June 17, 2015 9: 30 A. M. Cet



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JUNE 17, 2015

9:30 A.M. CET

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE DIGITAL SWITCHOVER
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This is being provided in a rough‑draft format. Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) is provided in order to facilitate communication accessibility and may not be a totally verbatim record of the proceedings.
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>> CHRISTOPH DOSCH: Good morning, Ladies and Gentlemen. My name is Christoph Dosch. I am the Chairman of Study Group 6 and I have the honor to open this meeting. Yes. Sure. Can we first check the interpretation please? Can we go to the on the floor? So this is the actual language and then we can go to English.

>> Good morning.

>> CHRISTOPH DOSCH: It is working and we go to the French. So the French is also working. And we go to the ‑‑ sometimes problems here. We go to the Spanish. Thank you. And then we have the Russian. Sorry. Sorry I couldn't hear the Russian. Good morning. And then we have the Chinese. Hello. Good morning. And last but not least we have Arabic.
So thank you. So that is working. Now I go back to English. Okay. So I would like first to introduce you to the programme. You have all gotten a handout I hope that tells you what happens today. I thank you all for coming numerously to this meeting. Some months ago the idea was born to hold a symposium at the occasion of the GE06 agreement but then we realized very quickly that we should widen the scope in to the future of digital television worldwide and that's now reflected in the programme. As you can see on the screen I hope, yeah, as you can see on the screen we have after the welcome address by the director we have four sessions. First of all, session on the technical regulatory frameworks. Then a history and also how ITU has handled the digital transition in the past up to now. And then we have the first coffee break and session 2 then gives an overview of some countries who are prepared to present their experience with the Digital Switchover. And then in the afternoon after lunch break we talk about advanced technologies in television, technology is advancing fast. We see today new frontiers for audio and video and also for interactive television and that's what will be reported there. And then we have session 4 that talks about the sustainable ecosystem for digital television and a closing Round Table discussion Chaired by Francois Rancy and at the end we have the honor to give awards and certificates to what we have named in our preparatory work outstanding experts of GE06, the Geneva Agreement '06. This is the programme for today. Please do not forget to look to demonstrations on the last page of your handout. There are breath taking demonstrations on the future of television. Please have a look. Now I would like to invite those who have not yet given their presentation, those speakers to hand out in the first coffee break their USB sticks to the two colleagues here at the far end that will put them on the presentation computer so that we could run smoothly through the programme. Timing is very tight. And therefore we have to have all the presentations on one single computer in order to avoid setup time.
Having said this I welcome you again on my behalf and I now have the pleasure to refer to Mr. Francois Rancy the director of the BR. You have the floor.

>> FRANCOIS RANCY: Thank you Christoph. Good morning, Ladies and Gentlemen. I would like to wish you a warm welcome on behalf of Mr. Houlin Zhao, Secretary‑General of the ITU. A warm welcome to this international symposium of the Digital Switchover which takes place in a very special year since we celebrate our 150th anniversary.


The International Telecommunications Union, the oldest member of the United Nations family was established in 1865 and continues its work through its members and with 193 Member States, 650 sector members with private sector, 92 academic institutions and 30 nationalship members dealing with state of the art telecommunications and information and communication technologies. Broadcasting has always been an important part of the ITU since the first frequency bands were allocated to the broadcasting service at the first ITU conference held after the World War I in 1927 in Washington D.C. USA. Broadcasting has played an essential role in the political, social and cultural life of the world citizens. I have no doubt that broadcasting will continue to prosper in its important tasks of informing, educating, and entertaining our societies while providing the most spectrally efficient way of disseminating the same information to all.
Today, 17 June 2015 marks a historic landmark for broadcasting for 119 countries in Europe, Africa, Middle East and Central Asia, as from today digital television broadcasting will be able to in this region to develop its full potential by enjoying full rights in using the UHF spectrum and for most countries in the region the VHF spectrum. And no longer need to protect analog transmissions.
This is a key step in the transition from analog to digital television broadcasting. The process which began in June 2006 has re‑envisioned the way the world watches TV and opened the way for innovations and new developments in the broadcast industry. The GE06 agreement adopted by 119 countries nine years ago today provides not only new possibilities for structured development of digital terrestrial broadcasting but also sufficient flexibilities for adaptation to the changing telecommunication environment.
Digital TV broadcasting offers many advantages over analog systems for end users, operators and regulators. Apart from increased quality and number of programmes digital systems can provide new innovative services such as interactive TV, electronic programme guides and mobile TV as well as transsubmit image and sound in high definition and ultra high definition. Digital TV requires less energy to ensure the same coverage as for analog while decreasing overall costs of transmission. The more efficient use of radio spectrum broad on by digital TV also allows for the so‑called digital dividend resulting from freeing up spectrum for the use of broadcasting, of course, but also other key services such as mobile broadband. Today's symposium marks a milestone for digital terrestrial television towards establishing a more equitable just and people centered Information Society. Connecting the unconnected in underserved and remote community and closing the digital divide.
Today we'll take stock of the countries that have achieved or are in the process of achieving the switchover from analog to digital television and explore the technical and regulatory frameworks required to complete the transition to digital TV and build accessible sustainable ecosystem for broadcasting in the future. We'll also celebrate the outstanding contribution of broadcasting to the cultural information educational and entertainment buildup of our society for nearly a century. And how digital technologies would contribute to further enhance this contribution in the future.
We are also very fortunate to have many experts from around the world at this symposium today to explore the objectives of the transition from analog to digital broadcasting and to take a look at advances in television such as ultra high definition, integrated broadcast systems, smart TV platforms as well as building a sustainable ecosystem for digital TV in the future and a spectrum requirements. New technologies related to digital broadcasting include HD TV, UHDTV hybrid TV, extended image dynamic range, higher frame rates and immersive audio which would be highlighted by leading developers and experts from ATDI, BBC, EBU, Dolby, Fraunhofer and NHK and LS telecom and Sony and others. Today we are passing the deadline established nine years ago I am glad to report that 35% of the countries in the region already achieved the Digital Switchover and I would like to congratulate them.
Some of them are present like Tanzania, Germany, Japan. 38% of them are in the process of rolling out digital TV broadcasting and switching off analog transmissions. While 27% are still to start the process. I would like to encourage all of them to complete this process to benefit from digital technologies as soon as possible.
I also would like to encourage them to ensure that their analog assignments still in operation shall not cause harmful interference to digital transmissions and, of course, shall not suffer harmful interference since the protection of this analog assignments is no longer in short by the GE06 agreement. As was at case before 17 June 2015 frequency coordination in border areas is a key element in ensuring that these areas continue to enjoy television reception whether analog or digital.
I note that the GE06 frequency plan has been designed to reuse in the digital plan about 30% of the analog assignments. This should facilitate the Resolution of remaining any possible cross‑border interference conflicts.
As always the ITU will keep promoting best practices in the use of spectrum and introducing in the radio regulations when required new provision which enable their development while protecting other services, hence providing long term assurance for investments in radiocommunication systems including broadcasting. The ITU bureaus of telecom development and radiocommunication bureau will therefore continue as they have done in the past to support the efforts of its members in all regions to successfully complete the DSO hopefully by 2020. That's an objective that we have given ourselves in the ITU operational plan.
Ladies and Gentlemen, before concluding allow me to thank you for your participation whether here in Geneva or remotely and I look forward to the discussion that will take place today on this very important issue which will be covered along the topics you mentioned Chris, the objective of the transition, the DSO itself, the advanced technologies for television and the buildup of sustainable ecosystem for broadcasting. We will also take the opportunity of this event to honor the individuals who dedicated themselves to the success of the GE06 conference. This being said I wish you a very successful symposium today. Thank you for your attention.
(Applause.)

>> CHRISTOPH DOSCH: Thank you very much Mr. Director. Now in order to entertain you a little bit there is a little video that the ITU has prepared before we go to the first session.

>> Television is something we just take for granted but what's behind it and how did we get to where we are today.

>> In June 2006 an ITU conference of more than 1,000 Delegates took place here in Geneva it was to transformed the world of broadcasting and opens the doors to a new age of television. By the end of the conference 104 nations of Europe, Africa and the Middle East had agreed a plan to introduce digital television. The target was to complete the task in just nine years deadline 1 a.m. 17th of June 2015. Although it would be a massive undertaking it would mean more quality, more choice and more flexibility. It would liberate television. But before that a plan was needed to agree what digital television transmitters could go where. That plan came out of the conference. Television transmitters illuminate a certain area of land. In the area they light up and viewers can watch the TV services. Planning television services is like creating a giant jigsaw puzzle. At the same time they needed to make sure that broadcast from each transmitter didn't interfere with viewers in other countries. And the conference started a participating nations made ore 70,000 requests for transmitters channels and coverage areas and imagine being asked to create a jigsaw puzzle with over 70,000 pieces where each piece has to fit and respect rules. Give the nations what they wanted. It was achieved by harnessing sophisticated computer software developed in the EBU together with the computer hardware power. The success of the conference invited the impetus of the transition to digital television that happened all over the world.

>> It is your own TV. Nobody control your transmission. Also transmit something and much cheaper. For example, it would take work benefit for UAE viewer.

>> As we have been taught broadcasting in Tanzania now we have the free service. Including Pay‑TV services. So we have more channels and more choice.

>> In France it was important both for broadcasting because that was enabling to introduce new services. Also because it was enabling to get the digital dividend and the eight megahertz available for the mobile service.

>> Digital dividend in this case the free map of the spectrum enable strategy targets of having 30% of the population of broadband by 2017.

>> It is important that both broadcast services and ‑‑ that's why we think that other nations can benefit from the observation of the problems that we are facing throughout the process. And the solutions we adopt.

>> The help of ITU BR we are going to continue to assist those in countries who are not going to achieve on June 15 by assured they will not be affected by other countries that already meet the deadline.

>> I would like to congratulate the administrations which have successfully switched to digital television broadcasting. As for the others they can be assured of the continued support of the ITU to carry out this process. I wish all countries a successful transition to digital television broadcasting.

>> Because of the flexibility that digital offers television has come a very long way from a small and simple TV set in the corner to multiple large screens with high definition images. Digital technology also allows TVs to connect up to the Internet, to create a world where television Networks and Internet Networks understand and cooperate with each other. Tomorrow may bring even further steps to reality, the new worlds of ultra high definition television in immersive audio. What will all of these achievements mean for the way we live our lives? Whatever they are all the legacy of the ITU conference in 2006.

>> CHRISTOPH DOSCH: Okay. So thanks to the department of ITU that compiled this little video. And now we are going straight to session 2 ‑‑ session 1, excuse me and I give the floor again to the director in order to guide this session. You have the floor.

