Key concept 4 Europeans explored and settled



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Key CONCEPT 1.4

Europeans

explored and settled

overseas territories,

encountering and interacting with indigenous populations.
From the 15th through the 17th centuries,

Europeans

used their mastery of the seas

to extend their power

in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
In the 15th century,

the Portuguese

sought direct access by sea

to the sources of African gold, ivory, and slaves.
At the same time,

the rise of Ottoman power

in the eastern Mediterranean

led to Ottoman control

of the Mediterranean trade routes

and increased the motivation

of Iberians and then northern Europeans

to explore possible sea routes

to the East.
The success and consequences of these explorations,

and the maritime expansion that followed them,

rested on European adaptation

of Muslim and Chinese navigational technology

as well as advances in military technology

and cartography.
Political,

economic,

and religious

rivalries

among Europeans

also stimulated maritime expansion.
By the 17th century,

Europeans

had forged a global trade network

that gradually edged out earlier Muslim and Chinese dominion

in the Indian Ocean

and the western Pacific.
In Europe,

these successes

shifted economic power

within Europe from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic states.

In Asia,

the Portuguese,

Spanish,

and Dutch

competed for control of trade routes

and trading stations.
In the Americas,

the Spanish

and Portuguese

led in the establishment of colonies,

followed by the Dutch,

French,

and English.
The pursuit of colonies

was sustained by mercantilist economic theory,

which promoted government management

of economic imperatives and policies.
The creation of maritime empires

was also animated by the religious fervor

sweeping Europe

during the period of the Reformations (Catholic and Protestant).
Global European expansion

led to the conversion of indigenous populations

in South and Central America,

to an exchange of commodities

and crops that

enriched European

and other civilizations that

became part of the global trading network,

and, eventually, to migrations that

had profound effects

on Europe.
The expansion

also challenged parochial worldviews

in Christian Europe.
Yet the Columbian Exchange

also unleashed several ecological disasters —

notably the death of

vast numbers of the Americas’ population

in epidemics of European diseases,

such as smallpox and measles,

against which the native populations had no defenses.
The establishment of the plantation system

in the American colonies

also led to the vast expansion

of the African slave trade,

one feature of the new Atlantic trading system.
I. European nations

were driven by commercial and religious motives

to explore

overseas territories

and establish colonies.
INT-1

INT-2

INT-6

INT-11

SP-5

IS-10
A. European states

sought direct access to

gold and spices and luxury goods

as a means to enhance

personal wealth and state power.
B. The rise of mercantilism

gave the state a new role

in promoting commercial development

and the acquisition

of colonies overseas.
C. Christianity

served as a stimulus

for exploration

as governments and religious authorities

sought to spread

the faith and counter Islam,

and as a justification

for the physical and cultural subjugation

of indigenous civilizations.
II. Advances in navigation,

cartography,

and military technology

allowed Europeans

to establish overseas colonies and empires.
INT-3

INT-4

OS-6

SP-13

IS-3


Teachers have flexibility to use examples of navigational technology such as the following:

Compass

Stern-post rudder

Portolani

Quadrant and astrolabe

Lateen rig
Teachers have flexibility to use examples of military technology such as the following:

Horses

Guns and gunpowder
III. Europeans

established overseas empires

and trade networks

through coercion and negotiation.
INT-1

INT-3

INT-6

INT-11

SP-15]
A. The Portuguese

established a commercial network

along the African coast, in South and East Asia, and in South America.
B. The Spanish

established colonies

across the Americas, the Caribbean, and the Pacific,

which made Spain a dominant state

in Europe.
C. The Atlantic nations

of France, England, and the Netherlands

followed by establishing their own colonies

and trading networks

to compete with

Portuguese and Spanish dominance.
D. The competition for trade

led to conflicts and rivalries

among European powers.
IV. Europe’s colonial expansion

led to a global exchange

of goods, flora, fauna, cultural practices, and diseases,

resulting in the destruction of some indigenous civilizations,

a shift toward European dominance,

and the expansion of the slave trade.
INT-5

INT-6

INT-7

INT-9

INT-11

PP-1

IS-7
A. The exchange of goods

shifted the center of economic power

in Europe

from the Mediterranean

to the Atlantic states

and brought the latter

into an expanding world economy.
B. The exchange of new plants, animals, and diseases —

the Columbian Exchange —

created economic opportunities

for Europeans

and facilitated European subjugation

and destruction of indigenous peoples,

particularly in the Americas.
Teachers have flexibility to use examples of new plants, animals, and diseases such as the following:

From Europe to the Americas:

Wheat

Cattle

Horses

Pigs

Sheep

Smallpox

Measles
From the Americas to Europe:

Tomatoes

Potatoes

Squash

Corn

Tobacco

Turkeys

Syphilis
C. Europeans

expanded the African slave trade

in response to the establishment of a plantation economy

in the Americas

and demographic catastrophes

among indigenous peoples.

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