Then how is he considered among the group of the learned? One who knows all this and then does not prefer the next abode to the present world is a captive of the Shai~&n and one whose appetites have destroyed him and whose misery has conquered him. Then how can one who holds.
such a rank be counted among the party of the learned? 208
In the traditions of MOM something is quoted that
Allah (said to MOM): "The least that I shall do to a learned person who prefers his sensual desire to my love
is to prevent him from the pleasure or delights of my confidential conversation.. 0 D&$Ud, do not inquire about me from a learned man whom the world has intoxicated, for he will prevent you from the way of my love. They are-highwaymen (who are) against my servants. 0 Wild, if you see anyone seeking me, serve him, 0 Da'ud, if anyone returns a
fugitive to me, I shall inscribe his name as a sagacious 20
person whom I shall never punish."
On account of that al-Hasan said,"The punishment of the learned is the death of one's heart, and the death of one's
heart is to seek the present world with deeds which belong 210
to the next abode."
For that reason Yahya Bin Ma`€dh said, "Verily the glory of wisdom and knowledge depart, if one seeks the present world with them."
Sa'Sd Bin al-Musaiyab said, "If you see a learned per
## son coming to princes,(you will know) he is a robber."
'Umar said, "If you see a learned person who is in love with the present world, (you should) suspect him about your
religion; for every lover delves deeply into what he loves." 212
"i read in some books of the past", said Malik Bin Dln&r,
"that Allah says that the easiest thing to do to a learned - - - - - - - - - - - -
# reading wa mawt al-gaib with SMZ though omitted in margin ## This whole sentence is omitted by SMZ.
person, if he loves the present world, is to remove my sweet communion from his heart."
A man wrote to his brother, "Verily knowledge has been given to you (by Allah). Then do not extinguish the light of your learning with the darkness of sins; for you will remain in darkness in a time when the people of knowledge are advancing in the light of their knowledge."
Yahya Ibn Ma'Adh al-RAzi used to say to the worldly divines, "0 possessors of knowledge, your castles are like (those of) Caesar; your houses, like those of the Persian
kings; your clothes, like those of Tahir; your sandals, like
those of Goliath; your vehicles, like those of QArun; your receptacles, like those of Pharaoh; your places of mourning, like those of the days of ignorance; and your schools of
thought, like those of the Shai~an. Then where is the Mu4ammadan law?
The poet said,
The shepherd of the sheep wards off the wolf from them;
Then how would it be, if their shepherds were wolves?"
Another said, "0 company of readers (devotees in read
ing the Qur'an), 0 salt of the country,
What restores salt, if it has become spoiled?"
# SMZ omits al-sharl'ah
Somebody asked one of the gnostics (al-'arifin), "Do you think that one to whom disobedience is pleasing does not know Allah?"
He replied, "I do not doubt but that one who prefers the present world to the next abode does not know Allah, and the latter (i.e. the next abode) is of a hgiher quality than the former (i.e. the present world) by a great deal."
Do not think that it is sufficient to forsake wealth
in following the other-worldly divines,, for (the desire for) prestige is more harmful than wealth. Therefore Bishr said, "Relate to us one of the sections about the present world",
(and he also said), "If you hear a man say, 'Relate to us',
then verily he Bays, 'Make ample room for me.'"
Bishr Bin al-Harith buried a quantity of about ten
lots of books, the lots varying in size between a basket and a bookcase; and he used to say, " I have a great longing to relate. Even If my appetite for relating should depart from me, I should still relate."
He and others said, "If you have a great longing to relate, be silent; then if you have no desire, (you may) relate." This is because delight in the prestige of giving bene
fit fit and the function of guiding is the greatest enjoyment In
# SMZ gives la-tuhaddith
## 7eading min kull na'lm with SMZ; not lidhah min kull tanat'um
the present world.. who responds to his sensual desire regarding this is one of the sons of the present world. On account of that al-Thawri said, "The allurement of relating
is more intense than that of people, wealth, and children." Then how is it that you do not fear its captivation`s while
it was said (even) to the chief of apostles (Muhammad), "Had: we not made you firm, you would have been about to incline a little towards thIt"
Sahl (Ibn 'Abdullah) said, " All knowledge is (for the) J# present world except that by which the next abode is desired,
and all acts except sincerity go with the wind."
Sahi also said, "All people except the learned are dead;
the learned are intokica.tbd (with the present world) except
those who act (according to their knowledge); and all-of those who act are deceived or deluded except the sincere;
and the sincere person is.in fear until he knows what the
220 end has in store for him."
Abu SulaimAn al-MrAni said, "if a man seeks: a tradi
tion or if he marries or travels in search of a living, he 222
has leaned toward the present world.n In reality, he meant
by it (i.e. the quest of a tradition) the search for "complete chains of support characterized by having few inter
mediaries (al-as&nld al-'allyah)" or the search for tradi
tions which he does not need in his quest for the next abode.