>> FRANCOIS RANCY: Thank you again Chris. So this first session will be about the objectives of the transition to digital TV. The technical frameworks. I will first give the floor to Phil Laven, who is the Chairman of the DVT steering board to address the issue of why digital and why a new plan. Phil you have the floor.



>> PHIL LAVEN: Thank you. I have been given the task of starting off this conference with the answers to two questions, why digital and why a new plan. I think for most of us the first question is so obvious, we don't need to debate it. But actually when, you know, we realize that many countries have yet to start digital perhaps we need to remind everyone why digital is important. But before doing that, it is always useful to have sort of a historical perspective and remind ourselves that analog broadcasting has been very successful. In the developed countries AM radio is new in decline but still used by billions of listeners every day. FM is the principle mechanism of radio in most countries but insufficient spectrum to accommodate the growing demand with new services. With analog television was dominate nor many years but expansion was very limited. Broadcasters over the years enhance their services, FM radio added stereo sound and RDS and television we added color, a major improvement. Digital stereo sound and teletext and subtitles and all of that you enhancements were worthwhile but very constrained by the need for backwards compatibility. In essence the basic standards for analog broadcasting have been unchanged for many years. AM radio since the '20s and FM radio since the 1950s and television probably since the 1940s but I think we look at adjacent fields and when Sony and Philips introduced the compact disk it was a great revolution, a transition to digital. But not many people thought that it was essential that these compact disks should also play on gramophone players and we said no, no. And we really got to change. We got to abandon backwards compatibility and digital is a time I do that. There were some CDs that were produced one side were CDs and LPs on the other side. I don't flow why. But they did it. Going back to television, this is a spectrum analyzer picture of the situation in the UK in the London area in 1998 where you can see there are five analog TV services and you can see the vision carrier, sound carrier, stair row sound and then towards the end of 1998 the situation was changed completely by the additional six multiplexes. This little blocks that look like noise to be honest. And, you know, you look at this and you see several things. First of all, the digital services are transmitted at lower power than the analog which means less cost and less transmitter power and really good idea and each digital transmitter in that case delivered several SD TV services between 4 and 6 digital services were carried. So great improvement and you look there and you see one of the things in the analog world is never put analog transmitters on channels. And each of them are next to the very much higher power analog services. A great improvement on its way. Once you have started this you switch off the analog services and get much better coverage from the digital services. And I think we have also got to get used to the fact that digital services give you a range of options so that, for example, here with DBTV you can choose which modulation coding system to use and decide how many megabits per second you want to transmit in the channel and what character noise ratio. So you don't just say let's go through the highest data rate because if we do you got to have very much high power transmitter. So you have got a lot of flexibility and here are just a few of the operating points of DBTV and here are a few operating points of DBTV 2 which gets closer to the channel limit. The important thing to note is that we move away from the idea that one channel, one radio channel six megahertz, 7, 8 megahertz is equivalent to one TV programme. Digital systems achieve reliable performance by using a range of sophisticated digital modulation coding techniques such as CDFM, and each being modulated separately and advanced error correction systems but apart from the modulation the coding I think we got to pay tribute to digital compression which is a key ingredients. In the mid 1990s MPEG 2 video gave good quality SDTV at about 6 megabits per second which is about 3% uncompressed data rate. So we are throwing away 97% of the signal before it is transmitted and then miraculously at home people's television sets make it look almost the same as it started which is pretty amazing when you think about it. To be able to throw away 97%. Well, things have moved on quite dramatically. The MPEG 2 system was the first and here is a diagram showing how the different compression systems MPEG 2 require less data rate to deliver in this case 10 ATP services as time goes on. And you can see that when you change from MPEG 2 to the next version, MPEG 4 ABC or H264 you get a significant improvement and then we are about to move to the next one HTC and you can see that each new generation eventually delivers the same quality at about half of the data rate required by the previous generation. This is truly miraculous. The only trouble is to take benefit of it you have got to buy new television sets with new decoders in it. So to move from MPEG 2 to MPEG 4 means new television sets. So in the digital world broadcasters are facing the issue of going from one digital standard to another digital standard and we are going o have to get used to perhaps every 10, 15 years who knows. But it is really quite an important issue. Why a new plan? Well, in Europe we have had some really very good experience that was actually planning conference, the Stockholm '61 conference which lasted for many years was a really beneficial system and G84 was an updated for FM radio above 100 megahertz similarly went really well and when I talk to broadcasters around the world they often complain to me about interference issues from neighboring countries. It is your own fault because you never had a proper coordination process with your neighbors. You have done it just built Networks on an ad hoc basis and then discover that it interferes with your neighbors and they all say yes, but the ITU is really complicated. It is a really big event but it is really worthwhile. One or two people have said well, yes, but there was the experience we had with Geneva '75 which produced an LMFM plan and I have to admit that was a disaster. How many in the room were involved with GE 75? Nobody. I am getting really old. I can tell it really was a disaster. It was a 7 week conference and most of the first six weeks were spent arguing not about technical issues as you might expect but about vague concepts such as fair shares for all. Everyone wanted to make sure they all got fair shares. Very Laudable prospect but they made very little advance on how to achieve this until the beginning of the 7th week when they said well, we have got to finish the conference by Friday and we don't know how to do it. So we have come up with a proposal. All requirements which were submitted up to the first day of the conference, six weeks ago are hereby approved. And will go in to the plan and everyone said does that make sense? Of course it made no sense whatsoever. But it allowed the conference to finish on time. Actual it was a day late because it had to finish on a Saturday. But as a net result of this people went away from the conference saying magnificent. We have got a lot more frequencies than ever before. The only trouble was a lot more interference than ever before. Total disaster. Perhaps in Africa it worked. I think it did work in Africa but in Europe it didn't work. It was a disaster. So the EBU where I was working for many years said we have got to make sure that the update of Stockholm of '61 is really useful and it works. And I just remind you that the plan is not just the list of frequency assignments oral locations that are made at the event. But you need to have a great procedure of modifications of the plan and Stockholm '61 survived for more than 40 years because the plan could evolve to accommodate changing requirements.
In the mid 1990s many European countries were keen to launch digital radio and digital television services. They couldn't wait for an ITU conference because we were told it would be year 2000 and beyond. So the CPT organized two separate events. One in these (inaudible) for terrestrial DAB in 1995 and then the Chester agreement for DTV in 1997 and these events were very successful. They allowed DAB terrestrial services to start in various countries. They covered an area which was smaller than the European broadcasting area and here is a European broadcasting area and just remind you this is the planning area for GE06. Much, bigger and important to get this great. In conclusion I would say that digital broadcasting has many advantages. I think that everyone in the room knows that. Offers enhanced quality and/or more services and improved spectrum services and lower cost and lower power. Despite the successful work done by the CPT in the mid '90s the ITU planning conference which was originally called RRC was eagerly awaited in Europe and where you look at the EBU and its members they were very keen to support preparation for the conference. And during my time at the EBU before 2006 we put this as our highest priority. This was our No. 1 priority. We were doing lots of other things but a successful conference was top of our agenda. Because it had to work. It really had to work. So we were very keen to support the preparations we provided experts and we developed software and we provided people to run that which I think is some of the named individuals later today will talk about that. But we were very keen to support it. And to be honest, we were delighted it was such a great success. So Ladies and Gentlemen thank you very much for your attention.

>> FRANCOIS RANCY: Thank you very much Phil. I think not only European countries but obviously African countries and RCC countries were also expecting a lot from that conference and this is why the joint ‑‑ the planning area and I would like now to give the floor to Mr. Pham Hai who was one of the key players at the time on the BR side to take us through the GE06 journey. Thank you.

>> PHAM HAI: Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Good morning, Ladies and Gentlemen. Today we celebrate the 9th anniversary of the Geneva 06 agreement and I am reminded of my own 29th wedding anniversary which we celebrate recently. My wife and I went to a little French restaurant not far from our place and it was 12 o'clock midnight. We were the only one in the restaurant. We were just about to finish our second bottle of red wine and my wife and I raise our glasses, she said you are wonderful. How can I live without you. I was so touched. But I kidded, was that you or the wine talking. She said no, it is me talking to the wine.
(Laughter).

>> PHAM HAI: Ladies and Gentlemen, we have now ‑‑ I have ten minutes to take you through five years of journey. The destination as we heard is to have a digital plan for 119 countries using the two band inventory 4 and 5. Very quickly through the planning area, the frequency band and for the first time a plan for both digital sound and digital television. Tchs the first point of contention because many countries said band 3 is a television band. You shouldn't put sound in there. The journey started officially in 2001 when the ITU council session I think in July 2001 adopted firstly the Resolution 1195 relating to a conference just to revise the Stockholm '61. To look at the planning area covering the European broadcasting area only. In the same session they also consider the request to revise the Geneva '89 agreement. This is cover the African continent. So in the end it was decided in the Resolution 1195 modify to have ‑‑ to extend the planning area to cover European Africa and also the country in between. The Arab States country.


