Key Concept 1 Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new conflicts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a new nation

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Key Concept 3.1

Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new conflicts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a new nation, the United States.

  1. Throughout the second half of the 18th century, various American Indian groups repeatedly evaluated and adjusted their alliances with Europeans, other tribes, and the new U.S. government.

  1. English population growth and expansion into the interior disrupted existing French-Indian fur trade networks and caused various Indian nations to shift alliances among competing European powers.

Many Native American tribes with many varied interests formed an extremely complicated alliance system in North America. Hoping to secure their fate with the European Nation they felt was best, various tribes allied with either the British or the French. Their alliance system was influenced by many factors, including geographical proximity, military strength, trade opportunities as well as inter-tribal competition. This intertribal completion determined initial alliances, and initial alliances also created new inter-tribal conflict. When England expanded into French fur trading territory, they interrupted the fur trade that Native tribes had come to heavily rely on. Once trade alliances failed, Natives that had allied with the French had no European support. Weak and divided, they were forced to fend for themselves and were pushed west unless alternative action was taken.

  1. After the British defeat of the French, white-Indian conflicts continued to erupt as native groups sought both to continue trading with Europeans and to resist the encroachment of British colonists on traditional tribal lands. (Pontiac’s Rebellion, Proclamation of 1763.)

Native groups had become reliant on good and stable trading systems with the Europeans, but at the conclusion of the war everything changed. The natives were dissatisfied with post-war British policies as well as the rapid expansion of British territory. They revolted against the British, attacking eight forts and killing hundreds of colonists. British military action led to the eventual end of the rebellion. The Proclamation of 1763 established greater territory to Great Britain as well as regulated trade and relations with the Native Americans.

  1. During and after the colonial war for independence, various tribes attempted to forge advantageous political alliances with one another and with European powers to protect their interests, limit migration of white settlers, and maintain their tribal lands.

(Iroquois Confederation, Chief Little Turtle and the Western Confederacy)

Faced with pressure from European wars and westward expansion, Native tribes were forced to band together for any hopes of combating the Europeans. In these large confederations, such as the Iroquois confederacy and the Western Confederacy, Native tribes came together despite tribal conflicts in opposition to European expansion. While the Confederacies did well in the short term, they ultimately were overwhelmed geographically and culturally by the expanding eastern colonies.

Key Concept 3.1

Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new conflicts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a new nation, the United States.

II. During and after the imperial struggles of the mid-18th century, new pressures began to unite the British colonies against perceived and real constraints on their economic activities and political rights, sparking a colonial independence movement and war with Britain.

  1. Great Britain’s massive debt from the Seven Years War resulted in renewed efforts to consolidate imperial control over North American markets, taxes, and political institutions- actions that were supported by some colonists but resisted by others.

(Stamp Act, Committees of Correspondence, Intolerable Acts)

Great Britain had just defeated France in what was later known as the Seven Year’s Year. However, this victory did not come without paying the price as Britain accumulated a tremendous amount of debt. This prompted Britain to exercise their control over their North American colonies by implementing various acts which would tax various goods. This did not settle well with the colonists, as they were used to autonomy. Various responses ensued as a result of these new policies. Boston reacted harshly, considering they were in shock, and exhibited several boycotts of British goods. On the contrary, some regions wanted to remain cooperative with the British taxes. This is because these particular regions were economically dependent on British financial aid. Furthermore, some colonists feared what would become of the colonies if they veered to far from their mother country’s rule. This set the scene for much disagreement.

  1. The resulting independence movement was fueled by established colonial elites, as well as by grassroots movements that included newly mobilized laborers, artisans, and women, and rested on arguments over the rights of British subjects, the rights of the individual, and the ideas of the Enlightenment.

(Sons of Liberty, Mercy Otis Warren, Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania.)