'lea said, "How shall that one whose journey is to the next abode be counted among the people of knowledge, while he is persevering on the way of his present worldV"
He also said, "How is that one counted among the people of knowledge who seeks theology for information, not in or
der to act according to it?"
SAlih Ibn Hasan al-Nadarl said, "I saw the elders while they were seeking refuge with Allah from the wicked person who is learned in usage (al-sunnah)."
It is related that Abu Hurairah said,"The Messenger of Allah said, 'Whoever seeks knowledge of that with which one (usually) seeks to please Allah-- whoever seeks this kind of knowledge in order to attain compensation in the present world will not find the goodness of the Garden on the day of Judgment."
Allah has described the corrupt divines as eating the present world by knowledge, and he describes other-worldly
divines with "humility and asceticism". About the worldly 225
divines He said, "When Allah entered into a covenant with
clear to man and not hide it', they cast it behind their backs and sold it for a cheap price" (3:184).
About the other-worldly divines He said, "Among the people of the book are those who believe in Allah and what He has sent down to you and what He has sent down to them, while they were humble to Allah. They do not sell the signs of Allah for somethi cheap. They have their reward with their Lord"(3:198-9).
One of the Fathers said, "The learned will be assembled in the company of the prophets, and the judges will be gathered in the company of the Sultans." By "judges" he meant every jurisconsult whose objective is the quest of the present world with his knowledge.
Abu al-DardA' related that the Prophet said, "Allah commissioned some of the prophe-s (thus), 'Say to those who study jurisprudence for other than religion and learn for other than doing and seek the present world with the deeds of the next abode (that) among beople they wear sheep skins while their hearts are like the hearts of wolves; their tongues are sweeter than honey, while their hearts are more
bitter than aloe. 0 me! 0 may! they deceive and mock me. 4
I will surely assign them a punishment which will leave the
mild -mannered of them confused."
-------- --------------------------# reading with SMZ utThanna
Al-DahhAk, relating on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas,
said, "The Messenger of Allah said, 'The learned of this
people are two kinds of men: a.). a man to whom Allah gave knowledge and who spent it for people. He took no reward for it, nor did he sell it for a price. For that one, the
birds of the air, the fish of the sea, the beasts of the
earth, and the noble-minded writers will pray. On the day of
resurrection he will rise up before: Allah as an honorable lord, even to being a companion of the messengers; and b).
a man to whom Allah gave knowledge in the present world. He
was niggardly with it towards Allah's servants, accepted pay
for it, and sold it for a price. On the day of judgment, that one will come bridled with a bit (made) of fire (about
whom) a crier will announce before the chiefs of mankind, 'This is So-and-so, the son of So-and-so, to whom Allah gave knowledge in the present world. He was niggardly with it towards His servants; He accepted pay for it; and sold it
for a price'. Then he will. be punished until he finishes 228 paying back his account to people."
Even more severe than this is that which someone related (about eating up the present world with one's knowledge). (He said), "A man used to serve Misa, and he began to say, 'Musa, Allah's Chosen, said to me','Musa, Allah's con
fidential friend, said to me', 'Musa, Allah's interlocutor,
related to me', until he became rich in property and increased in wealth (thereby). Then Musa, missing him, began to ask about him and did not find any news of him until one
day a man came to him leading a pig with a black rope around. its neck. So Mesa said to him, "Do you know So-and-so?'
"He replied, 'Yes, he is this pig.'
"Then Musa said, '0 Lord, I beg you to return him to his proper state so that I might ask him why this happened to him.'
"Then Allah inspired him (Musa),'Had you irttoked'._3- me with what Adam invoked me or even less, I should not have answered you concerning it, but I shall tell you why I did
this to him: he used to seek the present world with his re229
What Ma'rEdh Ibn Jabal related in a tradition about the
Prophet which is both exalted and restricted (marfu' wa mauis even more severe (a.hla~) guf)A. He said, "It is an allurement for a learned man to
like to like to speak more than to listen. In speech there is-adornment and excess, and its possessor is not free of sin. In silence there is safety and knowledge."
There Is the learned man who hoards his knowledge and
who does not like it to be found with someone else. Such 230 a one is on the first step (darak) of the Fire.
There Is the learned man who, according to his knowledge,
is in the rank of the sultan. If anyone rejects any of his knowledge or if somebody scorns a little bit of his due, he becomes angry. Such a one is on the second step of the Fire.
Then there is the learned person who causes his knowledge and traditions about unusual cases to be for the nobility and the rich, and does not consider the needy suitable for it. That person is on the third step of the Fire.
Then there is the learned person who appoints himself to the giving of legal opinions and who gives them wrongly. Al hates pretenders. So that person is on the fourth step of the Fire.