The next stop of the train Geneva 06 is 2002 when the task group 68 was set up and had their meeting in February ‑‑ in January 2002. It was Chaired by I think many of you know Stanco Pepper who is happily retiring on the sea. Then came the conference first session from the 10 to 28 April 2004. Attended by over a hundred participants and major tasks is to adopt the planning principle and criteria for the development of the digital plan. So this is a very standard practice in the ITU in terms of two session conference.
One of the decision is to decide on the propagation model. At the time there was a new ITU‑R recommendation, 1546 covering both mobile and broadcasting from 30 to 3,000 megahertz. However the conference decided to use a part of that and using nine different propagation zone that you can see here. Digital system TDAP for radio and DBTV for television. One of the specific characteristics of the plan is to take in to account to do the planning on the concept of allotment planning. In the past always has been assignment planning going back in to Geneva 75, '84 and previous plan. That's been the side, frequency and radiation patent. Going to the digital there is a new approach to planning where you only just specify the service area, the area you want to cover and the frequency. So you can see allotment planning just an area with a different ‑‑ throughout that ‑‑ throughout that area you can set up a single frequency network to cover that.
So this is the R star planning with the assignment multi frequency network and single frequency network for allotment planning. Digital as Phil Laven also mentioned there was so many possible configuration. So how do we plan for that? So the conference decided that ‑‑ decided a number of reference planning configuration. That's pick up three different, five different planning configurations that representing a group of possible configuration. So these are the three, four DBTV and for TDAP there is two mobile, and portable indoor.
And then allotment planning how do we know the ‑‑ how do we determine the interference from allotment, a set of allotment. Introduce the new concept of reference network. I think this was big contribution from a number of countries EBU members in the Central Europe in developing this concept. And this is allow us to do carry out planning based on the allotment planing approach. This is how the interference from reference network is calculated.
Then between the first and second session we have quite a busy Intersessional activity. And these are the timetables with the ITU and also the EBU starting trying to get the software in place. Administration to prepare input data and submit it to the BR for around the first planning exercise. The result was sent back to the administration resubmission of revised input data and the second set of results is to be submitted to the second session as the draft plan.
During the Intersessional period this three groups was set up. IPG basically looking over the development of the draft plan and make sure of the submission to the second session. Working under the IPG and also the director of the bureau is the planning exercise team is our job to develop the missing planning criteria, the criteria that was not set up during the RRC 04. Carry out the planning exercise and to test and develop software as necessary. There is also a third group is the regulatory procedure group, Chaired by the Mr. Francois Rancy at that time to deal with the regulatory and procedure matter of the RRC 06 agenda.
Then came the second session 15th of May to the 16th of June, five weeks in Geneva over 1200 participants. Three objectives. No. 1 is to establish a digital frequency plan. To develop an agreement from the work of the regulatory group during the Intersessional period. And to agree a date on transitional to digital. The planning software as Mr. Phil Laven mentioned the core of the planning software to carry out the compatibility analysis and synthesis was developed and provided by the EBU through our colleague Mr. Ken hunt and Terry O'Leary. It is good to see you there today. For the ITU role we tasked to develop the data validation and data capture software and also display software and also to ensure that the calculation is performed correctly on the computer ‑‑ on the computing facility that we have.
Just a few snapshots quickly of the planning software, the display software that I think is probably timing to mention one of my colleagues who is meteorological has spent a lot of sleepless nights and weekends to develop this very useful software. To be able to handle the tremendous input of ‑‑ over 70,000 regional requirements. At beginning of conference there was 92,000 submitted and we managed administration to reduce to 70,000. Observe 100,000 analog assignments to be taken in to consideration and 10,000 of other services and 3 million administrations. Just to display these sort of input and output is also a big thing.
But also the calculation is also a major job. It is a lot of number crunching. To do it on a one high performance at that time would take 90 days. So here we come up with a distributed computing and timing to mention another colleague who is part of our team Andrea Manaro who contributed directly to this process. So we went out and bought 100 high speed PCs and at the same time we contacted the Sun computer and have to use their computer grid. We use over 300 PC located in all part of Europe. And these are running throughout the weekend. So this is the plan at the end of the conference with a very wonderful result of 94% success rate in flashing result. Okay.
It is very good anyway.
(Laughter).

>> PHAM HAI: One of the special things of the agreement also at that time we even already thinking of digital dividend of using the digital plan entry for other services and this is also a contentious point of the time. I remember the discussion go on from many many weeks and nights to actually just come up with this final compromised paragraph and this is to ‑‑ with the ‑‑ we allowed it but only for the primary allocation already in the radio regulation. So as you read this ‑‑ but can see that in the future there would be the input to the WRC that follow to include other services in to this band at ‑‑ as primary allocation. And I suppose that came with WRC 07 for, have 700 meg band and 2012 for the 800 meg band. Transitional period of very quickly now to go quickly on the transitional, agree 17 of June 2015 if you remember on the first session 2004 we were talking of the option of 2038 as the end of transitional period. But that was not accepted. One conclusion from all this five year journey is the wonderful thing of working together bringing good result. And we have the example of the EBU, Cerne and the ITU in developing the software and also the computing facility to be able to carry the planning exercise and the iteration of the conference. And more importantly it is also the coordination that is shown by all the administration throughout not just the five weeks but even before that and after. For me I suppose it is the wonderful memory of working with wonderful friends and colleagues through the up and downs of these five years' journey and Ernest Hemingway put it best it is good to have an end to journey toward but it is the journey that matters in the end. Thank you for your attention.


(Applause.)

>> FRANCOIS RANCY: Thank you very much Pham and now like to give the floor to the Ilham Ghazi to provide some explanations on the ITU assistance with the GE06 frequency coordination meetings that have taken place in Sub‑Sahara Africa and in the Arab region following the decisions on WRC 07 and WRC‑12 on the first and second digital dividends. I think this shows also that the procedures of the plan to modify it even a few months after it was adopted were proved to be very useful since many countries have been involved in modifying to take in to account the new regulatory framework established by the last two WRCs. You have the floor.



>> ILHAM GHAZI: Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Ladies and Gentlemen, good morning. So I will ‑‑ I have ten minutes, too. To take you very quickly through the procedure that was ‑‑ I mean through assistance given by the ITU to two regions. Sub‑Sahara Africa and Arab regions to plan frequency channels. And that happened after the decisions of the WRC 7 and WRC‑12 to allocate the 700 and 800 megahertz to the mobile services. So I will go very quickly separately through the assistance provided to the ATU and in collaboration for the Arab countries and I will give you some statistics concerning the modifications and also the status of Geneva 06 digital plan.
So for the ATU the origin decisions came after or following two Summits. December 2011 in Nairobi and December 2011 in Akra. They decided they needed to establish minimum requirements at national level and also at the level of all the African countries. So the ATU with the assistance of the BR made in place a process of let's say frequency coordinations among all the participating countries. The general ATU recommendation that were provided and also that made the basis of the studies for the compatibility analysis were based on a maximum acceptable margin of 4 dB to make comparison in the RO 06 or in process of the Geneva 06 planning. ATU Summit considers or considered the adoption of the MPEG 4 and DTV 2 to have more channels in less frequency band and to consider the adoption of the HDTV and SD format for the African countries. So we begin from the first iteration which was to consider the existing frequencies that were in the Geneva 06 plan but only in frequency band 470 to 694. You can see the difference between the (inaudible) one that shows the percentage of assignable channels and the 33 which was the last iteration for the Sub‑Sahara Africa and the evolution of let's say the success of getting more assignable channels in the mentioned frequency band. So the results of the Geneva 06 meeting average of satisfied requirements was 97, 37%. Duration of whole frequency coordinations took 18 months. 47 African countries were participating, except Mauritius and the two African ‑‑ we had three planning coordination meetings. Nairobi was the last one and also the BR participations or DBR participated to assist let's say a smaller group of regional or smaller group of African administrations like echos and Sadik. In total 33 iterations as I mentioned and total amount of submitted frequency requirements in 694 megahertz was of the 7107. This was decided to reach four layers on the national level. So the ITU countries ATU countries sorry, after the end of this process were modifying the plan. For yesterday sorry 89% have successfully modified the plan. 11 still in the process or still didn't begin the process of modifying officially. Just very small chart concerning the identified digital dividend in this sub is a hair ra African and you can see that 50% let's express to the intention to allocate the whole 700 and 800 frequency band to the mobile service. Now concerning the Arab countries and in collaboration with Arab spectrum management group the origin of the planning coordination meeting were also the result of the 35th meeting of the permanent Arab meeting and contribution of Arab league and the decision was to ensure sufficient spectrum for broadcasting in the frequency band 470‑694 and to enable them to free the 700 and 800 megahertz for the mobile service. You can see here also the initial picture before beginning the frequency coordinations. So I mean the statistics showed the existing or recorded digital frequencies in the Geneva 06 plan. So you can see that the results were not really good concerning or ensuring the four layers. So we had many with 0%. So no assignment in this remaining frequency band and also the others are very low percentage. So also the ACMG with ATU and the Arab league they decided to provide recommendations for this planning process. So they also adopted the DBTV 2 and MPEG 4 or later because there was already discussions about the HBC. The maximum acceptable margin it was agreed for three different margins. For the DB for all Arab countries except Tunisia and Saudi Arabia and Oman. And 125 dB for Algeria. Also was adopted the four layers to ensure four layers minimum for the administrations in this coordination period and, of course, the Geneva 06 and it was ‑‑ as it was mentioned by the director is a very flexible plan and I mean the modification may be continued later but for this period it was decided to stick to four layers and iteration was done each other banding, I mean until the third meeting and hopefully we didn't need the 90 days for each iteration. We were doing that in two or three hours. So the comparison between the first iteration, also which is looking in the plan, to see what was recorded in the name of this Arab countries in the frequency and compared with the last one which was the 27. So we can also here see the amount of the assignable channels that were achieved at the last iteration that took place in Marrakech 2015. Here this is just graphic to show the average of the assignable channels through the 27 iterations. So the results of Geneva 06 coordination average of satisfied requirement was 7687%. It lasted 11 months and 17 countries participated because the Arab countries that are in the same time in the Arab group and also in the African was not part of this second one. Three planning and coordination meetings in total. And 27 iterations as I mentioned. Submitted frequency requirements were of number of 4346 if you compare with the ones submitted at the RRC 06. It is a little bit less than 50%. Conclusions on BR actions, on this two processes, BR took charge to generate the initial requirements are flexible channels for all the participating countries in order to reach the four layers. Provided the necessary software and tools provided also workshops and training on the Geneva 06 tools to enable them to be ‑‑ I mean to easily use the compatibility analysis tools. Assistance in subregional coordination meetings and also generate the requirements for the absence administrations and continue the process of finding available channels for them. So now very quickly to have a look on the Geneva 06 plan, what's happening and what happened until today. So you can see here this chart, this to show the let's say the activity in the Geneva '06 concerning 0 parts. You can see the band 3 and that concerns the BDT in band 3. We have slight movement. Same thing for let's say 800 and 700 and especially ‑‑ I mean after 2008 and 2012 and also you can see that the biggest increase in the modifications of the plan concern the frequency band 476‑694 and this shows the evolution in the Geneva 06 plan. You can see the line that increases the most is the blue one and it concerns the frequency band 47694 and if you look at the years mentioned you can see that the increase began, I mean clearly in 2008 and 2012 and that, of course, is linked to the decisions of the WRC's 2007 and 2012. This is the frequency of the plan. You can see that the difference between 2006 and 2014. So it went from 60 to 66% and, of course, this ends my presentation. So thank you very much.
(Applause.)

>> FRANCOIS RANCY: Thank you. To conclude the sequence of presentation I would like to give the floor to Istvan Bozsoki to provide insight on the assistance provided by the telecom development bureau.