Many factors and groups of people fueled the American Revolution. Around this time period, Enlightenment ideals started to make their way to the forefront. This prompted colonists to question what role the British should be playing in their lives. As the contributions from many groups of people were essential to getting this revolutionary movement started. Women, who had never really had a true role in society previous to this, had started to produce supplies and take on extra jobs. From social elites, to the common man, everyone started to become more educated and outspoken about such a prevalent and pressing issue.

  1. Despite considerable loyalist opposition, as well as Great Britain’s apparently overwhelming military and financial advantages, the patriot cause succeeded because of the colonists’ greater familiarity with the land, their resilient military and political leadership, their ideological commitment, and their support from European allies.

The British had an overwhelming advantage both militarily and financially over the colonists in the War of Independence. Despite this, a variety of factors contributed to the colonists triumph over their imperial power. They received a large sum of money and supplies from European allies such as France and Spain who were looking to weaken their European rival anyway possible. This helped the colonists even support a standing army. In addition to this, the colonists were persistent in fighting the British. The colonists were fighting for their existence and rights whereas the British were fighting to maintain their power. Therefore, the colonists had greater motivation to prevail. A final advantage the colonists had over the British was that they knew their surroundings. Since the war was fought on US soil, the British were unfamiliar with the land. This served as an obvious disadvantage to the British. All of these factors contributed to the colonists defeating Great Britain.

Key Concept 3.1

Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new conflicts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a new nation, the United States.

  1. In response to domestic and international tensions, the new United States debated and formulated foreign policy initiatives and asserted an international presence.

  1. The continued presence of European powers in North America challenged the United States to find ways to safeguard it borders, maintain neutral trading rights, and promote its economic interests.

  1. The French Revolution’s spread throughout Europe and beyond helped fuel American’s debate not only about the nature of the United States domestic order but also about its proper role in the world.

The French Revolution caused a divide between the isolationist Federalists who want to remain neutral and focus on domestic order and developing the American economy, and the Republicans who believe that the US had a responsibility to contribute to spreading democracy and liberty throughout the world and should uphold our alliance with the French. The isolationist argument was favored by George Washington as he believed to grow as its own nation before it could be involved in foreign affairs. However

  1. Although George Washington’s Farewell Address warned about the dangers of divisive political parties and permanent foreign alliances, European conflict and tensions with Britain and France fueled increasingly bitter partisan debates throughout the 1790s.

After George Washington stepped down as President John Adams a federalist was elected as the new president and Thomas Jefferson a republican was elected as the new vice president. During Adams’ presidency conflict between the New French republic and Great Britain further divided the Federalists and the Republicans. Adam’s and the Federalist wanted to remain neutral because to continue trade with Britain to economic downturn, whereas the Republican wanted to continue their alliance with the French in order to further exert their independence from Britain and they also sympathized the struggle of the French. Despite Washington’s warning to stay out of foreign affairs Adams attempted to negotiate with the French but after a demand for a bribe (XYZ Affair) the US was further separated from the French. Because of the discontent with Adams’ foreign policy Thomas Jefferson was elected in 1800 further dividing the two parties.

Key Concept 3.2

In the late 18th century, new experiments with democratic ideas and republican forms of government, as well as other new religious, economic, and cultural ideas, challenged traditional imperial systems across the Atlantic world.

  1. During the 18th century, new ideas about politics and society led to debates about religion and governance and ultimately inspired experiments with new government structures.

  1. Protestant evangelical religious fervor strengthened many British colonists’ understanding of themselves as chosen people blessed with liberty, while Enlightenment philosophers and ideas inspired many American political thinkers to emphasize individual talent over hereditary privilege. (John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Adam Smith)

During the time of the Enlightenment, philosophes challenged the traditional ways of thinking that were taught by European governments. In general, they fought for freedom of thought, religion, and individual rights. John Locke, for example, advocated for religious tolerance, as well as the separation between church and state. Jean-Jacques Rousseau said that society corrupts the individual and brings out the evil that is in every man. Adam Smith published a book that stated some ideas on which modern economics is based off of. By sharing their ideologies and daring to question traditional teachings, philosophes such as these men inspired many people to reform their governments, beliefs, and ways of thinking, living, and behaving.

