KEY CONCEPT 2.1: Different models of political sovereignty affected the relationship among states and between states and individuals.
1. In much of Europe, absolute monarchy was established over the course of the 17th and 18th centuries.
A. Absolute monarchies limited the nobility’s participation in governance but preserved the aristocracy’s social position and legal privileges.
B. Louis XIV and his finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, extended the administrative, financial, military, and religious control of the central state over the French population.
C. In the 18th century, a number of states in eastern and central Europe experimented with enlightened absolutism.
D. The inability of the Polish monarchy to consolidate its authority over the nobility led to Poland’s partition by Prussia, Russia, and Austria, and its disappearance from the map of Europe.
E. Peter the Great “westernized” the Russian state and society, transforming political, religious, and cultural institutions; Catherine the Great continued this process.
2. Challenges to absolutism resulted in alternative political systems.
A. The outcome of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution protected the rights of gentry and aristocracy from absolutism through assertions of the rights of Parliament.
B. The Dutch Republic developed an oligarchy of urban gentry and rural landholders to promote trade and protect traditional rights.
3. After 1648, dynastic and state interests, along with Europe’s expanding colonial empires, influenced the diplomacy of European states and frequently led to war.
A. As a result of the Holy Roman Empire’s limitation of sovereignty in the Peace of Westphalia, Prussia rose to power and the Habsburgs, centered in Austria, shifted their empire eastward.
B. After the Austrian defeat of the Turks in 1683 at the Battle of Vienna, the Ottomans ceased their westward expansion.
C. Louis XIV’s nearly continuous wars, pursuing both dynastic and state interests, provoked a coalition of European powers opposing him.
D. Rivalry between Britain and France resulted in world wars fought both in Europe and in the colonies, with Britain supplanting France as the greatest European power.
4. The French Revolution posed a fundamental challenge to Europe’s existing political and social order.
A. The French Revolution resulted from a combination of long-term social and political causes, as well as Enlightenment ideas, exacerbated by short-term fiscal and economic crises.
B. The first, or liberal, phase of the French Revolution established a constitutional monarchy, increased popular participation, nationalized the Catholic Church, and abolished hereditary privileges.
C. After the execution of the Louis XVI, the radical Jacobin Republic led by Robespierre responded to opposition at home and war abroad by instituting the Reign of Terror, fixing prices and wages, and pursuing a policy of de-Christianization.
D. Revolutionary armies, raised by mass conscription, sought to bring the changes initiated in France to the rest of Europe.
E. Women enthusiastically participated in the early phases of the revolution; however, while there were brief improvements in the legal status of women, citizenship in the republic was soon restricted to men.
F. Revolutionary ideals inspired a slave revolt led by Toussaint L’Ouverture in the French colony of Saint Domingue, which became the independent nation of Haiti in 1804.
G. While many were inspired by the revolution’s emphasis on equality and human rights, others condemned its violence and disregard for traditional authority.
5. Claiming to defend the ideals of the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte imposed French control over much of the European continent that eventually provoked a nationalistic reaction.
A. As first consul and emperor, Napoleon undertook a number of enduring domestic reforms while often curtailing some rights and manipulating popular impulses behind a façade of representative institutions.
B. Napoleon’s new military tactics allowed him to exert direct or indirect control over much of the European continent, spreading the ideals of the French Revolution across Europe.
C. Napoleon’s expanding empire created nationalist responses throughout Europe.
D. After the defeat of Napoleon by a coalition of European powers, the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) attempted to restore the balance of power in Europe and contain the danger of revolutionary or nationalistic upheavals in the future.
KEY CONCEPT 2.2: The expansion of European commerce accelerated the growth of a worldwide economic network.
1. Early modern Europe developed a market economy that provided the foundation for its global role.
A. Labor and trade in commodities were increasingly freed from traditional restrictions imposed by governments and corporate entities.
B. The Agricultural Revolution raised productivity and increased the supply of food and other agricultural products.
C. The putting-out system, or cottage industry, expanded as increasing numbers of laborers in homes or workshops produced for markets through merchant intermediaries or workshop owners.
D. The development of the market economy led to new financial practices and institutions.
2. The European-dominated worldwide economic network contributed to the agricultural, industrial, and consumer revolutions in Europe.
A. European states followed mercantilist policies by exploiting colonies in the New World and elsewhere.
B. The transatlantic slave-labor system expanded in the 17th and 18th centuries as demand for New World products increased.
C. Overseas products and influences contributed to the development of a consumer culture in Europe.
D. The importation and transplantation of agricultural products from the Americas contributed to an increase in the food supply in Europe.
E. Foreign lands provided raw materials, finished goods, laborers, and markets for the commercial and industrial enterprises in Europe.
3. Commercial rivalries influenced diplomacy and warfare among European states in the early modern era.
A. European sea powers vied for Atlantic influence throughout the 18th century.
B. Portuguese, Dutch, French, and British rivalries in Asia culminated in British domination in India and Dutch control of the East Indies.
KEY CONCEPT 2.3: The popularization and dissemination of the Scientific Revolution and the application of its methods to political, social, and ethical issues led to an increased, although not unchallenged, emphasis on reason in European culture.
1. Rational and empirical thought challenged traditional values and ideas.
A. Intellectuals such as Voltaire and Diderot began to apply the principles of the Scientific Revolution to society and human institutions.
B. Locke and Rousseau developed new political models based on the concept of natural rights.
C. Despite the principles of equality espoused by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, intellectuals such as Rousseau offered new arguments for the exclusion of women from political life, which did not go unchallenged.
2. New public venues and print media popularized Enlightenment ideas.
A. A variety of institutions, such as salons, explored and disseminated Enlightenment culture.
B. Despite censorship, increasingly numerous and varied printed materials served a growing literate public and led to the development of public opinion.
C. Natural sciences, literature, and popular culture increasingly exposed Europeans to representations of peoples outside Europe.
3. New political and economic theories challenged absolutism and mercantilism.
A. Political theories, such as John Locke’s, conceived of society as composed of individuals driven by self-interest and argued that the state originated in the consent of the governed (i.e., a social contract) rather than in divine right or tradition.
B. Mercantilist theory and practice were challenged by new economic ideas, such as Adam Smith’s, espousing free trade and a free market.
4. During the Enlightenment, the rational analysis of religious practices led to natural religion and the demand for religious toleration.
A. Intellectuals, including Voltaire and Diderot, developed new philosophies of deism, skepticism, and atheism.
B. Religion was viewed increasingly as a matter of private rather than public concern.
C. By 1800, most governments had extended toleration to Christian minorities and, in some states, civil equality to Jews.
5. The arts moved from the celebration of religious themes and royal power to an emphasis on private life and the public good.
A. Until about 1750, Baroque art and music promoted religious feeling and was employed by monarchs to glorify state power.
B. Artistic movements and literature also reflected the outlook and values of commercial and bourgeois society as well as new Enlightenment ideals of political power and citizenship.
6. While Enlightenment values dominated the world of European ideas, they were challenged by the revival of public sentiment and feeling.
A. Rousseau questioned the exclusive reliance on reason and emphasized the role of emotions in the moral improvement of self and society.
B. Revolution, war, and rebellion demonstrated the emotional power of mass politics and nationalism.
C. Romanticism emerged as a challenge to Enlightenment rationality.