There is the learned man who speaks the speech of the Jews and the Christians so that his knowledge will be abundant, with it. Such a one is on the fifth step of the Fire.
There is the learned man who takes his knowledge as a means of reputation and to be considered noble and as a memorial among people. That one is on the sixth step of the Fire.
Then there is the learned person whose pride and conceit disturb him., When he exhorts, he reproaches (others); when somebody exhorts him, he disdains (his advice). Such a one is on the seventh step of the Fire.
So, my brother, you ought to be quiet; for by it, you will conquer the Shaitan. And beware of laughing without
any (cause of) wonder or walking without any purpose.
In another tradition (we read): Verily for the worshipper there will be spread abroad an amount of praise (sufficient) to fill the space between the East and the
West, while with Allah (it will only be) as much as the weight of a mosquito's wing.
It is related that after Hasan (al-Basrl) had come
away from his session a certain man from Khurasan carried
a sack to him in which there were five thousand dirhams and ten changes of clothes made of thin linen. 0 father of Sa'•id, this ( pointing to the dirhams) is the means of sustenance, and these (pointing to the garments) are the clothes."
Al-Hasan said, "Pay Allah preserve you in health. Gather t:o yourself your means of sustenance and your garments, for we have no need of that. For truly, one who sits in such a session as mine and accepts such things from people
will. meet Allah on the judgment day and will have no good 232
(It is related) on the authority of Jabir (Ibn 'Abd233
allah al-Ansari) with well-grounded evidence that he said,
"The Messenger of Allah said, 'Do not sit with every learned person, but with that learned person who calls you from five (characteristics) to five (others): a) from doubt to certain belief (al-yagin); b) from hypocrisy to sincerity; c) from
desire (for the present world) to asceticism; d) from pride 234 to humility; and e) from enmity to advice."
(In the story of Qarun) Allah said, "In all his pomp he (Qarun) went out to his people. Those who desired the life- of the present world said, 'Oh that we had something similar to that which was bestowed on Qarun. For verily he is the possessor of good fortune', while those to whom
knowledge was given said, 'Woe to you. Allah's reward is. 2 5 better for one who believes (and does well)----"(28:79-80 .
Allah caused the people of knowledge to recognize the preference of the next abode over the present world.
2. Another sign (of the other-worldly divines) is that his deed does not contradict his speech, rather he does not enjoin anythi which he is not the first to do.
Allah said, "Do you enjoin people to do good and forget yourselves?" (2:41).
He said, "To say something and then not to do it is to
increase hatred with Allah" (61:3).
In the story of Shu'aib Allah said (or caused Shu'aib
to say), "I do not wish to contradict you in that which I forbid you"(11:90).
Allah said, "Fear Allah and He will give you knowledge" (2:282). And He said, "Fear Allah and know" (2:190, 192, 199, 223, 231, 233), and "Fear Allah and hearken" (5:107).
Allah said to 'Isa, "0 Son of Miriam, preach to your
self. Then, when you have preached to yourself, preach to 237 people. Otherwise, avoid me out of shame."
The Messenger of Allah said, "The time when I made my night journey, I passed by some peoples whose lips had been cut with scissors of fire. I asked, 'Who are you?' and they replied, 'We used to enjoin (others) to do good and did not do it (ourselves), and we used to forbid evil and do it."'
Muhammad said, "The (cause) of my people's destruction is the learned person who is impious and the worshipper who is ignorant. The most wicked of all people is the learned person who is evil, and the most excellent of all people
is the learned person who Is good."
Al-AuzVi said, "The tombs complained about the ill
smelling corpses of unbelievers which they found, and Allah revealed (this) to them, 'The interiors of the corrupt divine:s are more Ill-smelling than that which troubles you"'. (Then they complained no more).
Al-Fudail Ibn 'AyySd said, "It has reached me that the Judgment day will begin with the learned who are dissolute (even) before idol worshippers."
"Woe to the one who does not know", said Abu al-Darda', "but a sevenfold woe to the one who knows and does not do." Al-Sha'bi said, "On the day of judgment some of the
people of the Garden will look upon some of the people of the Fire, and they will say to them, 'What caused you to enter the Fire, while Allah caused us to enter the Garden
by the favor of your training and teaching?' Then they will reply, 'Surely, we used to enjoin good and not do it; and
forbid evil and do it.'"
"On the day of judgment", said Hatim al-Asamm, "no one has more regret than the man who taught people knowledge according to which they acted, while he (himself) did not do ;so. By means of him they succeeded, while he perished."
Mllik Ibn Dinar said, "Verily, if a learned person does not act according to his knowledge, his exhortation slips off (people' ) hearts as rain off a smooth stone."