>> ISTVAN BOZSOKI: Thank you very much and good morning, to everyone. Now you can see here also the cooperation between the ITU and maybe I can say EBU because if you gave me the remote control you need from your hand. So here I just will have some words about the BDT activities and assistance to the countries on the Digital Terrestrial Television broadcasting of the most of the cases we are doing it together with the cooperation of the BR. Here we speak a few words about the guidelines for the transition, projects, country assistance, country studies for different countries and one word I can say about the spectrum management training programme and starting with guidelines, when we realize in the BDT that there is a need from the country to assist them in the transition to digital broadcasting, especially originally for Africa the developed guidelines how to prepare the roadmap for the transition from analog to digital. We have here with us the one of the author the guidelines. Then we had the first revision. So the first guide line was prepared in 2010 for Africa and then the first revision which also contained Asia‑Pacific countries and section on archives migration. Digital broadcasting in 2012 and in 2014 we had the big revision of the guidelines which is now I can say worldwide and it includes also satellite TV cable and IPTV. Here downstairs you can see the link from where you can download the guideline. It is easy. 450 pages. Easy to handle. We have some projects. The first is project was the development of the guideline. It is funded Republic of Korea and also a lot of countries assistance was from their fund. But also received fund from Japan, Australia and the latest one now with the Latin American development bank.
The ITU‑R assisted a number of member countries in developing roadmap for transition from analog to digital broadcasting. Since 2009 we assisted around 30 countries for establishing national goals strategies, key activities. Most of the countries are from the Asia‑Pacific region but we assisted the Africa region and also the we have assistance from the BDT's direct programmes. Not only just from the projects. The few words about the Latin American because this is the recent which is funded by the Latin American development bank. The first activity was that we could translate the guidelines in to Spanish. Also one version of the guideline is translated in to the French. We have more or less three languages for the guidelines and then eight countries have been selected for assistance. You can see the list. Most of them are Spanish speaking and there is Jamaica which is English speaking. A few words about the working method. Originally we distributed a question to see the willingness of the countries. What is very important that we need the availability of a national roadmap team or sometimes it is called differently which has a high level team which can assist in the transition because sometimes it requires political decision and sometimes requires technical decision and even this national roadmap team during the transition period it is changing. The structure is changing. Then when we are there and experts are there we are providing presentation on guideline and then also we are collecting information about the present situation of the broadcasting and we need the stakeholders also. Then we prepare the first draft roadmap. It doesn't mean that ITU is preparing the country roadmap. We have discussing with the countries what are the main subjects where they expect assistance of the ITU and then, of course, the countries have to provide also their work to the roadmap. Then based on the roadmap we see the first comments and during the second we are presenting the roadmap in that stage and then based on the comments we are finalizing the roadmap. Also normally after the final version of the roadmap we have a workshop and we present the results and we discuss the country experiences. Some country case studies we have some country case studies for Thailand Japan and Australia and they are in the process of editing. Also we have some reports on the digital dividend trends in broadcasting, also we have a report on interactive multimedia services in Asia‑Pacific and what is an important subject in making television accessible. We have a DSO database. You will see a demonstration in the coffee break if you are interested on the ITU boards and my colleague is with us. He is the guru of the development of this Rapporteur. And for the content we work closely together with the radio communication bureau and the sector. We use the several surveys from the different regions of the ITU surveys and also the digital database.
Just one word about the spectrum management training programme because this is a new training under the ITU‑R academy and this contains also some part for broadcasting issues. That's why it could sh useful for the future. You can find information in the ITU‑R academy. If you need more. Other activities in the ITU‑D we have study groups like in the ITU‑R sector and right now in the ITU Study Group 1 the 8/1 which was previously those who followed it it was the Study Group 2 question 11.3/2 is dealing with the broadcasting issues but also this group is dealing with the digital dividend issues. Sometimes it has some cooperation Resolution 9 group which is a common ITU‑R ITU‑D group on spectrum management. Also we have close cooperation with broadcasting organizations. We have a cooperation agreement with the WB, EBU and then the AIDB and also we have some cooperation with the other organizations from other regions.
We are doing presentations and different training seminars and workshops. Sometimes we are organizing workshops on given subjects like the interactive multimedia service and paid TV in Asia‑Pacific and the last workshop is this regional workshop on spectral management and terrestrial broadcasting for Europe and this was five months ago when we summarized the situation in Europe and we saw the problems what they were facing. We saw some good examples how they could assist, for example, the customers and also what are the plans before ‑‑ after the analog switch off process.
Also we had the Asia media pre‑Summit event in May in Kuala Lumpur and we have this Summit on digital broadcasting. I am very up to date. Thank you for your attention.
(Applause.)

>> FRANCOIS RANCY: Thank you very much. This concludes the sequence of presentation. I would like now to give the floor for any questions at this point. We have a few minutes for that. What I may add is that what we have been trying to do in developing the GE06 plan was to actually ensure that each country would have a set of frequencies that can be used to deploy digital television broadcasting without interference with other countries. And when you speak of broadcasting high power, high tower you know that the interference can go a few hundred kilometers from your borders and with the size of European countries you can understand why the European countries were eager to find such an agreement. It may not be the case that we were in the world but it was absolutely critical for European countries. What has happened today at 1 a.m. is that now if you want to deploy digital television it is much easier because you don't have to take care of analog. You don't have to protect analog. Yesterday you still have to protect it. Of course, this changes things because those who still have analog have to worry. Didn't have to worry until yesterday midnight. Now they have to worry but as I said there are possibilities left in the plan to mitigate for any problem but still I think discussion is key as I say in my introduction. I think what the plan has shown also as elected by Ms. Ilham Ghazi is the regulations decided by WRCs and as you have seen African countries, Arab countries and European countries have already modified the plan successfully to ensure that part of it can be freed up for Mobile Broadband in the 700 and 800 megahertz plan. I think it shows that the people design GE06 agreement were well inspired looking in to the future and we can now benefit from this tool.


In other regions we don't have this tool but we have the ability to discuss and as we have seen the BR also got some training on ensuring successful multilateral coordinations on that type. Although there is no planning in other regions our intention in the Americas and in Asia is to provide any assistance that the Member States may require to pave the way for similar situation by which you actually know where the digital transition will land. And that's very important to enable the investments to be made. Of course, we recognize as we mentioned Phil that digital transmission require less power but still require investments. We speak of new investments and if you have uncertainty on the frequencies on which you are going to land that's not a good thing. It is something like Member States have to plan in advance, to ensure the successful transitions to ensure that you are frequency coordinate with your neighbors that can be used for digital transmission safely.
And in general these coordination needs to be multilateral. Otherwise you are destroying with one country what you have made with the other because of the terminal effect in the interference situations. Yes, David you have the floor.

>> David: Thank you Francois. Just an unfair question if I may. How long do you think the Geneva plan from 06 will last? Is it something that will last for 50 or 100 years or will we need at some point to do this type of scale of conference again? I know it is an unfair question but I want to hear what you think.

>> FRANCOIS RANCY: I guess it will last as long as digital broadcasting will last. It is built in a very flexible way. When you go from the technology which was assumed when designing it which was the DTV and it works. And if we find something even better although it is ‑‑ when you get so close to the shining curve but if you find something better in the future I am sure it can accommodate things because digital modulations are pretty much explored now. I don't think it is a mystery. But I think it is there for quite a long time. There is no time limit in it. So that's easy. Thank you for the question. Any other question from the audience? Okay. So I think we can now end this session. And we want to do the group photo now. If you can come to the podium here and below so that we can have a record of our presence here today. Thank you.

>> CHRISTOPH DOSCH: Sorry for coming in and just after group photo we have the coffee break and please do not forget to look at the demonstrations after the coffee break. They have been prepared with great care.


(Coffee break).

>> CHRISTOPH DOSCH: Ladies and Gentlemen, please let's resume the symposium. Now we are going to session 2. And you have already known Mr. Hai from his speak in the first session. Mr. Hai is now the Session Chair and he is really taking that the time limits are met because we have a high number of talks in this session and we have to finish on time.

>> PHAM HAI: Yeah. Thank you Mr. Christoph Dosch and good morning, Ladies and Gentlemen. Welcome to the second session. This is a session on analog to Digital Switchover. We are going to hear the story from all parts of the world. And on where countries are on their road to the digital migration. I just probably quickly reminding speakers thank you very much for speakers make their way here and given the limited amount of time please stick to the eight minutes. At seven minutes you will hear a bell sound. So you have one minute to summing up and leave some time up for the next speakers. I'm sure you all have interesting story to tell. Unfortunately please tell it in a very ‑‑ in the eight minutes session.
Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my pleasure to introduce firstly one of my colleagues from my own country, Australia, it was a long way here. Roger Bunch who is also the Vice‑Chairman of Study Group 6 and working party 6A involving very much in WRC‑15. Roger please you have the floor.

>> ROGER BUNCH: Thank you Hai. Good morning to everyone and I express my appreciation for the opportunity to make this presentation. This presentation will cover the following topics which are presented in a paper which will be placed on the Website. Television series and timetable and we didn't refer to it as different tal switchover. We referred to it as analog switch off. Our DTMB planning in Australia and simulcast and what we completed was the digital dividend. Australia is a country and continent with a population of 23 million people. The continent is 7 and a half million square kilometers. 70% of the population live in the major cities. We have DTV Networks implemented in a much smaller area. And satellite delivery in central or remote areas which have a very small population. Australia's involvement in the progress to DTV and the digital dividend commenced in the 1990s. It is very difficult to tell you a story in eight minutes of 25 years of history. A system overview which is explained in more detail in the new ITU‑D report and that's the case study on Australia is possibly similar to that in many other countries. One of the major attractions to DTV was the advent and signal frequency Networks. Deployed in Australia is the Convention SFM and multi frequency network fed. One of the most important planning parameters we had to face with planning digital services was the so‑called cliff effect and the threshold at the boundary of coverage. We are talking 2001. We are talking DTV 64 quam and we are talking MPEG 2. And if you have a look above and below the shaded area you will see an anecdotal mishap that we had and that was when some of the acquirers of new digital TV receivers actually reverted back to their analog receivers because of the cliff effect.


During the switchover process we had an extended analog digital simulcast. This extended originally from 2001 to 2008 but was extended until 2013. At the completion of the Digital Switchover we had to face the digital dividend in the 700 megahertz band. In Australia we had 520 to 820 megahertz and the digital dividend was 694 to 820 megahertz which allowed us to incorporate other so‑called 700 megahertz ATB band plan. Now one of the regulatory measures that we initiated with the band plan for 700 megahertz was the protection of DTV at the band age and we found this to be a very important requirement of our digital dividend process.
Now that is all that I have to really highlight in this short presentation. The other references that I can refer to but as I said I have much more detail in the document which we placed on the Website. So I thank you for your attention but there is one important acknowledgement that I wish to make and that that's to the consumer electronic manufacturers. Without their DTV products we would not have achieved our goals in both phases with our move to digital television and also to achieve what was a restack of our services to above 694 megahertz and the retuning was a very complicated process and it was made much easier by the agility of these receivers. It is my pleasure to make available to you today a DVD with a documentary of the current situation in Australia and it is on the desk outside the Popov room. So thank you very much for listening.
(Applause.)