  1. The colonists’ belief in the superiority of republican self-government based on the natural rights of the people found its clearest American expression in Thomas Paine’s Common Sense and in the Declaration of Independence.

Thomas Paine’s Common Sense , Pamphlet challenged the role of the British government and monarchy by influencing the lost open minds of the Americans by advocating these simple concepts: 1. people were born with natural rights, 2. people should be set free from the British government and should establish a government governed by the Enlightenment ideals. His pamphlet is said to be known as an important piece of writing of the Revolutionary Era because it caved the pathway for independence by reshaping the ideals of society and government system. The Declaration of Independence had a part that included the preamble that expressed the ideals of the delegates.

  1. Many new state constitutions and the national Articles of Confederation, reflecting republican fears of both centralized power and excessive popular influence, placed power in the hands of the legislative branch and maintained property qualifications for voting, and citizenship.

The Articles of Confederation, along with many state constitutions, reflected republican fears of centralized power by making a government so that the states were more powerful than the centralized government. This gave people comfort in knowing that their central government consisted only of a Congress made up completely of people to represent them in government. The Articles established the Legislative Branch, including its powers and structure, and maintained property qualifications for voting, and citizenship in order to create a document that established a loose confederation in which the most significant power is in the hands of the states.

Key Concept 3.2

In the late 18th century, new experiments with democratic ideas and republican forms of government, as well as other new religious, economic, and cultural ideas, challenged traditional imperial systems across the Atlantic world.

II. After experiencing the limitations of the Articles of Confederation, American political leaders wrote a new Constitution based on the principles of federalism and separation of powers, crafted a Bill of Rights and continued their debates about the proper balance between liberty and order.

A. Difficulties over trade, finances and interstate and foreign relations, as well as internal unrest, led to calls for significant revisions to the Articles of Confederation and a stronger central government. (tariff and currency disputes, Spanish restrictions on navigation of the Mississippi River.)

The Articles of Confederation weren’t just changed for no reason. They were changed because the society was not functioning properly with that document. It needed a change in order to fix the difficulties over trade, finances, foreign relations, and internal unrest. This modification called for the new Document that was then written known as the Constitution of the United States. Many disputes were occurring while the Articles of Confederation were set in place. One example would be the Shay’s Rebellion. As discontent grew with the tax system in the states, there emerged an incident which altered the course of American history. Daniel Shays, a war veteran from Massachusetts, was fed up with the government and control the government had over him, as well as all American people. In response, he rebelled, violently attacking Massachusetts's armory department in attempt to gain the weaponry and overthrow the government. Ultimately this rebellion was met, and suppressed with military force, yet it remains significant as it showed the young government they must continuously alter their policies to meet the needs and desires of the people. Another example has to do with the Spanish restrictions in the Mississippi River. Farmers had trouble transporting their goods to the market because the Spanish closed the Mississippi River to the United States. Since America was too weak/new of a country, they were unable to do anything about it. This is why the Articles of Confederation needed improvements to create a strong central government.

B. Delegates from the states worked through a series of compromises to form a Constitution for a new national government while providing limits on federal power.

There were many disagreements that arose while establishing the new government that led to the need for compromises. The most significant compromise, known as the Great Compromise, was between the New Jersey plan of representation and the Virginia plan of representation. The VA plan gave states representation in the government based off of population; the NJ plan gave all states equal representation in the government. The Great Compromise said that representation in the House of Representatives would be based on population and representation in the Senate would be equal for all states. Another example of a compromise was the 3/5ths compromise over slavery. Compromises were the way that the Constitution was able to please most people and the way that the disagreements between states were able to be put to rest. There was a compromise between Federalist and Anti-Federalist ideas in that the government was set up to have enough power to be effective but not enough power to let limit citizens’ rights. Likewise, there was a compromise of creating an executive to be able to have power and influence on the government and country but not giving the executive enough power to resemble a monarch. Both of these compromises between Federalist and Anti-Federalist ideas were solved by the separation of branches and a “checks and balances” system to control the amount of power that any branch or person in the government had.