Then they composed a bit of rhymed prose:
0 you who exhort people, you have become suspected;
For you stigmatize them with things which you do,
In advising them with exhortation you have become
For, by my life, you commit the things which destroy. You find fault with the world and those who desire it, While your desire for it is greater than theirs.
the same thing. Your disgrace will be great, if you do."
IbrAhIm Ibn Adham said, "I passed by a stone in Mecca
on which was written: 'Overturn me and you will receive a lesson.' So I overturned it; and, behold, on it was written: 'You do not do what you know (you should do). Then how is
it that you seek knowledge of that which you do not know?"242
Ibn al-SammAk said, "Many a one who reminds others of Allah is (himself) forgetful of Him; many a one who causes others to fear Allah is bold towards Him; many a one who brings others close to Allah is far from Him; many a one who calls others to Allah is a fugitive from Him; and many a person who reads Allah's book is stripped bare of His signs or verses.
IbrAhim Ibn Adham said, "We used good Arabic style In our speech, and did not speak it incorrectly; and we made mistakes In our deeds, and did not express ourselves clear
(Abu 'Abdullah) Makhfll related on the authority of 'Abd 244 *
al-Rahm&n Ibn Ghanam who said, "Ten Companions of the Apostle
of Allah related (this) to me, 'We were studying knowledge in the Mosque of auba', when the Messenger of Allah came out (and, confronting) us, said, 'Learn what you want to know, but Allah will never reward you until you act."'
'Isa said, "Anyone who learns knowledge and who does not
acct according to it, is like a woman who secretly commits adultery and becomes pregnant. Then her pregnancy appears. So she is disgraced openly. In like manner, by means of truthful witnesses,on the day of judgment Allah will shame anyone who does not act according to his knowledge.'
Ma'adh said, "Avoid the error of a learned person, because his influence among people is great. Then they follow him In his fall."
'Umar said, "When a learned person falls, a world of people fall with him." And he said, "There are three (char
acters) by which Islam is destroyed. One of them is the
fall of a learned person."
Ibn Mas'fld said, "There will come a time to people in which the sweetness of their hearts will become salty or bitter. In that day the learned and the pupil will not benefit by knowledge. The hearts of their learned will be like salty land on which the rain of the heavens will fall and not find any sweetness for itself. That will be when the hearts of the learned are inclined to love the present world and prefer it to the next abode. At that time Allah will deprive them of the springs of wisdom and extinguish the lamps of guidance from their hearts."
When you meet one of their learned, he will tell you
with his tongue that he fears Allah, while his ungodliness
is obvious in his action. How fertile are tongues In that time and how barren are hearts! By Allah! the one whom(we mean when we say) "There is no god but He", that is only because the teachers taught for some reason other than to please
Allah and the pupils learned for some purpose other than Allah. 245 (Both) in the Taurat and Injil is written:"Do not seek
knowledge of that which you do not know until you do what 245
you (already) know."
Hadhifah said, "Verily you are (living) in an epoch in
which anyone who neglects one tenth of what he knows will perish, and there will come a time in which anyone who does
one tenth of what he knows will be saved." That is on ac248
count of the increase of slackers.
You should know that a learned person is like a judge, and Muhammad has said, "There are three kinds of judges: a) a judge who judges rightly and knows. Such a one is in the Garden; b) a judge who judges wrongly whether he knows or not. That kind of judge is in the Fire; and c) a judge who
judges differently from what Allah commands him. That one 249
is in the Fire."
Ka'b (Ibn Mni' al-Hamirl al-Akhbar) said, "In the last
days there will be the learned who will preach to people about asceticism in the present world but will not be ascetic
themselves; they will cause people to fear, while they themselves will not fear; they will forbid others from hobnobbing with governors, while they themselves will do it; and they will prefer the present world to the next abode (as they) devour it with their tongues and cause the rich rather than the poor to draw nigh. They will be mutually Jealous about knowledge, just as women are mutually jealous about their men, while one of them (i.e. the learned) will
hate his companion, if he sits with somebody else. These are
the insolent who are enemies of (Allah) the Merciful. Muhammad said, "Many a time the Shaitan will outsrip you with knowledge."
Muhammad replied, "He will say, 'Seek knowledge but do not act until you know', and one will remain, as far as knowledge is concerned, only a speaker; and, as far as doing is concerned, a procrastinator until he dies without acting
2 52 (upon his knowledge)."
Sari al-SaqI (Ibn al-Mufallas) said, "A man who had
had a great hankering for exoteric knowledge ('ilm al-zahir)
drew apart in order to apply himself to acts of devotion. So I asked him(why he had forsaken his quest). "
# reading yasbuqukum with SMZ instead of yusauwifukum
"'In a dream', he replied, 'I saw one speaking who was saying to me, 'For as long as you lose knowledge, may Allah make you lost.' Then I said, 'Verily, I shall preserve it.' He replied, '(the way) to preserve knowledge is to act ac