>> PHAM HAI: Thank you Roger. You are setting a good example there. Five minutes and 30 seconds. Very good. Maybe we have time for questions. If you have a question for Roger because he didn't get his full eight minutes. Okay. If not I think we could leave the question and answer to the end after we hear the presentation from all the presenters. Next is China. We certainly not putting the speaking order in terms of country sizes here but next is another big country. China. It is my pleasure to welcome professor Jian Song he is the Vice‑Chair of working party 6A. I know this afternoon he has to go to German in to pick up a prize for a paper he has contributed to IEEE. Congratulations professor Jian Song and we are looking forward to hearing your story in China. Thank you.



>> JIAN SONG: Thank you Mr. Hai. Good morning, dear colleagues and it is really my pleasure and great honor to be here to introduce you the current status for DTV and the work for our future and it is a special day for me and 14 years ago on this day, father's day my elder daughter was born. So make a perfect father's day gift. Happy birthday to Karen. I am going to give a brief review and DTMB status and also cover the work for the future. Thank you. Next slide.
Okay. I think this standard has English acronym called digital television terrestrial broadcasting which was announced in the year 2006 and become mandatory a year later. And it has the similar functional block like the first generation DTMB standard in ITU but could have different individual technology utilized. For the coding we use LDPC and for the frame body processing even though we use (inaudible) multiplexing instead of using the OIPM we use the time which buy us some performance gain. If you combine the different options for coding all together we have 330 modes which consists of a different payload data support either the mobile or fixed reception and among that our government had recommended seven working modes which covers the data throughput I mean the payload through put. So it is a well balanced option to support both the fixed and mobile reception.
And from the standardization point we ‑‑ one effort led by Asof from the transmit side and the network planning issue. It has six standards associated with DTMB and in the meantime the Ministry of Industrial and information technology also led the effort from the terminal side regarding the six standards. All standards has been ratified and well sorted deployment of DTMB. Here are some examples showing the standards. There have some English names but I don't want to spend time on that. And the whole ecochain for the DTMB has been mature from the transmitter and you get different combinations to provide high power DTMB transmitter. And also from the terminal side we have over hundreds of receiver models, having different formats like the integrated TV set‑top box and the pod devices. And for the testing equipments which are also very important very crucial for the successful network deployment we also have different companies come up with testing equipment where support the regular monitoring and the performance check for this network. As for the deployment plan here from the SOP it has two phase deployment plan. For the first phase before 2008 Olympic games in Beijing 38 ‑‑ sorry, 37 major cities including the most capital cities of provinces has been able to broadcast the DTMB signals which simulcast and that network extended to the other big cities and countries and the second phase was just started. Late last year our Government allocate almost 5 billion R and B to DTMB to about over 6,000 DTMB transmitters covering the country wide and also it was simulcast. After this thing is done over 15 TV programmes can be broadcasted over the air using DTMB signal over existing network and MIT take another effort. Starting from right now every TV set or newly built TV set must have DTMB. If you buy the TV set from the shelf you have better chance to receive the DTMB signal. So after the deploy ‑‑ sorry after the second phase by 2016 you will see the coverage is like that. And because the most population in China along the east side. So you see well covered and for the west side the big cities are also being covered. And we are estimate ‑‑ I mean this one was provided by SOP people. They told me by end of 2016 over 80% of the population will be covered and with this DTMB network deployed successfully by next year we are kind of hoping that we are not just using this network to deliver the digital content like for the regular reception but we can also do data casing and also for the mobile reception. Later on with the help of this DTMB network. So this one shows that with one TV tower you can support multiple services and with certain modification on the existing DTMB we call enhanced DTMB you can pretty much get all this thing done. And in the meantime we also initiate our effort for the advanced version of DTMB. Here are the block diagrams showing how this thing worked from the transmit side and some features are not going to cover that for details but basically we are going to take more ‑‑ take advantage of the latest development for the channel coding and improve the overall performance. One example showing this technology and iterative decoding and demodulation we can achieve better performance with reasonable complexity increase and with this system if we set up with the typical working mode it can cover for the typical working mode can cover support 40 ‑‑ if we are a little bit greedy that one can be over 40 megabits per second and also we have in China ‑‑ so we have done some tests in Hong Kong and here are the test programmes with parameters and the test site with the yellow pings showing the side and over all test shows that DTMB can be fully backward compatible and that means data service and mobile receptions can be successfully done and DTMB system capacity can be greatly improved and both are satisfactory and in summary and future work I would like to share with you that the massive deployment for DTMB in Chinas that been accelerated and we see some trends that DT TV system, support existing services and UHDTV and network convergence and different TV services are getting the momentum. So that's pretty much covering the current situation in China and thank you for your attention.
(Applause.)

>> PHAM HAI: Yeah, thank you professor song. Exactly on eight minutes. You are good. Because normally Vietnamese and Chinese we are flexible on time. When wedding is at 8 o'clock we usually turn out at 10. Next I think we are going to cross the Himalayas from China in to another big country India. Our colleague from the broadcasters in India cannot be here unfortunately. However Mr. Christoph Dosch has kindly agreed to deliver their presentation in Indian accent. The journey of terrestrial TV from analog to digital. Okay. Christoph.



>> CHRISTOPH DOSCH: Thank you Hai. I will do my very best but my Bavarian accent I think will prevail. So that is a document from Doordarshan in India. That's the public service television provider in India. Little history of Doordarshan it was created as a public system broadcaster and started with one transmitter in 15 September 1959 and for several years a number of programmes were emitted for rural audience, folk dance music and later on there was soap operas and they added Doordarshan news and national services and so on. And the important message I think this presentation would like to convey is that the number of analog transmitters has tremendously increased from a single one in 1951, 43 in 1983, to up to date 1412. 211 of them are high power transmitters. Low power translitors are 811 and very low power transmitters 372 and that's depicted on this picture where you can see the total of 211 high power transmitters and you have the repartition of their ERP. On the right side the low power transmitters 811, the difference then is the very low power transmitters up to the 1400. In 2006 a Committee was created that decided to go digital. And that Committee then developed a development plan and that development plan was then the role of Brazar Bharti which is the public broadcasting system in India under which India radio and Doordarshan are operating. So the commencement of digital broadcast was in selected cities by Brazar Bharti. By 2011 all tier 2 and tier 2 cities in 2012 and all others 2013, switch off should have been finished in 2015. The current status is that in ‑‑ that this Working Group established a five‑year plan and recommended the cutoff date for the end of analog transmission to be kept under the end of the 12th plan which is March 2017. The current plan is the 12th budgetary plan of the Indian republican by this time the additional transmission should be the norm. That's the timeline and if you go to the right, you see that in 2014 the decisions were taken for 2013 and 2014. The decisions were taken for the standard to be used in India which is the DTV 2. And now I think that's the main message. There were 230 high powered transmitters and 400 low powered transmitters and necessary for coverage of digital terrestrial: So broadcast getting greener and it makes a big difference in money because you need less energy. Many trials were done. I have to go quickly through the slides. Trials with DTV and DTV 2. At the end India has adopted for DTV standard because of the high flexibility and capacity of that norm. DTV reception and image for the DTV reception in Chennai. That image is a traditional one. It depicts decrease of field strength with respect to the distance. In this case for modulation and if you look then for real coverages you see that that is a calculated coverage for daily DTV and code rate of 3 over 4. Covers the whole of deli and if you go to six kilowatt and the code rate of 1 over 3, you have an even better coverage. For indoor reception that's amazing for me to see that it works so well. So even if you compare the outdoor reception and the roof top reception and indoor reception you get very good coverage. They did a lot of tests for mobile reception. They run through cities, cars and now this is the plan they currently have the plan No. 12 is where they put up 23 transmitters in plan No. 11 and they had put up HDTV for transmitters and 19 for digitalization. So the grand plan of digitalization is 230 digital terrestrial transmitters and high power and low power and that is the equivalent coverage as an analog mode. They have in India metro city covered 19. This is the coverage of these metro cities and in addition that's the predicted coverage area for India after the analog switch off and there you can see that there is a whole coverage of India which will be achieved. The spectrum for Doordarshan the Indian television public service is that they have two channels in band 1 and eight channels in band 3 and 14 channels in band 4 and 18 channels in band 5. Right you see the usage and existing and planned usage and you can see in the future you can see band 3, most of the solid state are upgradeable. And in band 4 they will operate at 160 and in band 5, 450 digital transmitters. This is my last slide. These are the gears of success. The appealing content to the market, responds for fixed and mobile reception. The signal reach, there are more programmes than ever and as a good business model leasing of spare capacity is possible and we receive innovation, subsidies and regulation handle all that. So I come to the end and I thank you on behalf of India. Thank you.
(Applause.)

>> PHAM HAI: Thank you Christoph and Mr. Nisar Ahmed Khan. I promise you a free Curry when you are in India the next time. Reiko Kondo she has a very impressive academic history including an MBA at the Stanford graduate school. So we are looking forward to hear your presentation on the ASO experience in Japan. Ms. Reiko Kondo.



>> REIKO KONDO: Thank you very much. It is my great honor to present here on the Asian experience in Japan. I have a timer here. So I should finish it within eight minutes. But anyway, this slide shows a major issues to be considered for digital trends. First of all introducing digital broadcasting including who, when and how is necessary. Developing a digital channel plan and technical standards for transmission and receiving are fundamental and developing digital network is very important. In order to complete ASO the future of digital TV receivers is essential which cannot be separated from attractive TV programmes. One of the most important efforts should be awareness raising of the public. As for master plan in Japan the radio Act and related regulations will be revised in July 2001 which was July 24, 2011. It was decided that ISDBT digital TV broadcasting service should be started in three Metropolitan areas in 2003 and in all three ‑‑ and in all other Prefectures in Japan in 2006. All existing broadcasters were obliged to transmit from analog to digital. Actually spectrum usage have been extremely congested in Japan. Especially there were almost 15,000 analog broadcasting stations in Japan. In order to accommodate digital channels which actually amounted to 11,000 channels a huge amount of analog channels were temporarily switched to other channels. After completing ASO some of the digital channels were compacted. Japan's data channel should be one of the most complicated ones in the world and I was engaged in that process at the time and develop the channel plan for the Japanese broadcasting. The Government shared statistical results were bureaus via the media, including the results of a survey on household digital receiver dissemination rate and survey on awareness of the timing of the ASO. Actually the result of the survey demonstrated the public that digitalization was making steady progress. This slide reiterates massive shipments of the digital TV broadcasting receivers. Good amounts of digital receivers were shipped the period of Government subsidy which was called echo point. Coupons to energy saving home electronics. This system was effective from May 2009 to March 2011. ASO was also conducted through the city it is a ‑‑ it is a Prefecture with approximately 10,000 households. One year prior to the nationwide ASO. The results of these invariable experiences contributed to the nationwide ASO in the year 2011. And one of the best practices of awareness raising of the public was that broadcasters notified bureaus that analog programmes would end on 24th July 2011. So all their channels. And it was called soft test. The promotion programme was in the letter books format and the world analog and the telephone number of the call center were indicated on the screen and it was realized they were now watching an analog programme. From July 1st, 2011 broadcasters inserted super imposed image showing the dates remaining until the day of the analog switchoff. As a final effort to avoid having and prepared households due to insubstantiate awareness raising. And furthermore, 50 digital support centers were deployed all over Japan and they organized awareness raising seminars for the public and provided technical devices force receiving digital TV broadcasting. We specified this (inaudible) as a character of TV broadcasting. For raising awareness of the public such item as key holders were distributed and posters were displayed on trains and we also showed this mass code using digital signage at one of the biggest (inaudible) in Japan of we displayed posters at railway stations as well and this person was designated this person as a main character of digital TV broadcasting and contracted with him to promote digital transition. And also each broadcasting company designated their new castors as TV Ambassadors and these were very effective to attract the attention of the public. We also raised the awareness of public at stadiums and finally I would like to mention voluntary activities nationwide for awareness raising. For example, members of boys scouts handed out digital TV leaflets and 8600 stores contributed to raise awareness of the senior customers for digitalization. So in this way we are confident that intensive awareness raising activities utilizing all the opportunities contributed greatly to complete ASO in Japan without any confusion. I hope my presentation is helpful to those who are preparing for ASO and we are always very happy to share our experiences. Thank you very much.
(Applause.)