C. Calls during the ratification process for greater guarantees of rights resulted in the addition of a Bill of Rights shortly after the Constitution was adopted.

There was a constant debate between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists during the ratification of the Constitution. The Federalists believed that the government should be centralized and that the way to protect the minority from the majority was to create a strong national government. The Anti-Federalists believed that the states should have more power than the national government and that because there was no written document, they feared the individual rights of the people were threatened. Since there was no published document outlining the guaranteed rights of the individual, certain states like Virginia and New York would not ratify the Constitution. People like James Madison knew that the country needed these states and therefore, promised a Bill of Rights to be written after the Constitution was ratified. Even with the promise, two states, North Carolina and Rhode Island, refused to ratify without a Bill of Rights added. After many discussions and compromises, a Bill of Rights was proposed and established to grant natural rights to the people of the United States.

D. As the first national administrations began to govern under the Constitution, continued debates about such issues as the relationship between the national government and the states, economic policy, and the conduct of foreign affairs led to the creation of political parties. (Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, Hamilton’s Financial Plan, Proclamation of Neutrality)

There are many factors that led to the creation of political parties. One factor was the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. These resolutions were in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts that were believed to go beyond the power of the Constitution. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions stated that states should be able to claim something as unconstitutional and that they should be allowed to secede from the union. This created two different sides of opinion which eventually led to two sides becoming political parties. There were the federalists who opposed the resolutions and there were the Jeffersonian Republicans who supported them. Hamilton’s Financial Plan also created debate. Hamilton’s plan to solve the debt in America was to pay off the National Debt, place taxes on manufactured products, collect all state debts, and create a national bank and national currency. While the Federalists favored Hamilton’s Financial Plan, the Democratic Republicans disagreed with it, saying that it gave too much power to the national government. In addition, the Proclamation of Neutrality sparked disagreement, once again, separating the country into two political parties. The Proclamation of Neutrality said that the United States would remain neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain. The Federalists believed that neutrality was non-negotiable since the country was just starting out while their opponents, the Democratic Republicans, thought that they could wait to claim neutrality and could even gain money from waiting.

Key Concept 3.2. III

In the late 18th century, new experiments with democratic ideas and republican forms of government, as well as other new religious, economic, and cultural ideas, challenged traditional imperial systems across the Atlantic world.

  1. While the new governments continued to limit rights to some groups, ideas promoting self-governments and personal liberty reverberated around the world.

  1. During and after the American Revolution, an increased awareness of the inequalities in society motivated some individuals and groups to call for the abolition of slavery and greater political democracy in the new state and national governments. (Abigail Adams, Pennsylvania Gradual Emancipation Law)

The inequalities in society became more prevalent through the efforts of individuals and groups during and after the American Revolution. Despite their lack of political voice, women had major contributions to the war effort working as nurses, seamstresses, caretakers, and in some cases soldiers. Mercy Otis Warren turned her home into a center for patriot political activity. Abigail Adams advocated for opportunities for women but also the equal for other oppressed groups, such as slaves. Following the Revolutionary War, many northern states, such as Pennsylvania, gradually began emancipating slaves—specifically those who served in their ranks during the war.

  1. The Constitutional framers postponed a solution to the problems of slavery and the slave trade, setting the stage for recurring conflicts over these issues in later years.

While drafting the Constitution, the founding fathers pushed aside the issue of slavery only addressing the immediate issues it pertained to. Disagreement over the representation of slaves between the North and the South could not be easily resolved. The South, with a large slave population, wanted the slaves to count towards their states’ population in order to count for representation. However, the North felt that if the slaves weren’t being treated as real citizens than they should not count towards representation. They settled on the Three-Fifths Compromise which counted three out of every five slaves for the states’ population. This was only a temporary solution and the divide continued to deepen between the two regions.

  1. The American Revolution and the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence and reverberation in France, Haiti, and Latin America, inspiring future rebellions.

