Leaders had to be there in order to get the project started because it was an international project between two countries. England’s key natural defense is the fact that they have a body of water surrounding them, which naturally protects their country. Allowing a direct tunnel route to the other country could be seen as a way to deceive the other and start a war. Trust had to be there between the two countries and they needed to be on the same page when starting a project such as this.
Example Leader- French President Francois Mitterrand (France)
Example Leader- Prime Minister Margaret Thratcher (England)
Careful Planning and Preparation was needed because the project was too immense not to create a solid plan.
Example of Planning- The design itself went through many different iterations and it took years to finalize the design.
Example of Planning- During the construction process, the two sides had to find a way to join the two sides. There was a lot of precession and planning to it, plenty of calculations were done before and during the constructing of the tunnels.
Example of Planning- The construction company needed to find a way to finance the entire project. They were given the power and ability to take charge in the project until its completion.
Those in charge of the project needed to be good at Problem Solving due to the fact that something like this was ever attempted. Being able to create newly designed equipment and being able to work under such depths caused a problem to the project.
Example of Problem Solving- Equipment used for boring has been used for a while now, but never under the conditions that were needed for the project. They needed it to be capable of digging under the English Channel, knowing that excess water would have been a huge problem if a solution were not there.
Example of Problem Solving- Not knowing which plan would be the best choice was a problem for the leaders, so they decided to start a contest. The contest allowed different companies to propose their idea and to see if it reached the qualifications that the leaders were looking for. By creating certain standards that every plan had to follow, it allowed them to decrease the amount of ideas and decide which plan was the most viable.
After everything was said and done, the entire project was considered to be a failure. The project was meant to only take 5 years to complete, but it ended up taking an additional year to finish the necessary adjustments. Financing the project was definitely a problem at the beginning because they needed to raise the funds to do it. Originally the project was only supposed to cost 2.6 billion pounds, but they were unable to reach that goal and ended up making it a 4.6 billion pound project. The initial design had its problems because it didn’t allow for air conditioning to be installed. They did not think it was necessary until later on when they realized what it actually felt like down there. They needed to add it because of the crude climate and the need to recycle air. Because of
It was anticipated that once the tunnel was completed that the ferry business would go out of business, but that did not happen. A lot of the income was expected to come from those who once took the ferry and would eventually switchover to train transportation instead. Many of the ferry riders that said they would use the train decided not to when the ferry business made some slight changes. Ferry owners did the only thing they could do and that was to decrease the prices and increase the services that were offered. Because of this, the ferries were able to stay open for business and continue to thrive off of the extremely popular way of transportation. Another unanticipated occurrence was when air travel from France to England decreased in price and allowed for cheap travel. It would have been a good idea to know how the competing ways of transportation would have reacted towards the instillation of the train and having multiple ways on how they could possibly react to make them more profitable.
The project was definitely an interesting project due to it being the first of its kind, but I honestly do not know if I would actually go through with it. There are already all sorts of different methods of transportation and unless something catastrophic happens to those other methods, its unlikely people are just going to change their means of transportation. Most people tend to stay with what they feel comfortable with, such as taking a ferry or flying by plane, and people are not going to switch over so easily unless they are persuaded. The project was relatively risky because they started on opposite sides and any slight miscalculation could have given them a major setback. Luckily this did not occur and they were able to create it with minimal problems during its construction.
The image shows what the tunnel looks like; the tunnel on the left is the north tunnel, the one in the middle is the service tunnel, and the one on the right is the south tunnel. The small room(orange) acts as an equipment room and the pathway(yellow/green) acts as a cross-passage.
North/South Tunnels- 7.6m diameter and 30m apart
Service Tunnel- 4.8m diameter and 15m apart from North and South Tunnel
Each train is about the same size as 8 football fields, which add up to 2,880 feet. Can reach up to speeds of 300 km/h or 186mph.