>> PHAM HAI: Thank you very much Ms. Reiko Kondo. Thank you for your very interesting presentation. Next we go to the Arab states country, and my friend and colleague Bassil Zoubi who has been promoted to technical director of ASU and busy time at the moment with the ASBU General Assembly last week and this week he is also busy to looking after the as you know the European games broadcast from Baku from Azerbaijan. He was kind enough to do a recording of his presentation. So as they say please roll the videotape. Thank you.


(Video).

>> Ladies and Gentlemen, Distinguished Delegates, this is a great honor for me to be to stand before you. However it is unfortunate that I am not in the same room with you. But allow me to discuss with you the current situation of the Arab digital television. The ‑‑ also will talk about referring to slide No. 1, I would like to go a little bit over the history of the ASO progress and introducing the DTV. They have recognized the importance of digital television at the outset and it was clearly a solution and a replacement for the ‑‑ for the artifacts of the existing analog TV stations.


These are very important to the various stakeholders including the broadcasters because we believe from the beginning that not only the broadcasters is going to benefit from this technology but other bodies will benefit from that, spectrum regulators and TV regulators plus the broadcasters. However ASO we are very active on different arenas on technical organizing symposiums where Study Groups to study and investigate the new techniques proposed. Also on the education and training level we start to teach our engineers our young engineers this new technology. Although they should have some experimental training but at that time it was only periodic training in order to prepare them for the near future. Because at that time we thought it won't be far before we start this new technology. And also we start negotiating and discussing with our ‑‑ within the same country talking to the regulators and talking to various different regulators because we thought this issue doesn't concern the broadcasters and other stakeholders get to be involved.
Continuing with the slide No. 2 on the ASO progress, ASO started pilot projects as early as 2000 and we carried out pilot projects in different countries, like Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Morocco in order to create momentum for this new technology and also to decide whether ‑‑ which system the ASPU will go along with at this stage.
Clearly the results and the experiments were compatible and comparable to the digital values, even sometimes it was better. However at that moment we decided to adopt the digital terrestrial revision where the multi mode technology was elected at that time. And we start to campaign hard with our regulators to initiate a replanning because we thought the Geneva '89 will not stand and able to meet the requirements that the new technology would like to have. Because this new technology should have a new concept, a new investment concept. Because we are not talking about now the progress of ITE. We are talking about multiple programming and interactivity and we are talking about successful business model. So that's why we have to find, you know, some kind of a formula that will help us and we thought to start with replanning is very essential and very vital at this moment.
ASPU carried out a study to assist members guide transition. Because we thought there are too many players in the chain. And the capital investment is very big and therefore it can't be carried out by a TV station alone. It has to be carried out on at the national level. There is too many players and too many stakeholders and there needs to be a national Committee to coordinate these between these vary various players and the Committees that to assure the neutrality of this new technology. In the wake of the ASPU progress I am talking about slide No. 3, ASPU called upon unified receivers specifications and with Arabic enabled receiver and how we ‑‑ although we have unified receiver specifications unfortunately we were not successful to make it across the ‑‑ all Arab countries because the ‑‑ each country thought of different criteria with regards to the memory, how much the cost of the receiver therefore we would like to have available in the market. And some of the members reduce this specification in order to reduce the price for the equipment.
ASPU as I said prepared a study to guide the members to carry out the transition period. We thought the transition would request good leadership, have to be led by a broadcaster but with a national Committee where there are all stakeholders involved in order to be effective, in order to be ‑‑ in order to make decision collectively. So that this new project will be carried by different parties not the broadcasters alone. But any how we said the leadership is very important in order to have successful implementation and transition phase out. We know the transition will effect the receivers manufacturers, the audience, spectator, the regulators, the legislators, and network providers content providers also. So all of these stakeholders that would be talking similar language, similar expressions and should have similar moves in order to carry out that successfully.
And now I am preparing to slide No. 4, I am talking about the Arab digital dividend. You know, to begin with various Arab countries have started with DTV transmission as early as 2007. The ‑‑ at that time the competition from the satellite was getting fiercer and fiercer. Because the satellite trans ‑‑ has been going down. The advantage of having all the targeting all the Arab countries instead of being local this was a big challenge for the transition for the start of the DTV transmission. And also from that date after the Geneva 2006 they start to prepare their plan to migrate to digital television. After the Geneva conference plan ASPU has supported the first digital dividend. Because we thought the spectrum, the new technology has been utilizing the spectrum efficiently and therefore we decided most of the ASPU members thought that the ‑‑ we had enough spectrum and that spectrum which is shared with the mobile services could be allocated to the mobile services in order to reduce the cost both on the ‑‑ on the telecom operators and the broadcast operators. Also ASPU during this period, you know, from the 2001 ASPU has cooperated with the Arab spectrum management group and with the ITU to replan the 100 megahertz. After the first digital dividend we thought if there is any room to utilize this spectrum more efficiently. So we have AB SG has contacted us and we talked to them with open hearts and ASPU the ITU was there to support us and the ASPU support was tremendous and offered us excellent opportunity to reutilize the spectrum efficiently and also help us with our members to fine solution for the coordination between the Arab different countries. I'm sure my colleagues Mr. Francois Rancy and Ms. Llham will talk to you about the replanning during this day symposium. And currently most of the ASPU members support the second digital dividend. We call upon our members to agree on timescale to release operating and existing channels in the band. And this is the majority and the feeling of most of the Arab broadcasters. We think that we should cooperate with our regulators and get enough time for those operating in the 700 megahertz band to use the existing equipment and release them at a certain point without affecting the capital operation. And also for the future digital dividend. ASPU doesn't think that the spectrum below the 700 megahertz will be sufficient for the broadcasters and other services, especially with a service such as a mobile service which may cause a lot of burden on the receiver's population and on the consumer pockets. So we have to know that there are digital (inaudible) and any portion in the TV technology and you should be prepared for that, not to put ourselves in the corner. Besides that we call upon the other services to find and look for solutions that will utilize their network efficiently. They will have to utilize the spectrum more efficiently and this is the whole idea of the utilizing the spectrum. Each one should be careful to utilize the allocated spectrum efficiently and because it is as everyone says it is a scarce resource and (inaudible). Conclusions, I am referring to the slide No. 7, the conclusions. Major factors have impeded the switchoff of analog TV in our area. There are technical problems which was stemming from the evolution of standards, the DTV and work with T 2 and the (inaudible) as evolved to MPEG 4 and this is a very complicated issue and you have first generation receiver and maybe the second generation receivers and we are talking about third generation receivers and you cannot have now and then change the more specifications and requirement. Therefore most of our members will have ‑‑ have started with T2 and MPEG 2 have to wait for another five or six years before they decide to switch to T2. At this time when they require the receiver sets, TV sets the set‑top boxes are to be T2 and T ‑‑ have the spec for T1 and T2 and it takes time to penetrate among the population and renew their equipment. Also another factor is social and political changes in our area. These changes are ‑‑ have affected the ‑‑ we had new legislations now. New constitutions have been drafted in some countries. Other countries who does not ‑‑ who have stated system shall ‑‑ and political system have also got worried because of the (inaudible) in their neighboring countries and stuff like that. So it was not only those countries who were suffering this change, these social evolution and this political evolution in our area, even stated countries are feeling worried about the situation in the whole territory. Also another factor was the global economic situation. We have ‑‑ that's ‑‑ worldwide there was some kind of worldwide recession and that's why many projects have been dealing and rescheduled over and over. However now it seems like, you know, there is some kind of life and we hope that we will approach that life very soon. However digital television would enhance the experience. That one more is great for digital television. We think that the digital television will give more opportunity for the TV production and the industry as a whole. There are new ‑‑ it could create more jobs and more talents can walk in to this field and the investigate of TV could expand. And this is only because of the digital television because we have more programmes and different services that is associated with these programmes and that the ‑‑ our ‑‑ the community needs these services and could benefit from these services. Finally the TV stations also although they have invested a lot on this new technology they would have a better chance to generate revenues and they will cut ‑‑ they will have great cuts on the operation cost as it was. Investment could be (inaudible) but over the long run I think the operational cost is going down and it is down and will get the broadcaster some relief and also as a result of this services that they are offering to the audience, to the spectator they would have better chance to generate revenue.
This is the end of my presentation. This is the ‑‑ I am one more time I would like to express my thanks and gratitude to those friends who thought my presence would be important. And also I would like to thank ITU for their continued support to the Arab region as a whole and the ASPU in particular, their efforts is very important to us and I'm sure we will continue cooperating in this area and in the future areas I hope. Thank you. And good ‑‑ I wish you good luck with the rest of the ‑‑ of your programme. Thank you.
(Applause.)

>> PHAM HAI: Thank you. If you are listening in next time I think we are going to play your tape double speed. Only kidding. You speaking for many countries in the Arab states area. So let's quickly cross the Sahara desert in the midday sun to the Eastern part of Africa and listen to Mr. Leo Boruett from Kenya.