The American Revolution projected the ideas of democracy, equality and sovereignty for the people. America created the first written constitution and inspired others to follow in their footsteps. The French Revolution, beginning almost directly after the American Revolution, was incited by movements for representative government and social equality. Similar movements in Latin America and Haiti pressed their mother countries for independence. Following the model America had provided, many Latin American countries revolted for their freedom. In Haiti, colonial uprisings lead by Haitian general Toussaint-Louverture against the French Empire under Napoleon were grown from the same seed as the American Revolution.



As migrants streamed westward from the British colonies along the Atlantic seaboard,

interactions among different groups that would continue under and independent United States

resulted in competition for resources, shifting alliances, and cultural blending.


The French withdrawal from North America and the subsequent attempt of various

native groups to reassert their power over the interior of the continent resulted in new white-

Indian conflicts along the western borders of British, and, later, the U.S. colonial settlement and

among settlers looking to assert more power in interior regions.

( march of the Paxton boys)

In the aftermath of the violence French and Indian War and the Pontiac's Rebellion,

white-indian conflicts in the struggle for power were fuelled by anti-indian sentiment and the

desire to regain stolen territory by the Natives. During the 1760s, a group of frontiersmen from

Paxton, Pennsylvania formed a vigilante group, calling themselves the Paxton boys. After

Pontiac’s Rebellion the frontier of Pennsylvania became a hotbed of racial and political unrest,

and The Paxton Boys were outraged that the government would spend tax monies on

protecting Indians, but would provide nothing for the defense of its citizenry. In 1763 they

attacked a small settlement of Indians in Lancaster County, killing six Indians and taking

fourteen captives; all of which were murdered several weeks later. Fellow frontiersmen were

sympathetic to their cause and in 1764 a large mob of supporters marched on the capital of

Pennsylvania in demand of change in the passive policy toward the indians. The Paxton boys

were an example of the hostility and intolerance that had developed between frontiersman

and Indian as well as an example of regional and social tension.


Migrants from within North America and around the world continued to launch new

settlements in the West, creating new distinctive backcountry cultures and fueling social and

ethnic tensions.

(Shay’s Rebellion, frontier vs. tidewater Virginia)

Following the American Revolution there was a discontent with a man named Daniel

Shays in the colony of massachusetts. The government under the Articles of COnfederation was

very corrupt and the governmental system was very bad. So, Daniel Shays and his people

attempted to seize the Springfield armory in order to start a revolt against the government This

resulted in George Washington leading his people to suppress the rebellion in

Massachusetts. .In the west, the frontiersman virginians believed thaT THE GOVERNMENT (Tide

Water) did not care for them and their issues with the natives. This le3d to an uprising called

Bacon’s Rebellion when the frontiersman took control of the Virginian capital in order to gain

the security that they desired. Both of these show the division between the capitals of states

and the frontiersman of the colonies in the west.

The Spanish, supported by the bonded labor of the local Indians, expanded their mission

settlements into California, providing opportunities for social mobility among enterprising

soldiers and settlers that led to new cultural blending.

In the aftermath of the Revolutionary War the Spanish focused on the expansion and

concentration of their power in the west. Missionaries grew in size and influence spreading

their faith to the “savage” people. All those people that would not conform and join the spanish

society were forced into the spanish forced labor system. When the native men were forced

into bondage the spanish settlers would intermarry with the native women. This created a

unique social system of mixed native and europeans people. The spanish also had such an

abundance of land that they allowed anyone who was willing to work and had the money to

buy land and work it. This allowed lower class commoner to ascend to rich lan

Key Concept 3.3

Migration within North America, cooperative interaction, and competition for resources raised questions about boundaries and policies, intensified conflicts among peoples and nations, and led to contests over the creation of a multiethnic, multiracial national identity.

II. The policies of the United States that encouraged western migration and the orderly incorporation of new territories into the nation both extended republican institutions and intensified conflicts among American Indians and Europeans in the trans-Appalachian West.

