Key Facts and Figures [Embargoed until 13 September 2012 00: 01 gmt] about child mortality estimates for 2011



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Levels and Trends in Child Mortalityiycpromisetypelogo(lowcase).png
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Key Facts and Figures

[Embargoed until 13 September 2012 00:01 GMT]
ABOUT CHILD MORTALITY ESTIMATES FOR 20111

  • The number of under-five deaths has decreased from nearly 12 million in 1990 to less 6.9 million in 2011 (see Fig. 1 below). About 14,000 fewer children die each day than did two decades ago. Still, almost 19,000 children under five die every day.

  • The global under-five mortality rate has fallen from 87 per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 51 per 1,000 live births in 2011.

  • The most pronounced drops in under-five mortality rates from 1990 to 2011 (of at least 50%) have occurred in four regions: Latin America and the Caribbean, East Asia and the Pacific; Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States; and the Middle East and North Africa. (Fig. 1)

  • Twenty high-mortality countries have reduced their mortality rates by more than half since 1990; four countries—Lao People’s Democratic Republic(-72%), Timor-Leste (-70%), Liberia (-68%) and Bangladesh (-67%) – have achieved a reduction of at least two thirds. (Fig. 2)

  • In 2011, around 50 per cent of global under-five deaths occurred in just five countries: India, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China. (Fig 3)

  • Sub-Saharan Africa, though lagging behind the other regions, has also registered a 39 per cent decline in the under-five mortality rate from 1990 to 2011. (Fig. 1)

  • In some countries, the total number of under-five deaths has increased: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Chad, Somalia, Mali, Cameroon and Burkina Faso have experienced a rise in their national burden of under-five deaths by 10,000 or more for 2011 as compared to 1990.

  • 8 of the 10 countries with the highest rates of under-five mortality are in conflict or in fragile situations. (Fig. 4)

  • Several populous middle-income countries have posted rapid declines in under-five mortality in recent decades (1990-2011): Turkey (7.4% annual rate of reduction (ARR)) Peru (6.8% ARR) and El Salvador (6.6% ARR).

  • The world’s lowest under-five mortality rates are in Singapore, the Nordic countries, some European countries and Japan. (Fig.5)

  • Among very low mortality countries, a diverse group have achieved the sharpest reductions in under-five mortality rates in the 1990-2011 period. Oman (8.1% ARR), Estonia (8.1% ARR), Saudi Arabia (7.3% ARR), Portugal (6.9% ARR) and Serbia (6.6% ARR).

ABOUT CAUSES OF DEATHS2

  • Globally, the five leading causes of deaths among children under five include pneumonia (18%): pre-term birth complications (14%); diarrhoea (11%); intrapartum-related complications (9%) and malaria (7%).

  • Evidence suggests many of the major declines in under-five deaths in all regions were related to expanded efforts against infectious diseases. For example, measles deaths have declined from an estimated 0.5 million in 2000 to 0.1 million in 2011.

  • Pneumonia is the leading killer of children under five, causing 18% of all under-five deaths worldwide - a loss of roughly 1.3 million lives in 2011, the bulk of which occur in just two regions, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia

  • Diarrhoea’s toll has dropped by a third over the past decade, from 1.2 million deaths in 2000 to 0.7 million in 2011.

  • Nearly all of roughly 0.5 million malaria under-five deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa in 2011. A decade of malaria prevention has saved an estimated one million children’s lives overall.

  • Around 40 per cent of deaths among children under five occur during the neonatal period (i.e. during the first 28 days of life). In 2011 this amounted to about 3 million deaths worldwide. The heaviest burdens are in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, which have both the highest neonatal mortality rates among regions and the largest number of annual births. The majority of neonatal deaths result from preterm birth complications or from intra-partum related events .

  • Globally, more than a third of child deaths are attributable to undernutrition.

  • Without treatment, 50 per cent of HIV-infected children die before the age of two. In countries with high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-associated mortality in 2010 among children under five ranged from 10 per cent in Mozambique and Zambia to 28 per cent in South Africa.


(Fig 1) Under-five mortality rates and number of deaths, global and regional in 1990 and 2011




 

 

 

 




Region

Under-five mortality rate
(deaths per 1,000 live births)


Number of under-five deaths
(in thousands)


Decline in under-five mortality rate (%)

1990

2011

1990

2011

1990-2011

Africa

163

100

4,104

3,457

39

Sub-Saharan Africa

178

109

3,821

3,370

39

Eastern and Southern Africa

162

84

1,664

1,177

48

West and Central Africa

197

132

2,058

2,096

33

Middle East and North Africa

72

36

656

351

50

Asia

85

44

6,504

2,899

49

South Asia

119

62

4,340

2,309

48

East Asia and Pacific

55

20

2,164

590

63

Latin America and the Caribbean

53

19

610

203

64

CEE/CIS

48

21

358

125

56

World

87

51

11,968

6,914

41




 

 

 

 




Source: United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2012.

(Fig 2) Top 10 countries with greatest percentage decline in 1990-2011 (among countries with under-five mortality rate of at least 40 deaths per 1,000 live births)

Country Name

Percentage decline in U5MR, 1990-2011 (%)

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

71.6

Timor-Leste

69.9

Liberia

67.5

Bangladesh

66.9

Rwanda

65.4

Nepal

64.3

Cambodia

63.6

Malawi

63.6

Madagascar

61.8

Bhutan

61.2







Source: United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2012.

(Fig 3) Top 10 countries with greatest number of under- five deaths in 2011

Country name

Number of under-five deaths (thousands)

India

1,655

Nigeria

756

Democratic Republic of the Congo

465

Pakistan

352

China

249

Ethiopia

194

Indonesia

134

Bangladesh

134

Uganda

131

Afghanistan

128

Source: United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2012.

(Fig 4) Top 10 countries with highest under- five mortality rate in 2011

Country name

U5MR 2011

Sierra Leone

185

Somalia

180

Mali

176

Chad

169

Democratic Republic of the Congo

168

Central African Republic

164

Guinea-Bissau

161

Angola

158

Burkina Faso

146

Burundi

139

Source: United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2012.

(Fig 5) Top 10 countries with lowest under- five mortality rate in 2011

Country name

U5MR 2011

Singapore

2.6

Slovenia

2.8

Sweden

2.8

Finland

2.9

Cyprus

3.1

Norway

3.1

Luxembourg

3.2

Japan

3.4

Portugal

3.4

Denmark

3.7

Source: United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2012.

1 Levels and Trends in Child Mortality, September 13th 2012, UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (IGME)

2 A Promise Renewed: Progress Report, Sept 13th 2012, UNICEF.




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