>> LEO BORUETT: Thank you very much. We are also very grateful to share our experience and it is interesting to note that I think that 38% are still migrating. And 27% have actually not started. So I think it will be quite an opportunity for us to share our experience with those particular countries. So ‑‑ okay. First of all I want to say that one of the important things in this process was the digital ‑‑ was the regulatory framework and in Kenya we had regulatory framework that reflected the element of data migration. We learned it was important because we faced a lot in the process. So for Kenya, the first thing we did was to set up digital migration task force and this ‑‑ the task force that add their representation from various parties. For example, we are the Government. We are the regulator. We are the broadcasters. We are signal distributors. Even set‑top box and consumer Association. So right from the word go actually our process was consultative and spear headed by the Government. Okay. We started in terms of standards we started with DTV in the year 2009 and then it was a pilot. So when DTV 2 became stable we were able to actually change from DTV to DTV 2 because a number of set‑top boxes that have been sold in the market was still not significant and in Kenya we have concentrated on bands 4 and 5 for the DTV planning. We are in our planning we use multi frequency plan but within a particular area we actually use SFM within the particular FM area. So it is actually FM with a mini SFM. One of the major challenges was the issue of the market was transformed because remember before in analog the broadcaster used to have both equipment plus the transmission network and then even the content. But what we did in the digital platform we established (inaudible) many we authorized two signal distributors and these are the people now who put up the infrastructure and then the broadcasters now does not have infrastructure. They actually carried by the two signal distributors. So one of the concerns was the broadcasters who are not ‑‑ they thought we could send the content and not sure of the quality of the signal. They are used to having their own network and not used to paying money to another player to carry them. So we actually faced a lot of challenge because of the business model change. The other challenge was the issue of set‑top boxes availability and affordability and what we did we considered several options. The option we did was one we remove the input tax waiver for the period of transition and we also licensed many players. We made it an open market. So currently we have about 70 players and importing ‑‑ so what we did is we just add the minimum specifications. So long as you meet the minimum specifications and that reduced the price and 2500. And factor of 6. So that's something. Because of the litigation also our network rollout process was slow because the signal distributors were not willing to invest as quickly as possible. And the Government also had challenges in terms of other priorities. And remember the analog broadcasters are the ones who used to control the media. We never used to get any media to be able to educate consumers. Sort of misinformation. So these are the challenges we faced in Kenya. We have we try to mitigate some of them. For example, the issue of having minimum specifications. The issue of opening the set‑top box market. The issue ‑‑ because initially we only had one signal distributor and the issue ‑‑ we went back to the drawing board and we instituted more players in to the digital task force. The other thing we roped in the benefits. For example, we have content producers. We have people who have been interested in going in to the market. So these are the people that we roped in to the process so that we demonstrate that the benefits are more than the challenges. We also address the issue of cost. We did a study in terms of the cost‑based study. What does it cost as signal distributor to carry a broadcaster. So we set maximum limits and this took care of the concern of being (inaudible) by the signal distributor and developed a service level agreements. And the critical thing, of course, is the consumer awareness. In terms of specific regulatory initiatives there is the issue of apart from removing input duty, we also made the specification minimum. Our objective was to migrate fast. Advanced services can follow it. So by doing that we reduced about 25% of the cost of set‑top box and then talk about ‑‑ another thing in terms of signal quality, we reduced, for example, the frequency fees we charge. We usually charge frequency depending on the number of transmitters. Encourage to have good coverage and we ‑‑ normal frequency we charged 360,000 and ‑‑ so we actually that way encourage the signal distributors to improve on their network: We are three phases. We started with Nairobi which successfully completed 31st December 2013 and major towns 2nd February 2015. We have some remaining remote sites. These are sites that are ‑‑ they used to be subbed by national broadcasters and the other broadcasters are not going there. We are currently implementing these sites and we expect to conclude this by end of this month. So in terms of status of implementation, just a summary. So we have two signal distributors. We have two Pay‑TV operators. We have ‑‑ these are new existing players, 55. We used to have only 14 in analog and now we have 55 TV operators. The venders are 70 now for set‑top boxes and we sold about 2 million set‑top boxes. We did a survey the other day and the number of TV sets analog TV sets is about 3.4 million and but so far the only 2 million have been bought. But it is not shortage. We have actually a lot of stock but the issue is availability. So about 52% actually of the existing analog set‑top boxes but we always say the cost of switching off from people not getting service will be away by advantages of moving to digital. In terms of planning for the dividends we actually completed the issue of the dividend 2. The first dividend is already allocated already to an operator and the second dividend is what we are still considering and awaiting the WRC outcome. So we have actually assigned the five dividends by 15 megahertz. So what are the key elements for success. It is very important to have an adequate regulatory framework. We realize this as we face litigation in the process because it was affecting the market the model, the market model. The other issue is to include as many stakeholders as possible. Because this actually is one of the things that litigated us in court. We were able to demonstrate we had taken care of all stakeholders and the law is very protective in consumers. We had an issue of mass carry. Issue of being able to carry the existing channels by the Pat‑TV operators was upheld by the Supreme Court. Roadmap motivates the industry in terms of uptake of set‑top boxes. The key thing also is the issue of affordability and availability of set‑top box. When you are able to demonstrate the opportunities outweigh the challenges we are even able to get political support. We are able to get support from consumers in the social media and that's how we have managed to reach where we are. Thank you.
(Applause.)

>> PHAM HAI: Thank you very much for very interesting presentation. I think Kenya would serve a good study case for additional migration. Really quite exciting there you having in Kenya. I understand ‑‑ I am just checking with the interpreters. Would you be able to stay with us for another ten minutes?

>> All right. Ten minutes. Yes.

>> PHAM HAI: So maybe I have to change a little bit of the programme Ladies and Gentlemen. We have a presentation in French. So maybe I take the advantage of the interpreter still here to go to the presentation from Senegal. So could you please roll the tape from Mr. Amadou Top from Senegal.



>> AMADOU TOP: I would like to (speaking in a non‑English language). I would like to warmly congratulate the organizers of the ITU international symposium on the digital switch over which is currently being held in Geneva and I would like to greet all of those participating in this important event. Unfortunately Senegal has not been able to participate in this important event through it national committee simply because of the same time this very time we are undertaking digital switch over in our country. So at this point I would like to renew Senegal's thanks to the ITU for all of its support which has been provided and say that we have done everything to ensure that this operation is undertaken under the best conditions possible.
The switchover model that we chose in Senegal is quite a specific one. Since in order to avoid encountering difficulties at the stage of financing this operation we have chosen to proceed through a public private partnership which has enabled to select a Senegalese operator which for 18 months has been working on this process and now has managed to ensure that Senegal is one of those African countries which can say yes, we have complied with our commitments. The commitments and you fit in to GE06. The test model is an interactive television model. In this regard we chose to implement and establish an HbbTV platform. We also decided to archive based on the multiplexing all of the channels which are connected to the network that we are implementing and rolling out and we decided to use these multiplexing to simplify the task. We will have some 20 meters which will work on NFN and this will ensure that in the regions we will be able to have a local television which will be able to function when it is launched. We wills are be able to ensure that the Internet will be ‑‑ will be or connection to Internet will be allowed for a large number of households which have access to this television. This will allow us to have a huge amount of added value ensure that television becomes a supplementary instrument to counter Act the digital dividend. We hope in addition to the 18 channels that exist in Senegal which is probably as specificity of our country, we have also decided to use one of these to function in high definition. The others will just be a normal definition to start out with. Following on from our project we will create a number of thematic channels in the areas of health and education, agriculture, tourism and other sectors. In effect we would like to benefit as much as possible from the Digital Switchover in Senegal and in this regard we are clearly going to ensure that editors too and for their part have all of the support required enabling them to produce high quality television. We are also going to cover the entire country and ensure that for the first time in the history of our country all villages in Senegal will be covered. This is an experience, experiment that we are carrying out with a large number of other countries in area 1. Unfortunately not all countries have been able to transition over but we hope that as soon as possible they will be able to follow the example that we are currently setting with a large number of other countries. Television will be for us a very useful tool for our country's development. And we hope that the added value services that we will roll out will be a great contribution for our people. Thank you very much.

>> PHAM HAI: Thank you Mr. Amadou Top of Senegal. We return back to the order and my apology to my friends Mr. Abayomi Olalya Bolarinwa. Now his presentation about Nigeria. You have the floor.