  1. As settlers moved westward during the 1780s, Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance for admitting new states and sought to promote public education, the protection of private property, and the restriction of slavery in the Northwest Territory.

It organized the first territory in the Northwest. It created a border between free and slave territory along the Ohio River. This separation would develop help to develop the free and slave state conflict. It established Ohio University to provide a system of education for pioneers in the Northwest Territory. This university was used to teach religion and give knowledge to the people of the government in the new land. The people had guaranteed freedom, religion tolerance, and banned cruel punishment. The Northwest Ordinance foreshadowed the Bills of Rights.

  1. The Constitution’s failure to precisely define the relationship between American Indian tribes and the national government led to problems regarding treaties and Indian legal claims relating to the seizure of Indian lands.

The American Indians refused to sign any treaties after the Revolutionary War. The Constitution never precisely defined the relationship between the Americans and the Indian tribes. The Americans didn’t think about the outcome of the lives for the American Indians with their actions. The Americans took their land and resources and forced them to move to reserves made for the Indians. Over time, the Americans continued to take land.

  1. As western settlers sought free navigation of the Mississippi River, the United States forged diplomatic initiatives to manage the conflict with Spain and to deal with the continued British presence on the American continent. (Jay’s Treaty, Pinckney’s Treaty)

Jay’s Treaty was an agreement between the Americans and the British, stating that if the British removed their forts south of the Great Lakes, the British could cross their borders without a problem. Pinckney’s Treaty gave Americans access to land past New Orleans and it continued to get rid of Spanish influence in North America. Overall, both the treaties gave Americans access to land around the Mississippi River.

Key Concept 3.3

Migration within North America, cooperative interaction, and competition for resources raised questions about boundaries and policies, intensified conflicts among peoples and nations, and led to contests over the creation of a multiethnic, multiracial national identity.

III New voices for national identity challenged tendencies to cling to regional identities, contributing to the emergence of distinctly American cultural expressions.

A. As national political institutions developed in the new United States, varying regionally based positions on economic, political, social, and foreign policy issues promoted the development of political parties.

The political parties were represented by two political figures, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. John Adams was the Vice President under Washington, but become President in 1796 when Washington stepped down. He represented the Federalist Party that favored a strong central government rather than stronger state governments. Many of the citizens who supported Federalists were wealthy businessmen. Federalists wanted to stay neutral in the conflict between Great Britain and French because they didn’t want to pick a side on the conflict. They thought because America had ties with French and Great Britain that whichever side they supported, they would need to spend their own money to supply them what they needed. Thomas Jefferson, on the other hand, was the leader of the Anti-Federalist party and was the Secretary of State under Washington and Vice President under John Adams. Many of the citizens who supported this party were farmers and uneducated people. In foreign policy, Anti-Federalists wanted to help Great Britain because they were a huge trading power that would help boost their economy in the long run. They thought helping the British would benefit them after the conflict ended, developing a strong alliance with a huge trading power.

B. The expansion of slavery in the lower South and adjacent western lands, and it gradual disappearance elsewhere, began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution.

As slavery became less of a presence in the North and the West, the South slowly drifted away from the Union in their views on slavery. In the making of the Constitution, many representatives from the North wanted to abolish slavery from the country as a whole, but representatives from the South would never agree to those terms. The South stayed stuck in their old ways of slavery and therefore didn’t evolve to the new ways to improve economy as the North did and instead stayed plantation based.

C. Enlightenment ideas and women’s experiences in the movement for independence promoted an ideal of “republican motherhood,” which called on white women to maintain and teach republican values within the family and granted women a new importance in American political culture.

Women who were considered “republican mothers” were mothers who raised their children to meet the ideals of the new government and democratic ideals. Up until this time, besides the assistance in boycotting, women had not been heavily involved in the Revolutionary cause other than supporting the men. This was them taking it upon themselves to further develop the nationalism that comes with making a new country. The women were affected by the Enlightenment ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers and believed as well as advocated natural rights of human beings, that are given to everybody by God.

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