God’s forgiveness if people repented their sins
- the Prophets declared that God would prove his love for his people by providing a Messiah (a person with divine power) to lead the nation of Israel
-The classes in order from highest to lowest were:
Pharaoh, Government Officials, Soldiers, Scribes, Merchants, Artisans, Farmers, Slaves.
-The sophistication in dress and jewellery was improved with the significance of rank or family.
-Every child had to learn how to read and write it was a major priority in Egypt, however the sons of priests, Pharaohs, and the administrative families had a more advanced education and usually passed on the father’s positions to the sons.
Science and Technology,
- Gender difference
-Number 1 form of art
Painting / carved relief
-Found in tombs of pharaohs
-To show activities by the life of the pharaoh or the activities in after life
-Sometimes not accurate because of “false transparency -Stone figures were also found, Medicine, Writing
-Were forced to help Egyptian military, forced to construct pave roads, build temples, new place, and tow new cities
-Commonly the man of the house hold would have a job and pass it down to his sons
-It was strongly advised not to switch jobs because of the risk involved
Women were generally well treated and enjoyed considerable legal rights compared with women in other ancient civilizations.
- they shared same legal rights as men, these legal rights allowed women to be economically independant
-at times roles of women seemed purely decorative, since they are usually depicted in ideal slender and young form.
-home was womens domain, common title for a married woman in ancient Egypt was nebet per meaning "lady of the house"
MEN--husband was the head of the family and passed on the inheritance to his childern.
men were not ristricted in the number of wives they could have
-usually they did take only one wife.
-priests also exerted a powerful moral influence and although harems and concubines existed, sexual excesses were not evident in everyday social life
-man of household was the labourer
-Value of art
-Value of animals(pets)
-Treatment of women
-Value of education
-Skill of writing
Jewish culture and religious beliefs have influenced all the ancient cultures of the Near East.
-Many of their traditions are still alive today and not only among the Jews but with other cultures as well.