>> ABAYOMI OLALYA BOLARINWA: Thank you, Mr. Chairman. The Chairman, Study Group 6 also thank you for this opportunity to present Nigeria transition position. Nigeria is a big country with a population of over 470 million. Interested in this light is 26 million (inaudible). Most active video broadcast sector with over 100 TV stations in Africa and we have production content, third largest producing nation after India and America. Nigeria is a determined market. It is very deep. Over 55% of the Nigerian population are youths below 75 years of age. Like every other country in Africa we are enjoying digital in the production world. Production, post production without thinking of the transmission and out of the blue we have to ‑‑ we were asked to come to planning in 2004 and Nigeria was not part of that planning but the subsequent planning Nigeria was involved and we decided to opt this audio o from band 3 and to the FM band.
If you look at the size of Nigeria, you will agree if they want to receive digital audio signal given the level of economy or lack of society for any Governmental debate.
Well, after the planning we went back home and we look at a few things and decided that some of the things that would make our transition successful is to have at transition plan to have a transition policy, to have Government commitment, not only Government commitment, to have the transition driven by Government. We need to have people's commitment and I am talking of broadcasters viewers and listeners and we must have the ability to effectively coordinate with our neighboring countries. This is very interesting because we have four neighbors, three of them they all speak French. And the last one which is the ocean we don't care whichever language we speak. We also think the transparency of the process from Government Point of View we also have. After the WRC 2006 and W ‑‑ sorry, after the WRC 06 and 07, the regulators set up after advising government set up a Committee which is an advisory Committee to the President of Nigeria. That Committee did set up submitted his report in 2008. Unfortunately for various other reasons, connected with broadcasting or digitalization purely political problems. The Government of Nigeria did not address implementation of those recommendations until 2012. And in fact, they ‑‑ the result of the Committee submitted was called a white paper that the Government and the federal Security Council has to endorse. This was approved on the 20th of December 2012. Policy guideline from the Presidential advisory committee white paper was separation of functions and some people licensed to the distribution or transmission of the context while some people would be charged with the responsibility of producing their content and for (inaudible) it was decided that you have a choice. Either be a content producer or signal distributor. You cannot be both. So signal distributors who are licensed later in 2014 but in the interim there was a national broadcaster called Nigeria television authority which has transmitter covering all the ‑‑ all of the Nigerian territory and it was decided that this company should be given a license as a signal distributor. For competitiveness to remove monopoly another company would be licensed which would be purely private. Even the license given to the national broadcaster will have to eventually become a company that is purely ‑‑ purely has nothing to do with Government. We all know that after the WRC 06 we had another development that greatly impacted on the digital WRC 06 plan and this is also has to be amended and also be replanned and this also took a long time and like I told you our neighbors are French speaking and when it comes to agreement everyone goes to extent. Those who speak French speak French and those who speak English speak English. Become very difficult. Through the intervention of regional bodies who became the ‑‑ and we with relationship with ECOWA the common standard for sector boxes these specifications, this specifications standards were approved by the ECOWA of broadcasting 25th September 2013 which in Banju, Gambia and it came in to force. Nigeria accepted this standard. We did the planning. We did frequency. We also decided to license the second signal distributor which began in March 2014. And eventually the winner July 2014 in the name of pinnacle communication and we also decided that for us to protect the set‑top box manufacturers, we need to limit the number of people who will manufacture the set‑top box in Nigeria and therefore the process started and about 11 people. And we also look at conditional assets. We have to protect the set‑top boxes. In the thinking of the industry. If you leave the set‑top boxes without conditional assets then you have a problem. Anybody can import set‑top boxes in to the country. Issue of conditional assets was involved. What they ‑‑ the Nigeria national television authority that was granted a license to distribute, collaborated with a Chinese company and roll out in 2009, 2009. And in same vain in 2007 the company in the table of multi choice international was licensed for transmission to 100 devices and when DTV 2 and MPEG 4 became the new standard that was adopted in Nigeria they approach the regulator to transmit not only to hundred devices but also to the TV sets. Today we have simulcast rollout by start times and the multi choice people in over 44 cities in Nigeria and today they have collected 7 million set‑top boxes in about 7 million living rooms in Nigeria. Simulcast. We toyed with the ‑‑ NBC is the National Broadcasting Commission which is the broadcast regulator in the country. Unfortunately in Nigeria we have two regulators. One for broad casting and one for telecom. So the issue of digital dividend is still in a gray area either we have been sharing or there is no real dividend but again it is because we have two regulators in the industry. At early stage was focus of digital dividend. We expected driving force for the transition will be monumental from the digital dividend. Like I said a few minutes ago because there is two regulators there is really a dividend or (inaudible) dividend. You can take that dividend and you can sell the dividend and you can provide the money. The Government is trying to sort that out. We plan the transition will eventually come by January 2016. I am sure a large number about the situation in Nigeria that is clearly taking over a cutter of the land mass of Nigeria and about close to one eighth living rooms. 17th June 2015 realistic it is not realistic and I am here today and I know there is no single part of Nigeria or city in Nigeria that simulcast has been switched off. This is the new ecosystem that will improve the life of the people that will make broadcaster interesting to the viewers. In conclusion the Nigerian plan for the transition of the RLC was good enough to enable switchoff by 2012 by circumstantial made it impossible just to do that that we have close to 7 billion rooms currently on the simulcast who can receive analog and digital transmission and I am talking of about 44 cities. If there is massive inject shun of set‑top boxes with political will in to the broadcast situation switch over to my mind is possible by 17 June 2016. Thank you for listening.
(Applause.)

>> PHAM HAI: Thank you very much. I find it difficult to restrict the time because all the presentations are interesting, informative and our colleague has also committed a lot of time and effort to come and share their experience with us. However I would like to ask the following speakers probably trying your best to stick to the time. Next is our colleague from Tanzania in Eastern part of Africa. Mr. Andrew Kisaka welcome.



>> ANDREW KISAKA: Yes. Thank you very much. And it is my pleasure to share with you experience from Tanzania how we managed to switch off analog television system. As I am saying now we have already finished to switch off analog television. There is no longer analog television in Tanzania and now we are enjoying digital signal. Today we have gathering of broadcasters to mark the end of switch off. Our guest of honor is our vice‑president. We are celebrating back home the end of analog television. We started to switch off from 31st of December 2012 on a first approach. And we have finished on 30th of April 2015. Two months. We have 28 television channels and 83, more than 83 radio stations and what are the factors for success? I will try to go one after another. It is almost to five but I will go through it very quickly. First we decided that digital migration should be policy driven rather than market driven. The authority drew migration roadmap which consists of Activities and events and timeline. That is roadmap which we developed in 2005. Now the digital migration actually in most of African countries there is ‑‑ when you talk about broadcasting you talk about politics. You have to involve top leader of the Government, especially given President. I will talk later about this because the President and other top leader of the Government were involved in the entire process. We started earlier our migration process by in consultation. We developed consultation to consultation documents. The first one was to explain why going digital. What are the benefits of digital against analog. This consultation document was circulated in to all broadcasters so that they can understand why do we need to migrate from analog to digital and we later after circulating the first consultation document we circulated another public consultation document which was proposing what kind of licensing framework should we adopt. This is the separation of content and transmission. So we needed to educate first the broadcasters themselves to buy the idea of why should we adopt this separation of content and signal distribution. In 2008 we developed an inter‑Ministerial steering Committee and in 2007 we finalized these consultation document on the business model to adopt. Now another thing which was very, very important it was to put in place the legal regulatory framework. In 2010 we ‑‑ in the Act of electronic and postal communication we provided some clause which provide for migration from digital, from analog to digital migration and also in 2011 we developed some regulation related to digital migration or digital broadcasting. So our switch off as I said before was in phase. The first phase included 7 terms. After that we engaged the (inaudible) to conduct a survey so we can assess the entire process. Their report was very good input to the second analog switchoff which helped us a lot to improve our migration strategy. Communication strategy as I said before involvement of the big top leaders of the Government was very, very important. So first we produce the communication strategy document which was approved by the national tiering steering committee and we engage the President to integrate the document. So the President was involved to inaugurate the public awareness. This competition of the logo was one of the important items because it developed a public awareness through all University, people secondary school because all of them were involved in this competition. And the first winner was offered like $2,000 and this is the logo. You can see a gentleman kicking off analog with a poor quality of picture embracing a digital receiver which has a very good quality of picture. This is the President integrating the public awareness campaign. What I can say we faced some problems first in terms of cost. We adopted public/private partnership for the public signal distributor and we had ‑‑ we have two signal distributors who are private signal distributors and we have tried to ‑‑ to exempt the input, the input duty for the set‑top boxes. Issues related to consumer, key factors which we addressed is the consumer willingness to digital takeup. Availability of SDB. We are almost one thousand distribution point officers and SDBs input duty exemption. Provision for consumer care included telephone lines technical support. Active consumer feedback by the consumer consultative council and quality of experience assurance by the regulator. As I said the analog switchoff was well planned. We served five criterion. We ensured that ‑‑ that service area for fulfilled the five chi tier ya we set. The first one analog TV services area should be well covered with digital TV signal and we have to do a sufficient public awareness campaign in that specific area. Availability of the set‑top box we have to make sure that that area which we intend to switch off is sufficient set‑top box and issue of affordability through exemption of setup duty. What I can share with you to save time. Success of digital migration was based on practice experience and in Tanzania the success behind first was political will. President himself was involved. So that itself create a big public awareness to the public also. The roadmap also it was very specifically we tried to manage everything timeline we put in the roadmap. The legal regulatory framework helped a lot and public awareness campaigns and we have done enough and regular consultation with the stakeholders also was the key to success of our analog digital ‑‑ migration from analog to digital broadcasting and also I like to inform these meeting that we have already conducted a coordination with our neighbor in order to protect our digital signal. Two weeks ago we have called a meeting with our neighbor. We have identified the transmitters which might be interfered. So the coordination has already been conducted to protect our digital assignments. Thank you for listening.
(Applause.)

>> PHAM HAI: Thank you very much especially for keeping to the time. I wonder whether from the top of Kilimanjaro you can see Europe. But whether they see or not we are going to have Europe now. Mr. Bernard Pauchon we give us the story on Digital Switchover experience across Europe. You have the floor.



>> BERNARD PAUCHON: Okay. Thank you and good morning, Ladies and Gentlemen. Thank you for making me the possibility to present the Digital Switchover experience across Europe. The problem is that most of the former speakers has to deal with one country and unfortunately to present in the same time slot Europe experience for a number of countries is an impossible exercise. So I will not make really a presentation. But I remain even if I speak English that I am French and then impossible is not French. So what I will do more or less is to make an advertising trailer of in order to encourage you to look more in‑depth in my presentation and before doing that express thanks to my former colleague Daniel who is from the WRC Committee and former Chair as well of DigiTAG but DigiTAG is stakeholders, and members include broadcaster network operators and regulators and to television equipment and consumer electronic manufacturing organization. It is to promote digital television worldwide regardless of the technical standard used on the DTV platform. I must say this is not any more update because we got an additional one from the Czech Republic. A piece of vocabulary. DTV don't make AS so, analog switch off with analog switchover. This is in fact, to illustrate who is doing what in terms of encoding technology in peg 2 and peg 4 and transmission technology country by country DTV, DTV 2 or a mix. I will let you see what is there. Interestingly for dealing with the DSO I think we could classify the various countries in Europe in to those who are terrestrial countries with a dominate business model with a rich platform such as France, UK and Italy and Spain. In Nordic countries we have a mixture TV service offered. And cable countries with limited TV the best example was Germany in which withe will see simulcast is very short. You will find on this slide how in fact, had been done the introduction of DTV in the various countries of Europe and, of course, number of channel date of DTV lounge and number of TV channel and Pay‑TV technology. I think it was interesting that in such countries like Italy and Spain and combined of MP ‑‑ it was a way to look forward to the future as well to not to use so much spectrum but in order to initialize a TV set. Then you have to see what ‑‑ how it is happened to follow us. Okay. And here you will have also to see the dates for the different countries depending they are mixed cable market and ‑‑ and period between DTV launch and the real switch off date. Okay. But there are still difficulties even in the north of region 1 and number of countries will not meet the anniversary of the deadline or whatever what we celebrate here today and, of course, we know that there are more difficulties in other part of region 1. Let me see the key factors of success all for differing countries. Key factor is, of course, to have good legislative framework including analog switchoff targets. Early involvement of Government and regulators is essential but also to ensure sufficient and financial resources and, of course, to ensure that adequate digital receivers are available at price. DTV coverage is essential and you will see the example of France and how low and decreased has helped to have this target and, of course, for the difference between the compulsory coverage of DTV to make the service available by a complimentary free to air satellite distribution platform. Okay but you also need sufficient DTV penetration. And, of course, two years before ASO in France 70% of our scores had access to digital TV services on at least one television sets and, of course, while 39 converted all of their television sets to digital. But still 17% only received television via analog terrestrial TV. This has been finished towards. So DTV penetration is essential. Of course you will see when you look alt this picture that there is close relationship in the terrestrial dependency and as I mention the record was for Germany who had only 9% terrestrial dependency but been able to achieve the analog switch off after nine months. Where we are today and how standard terrestrial platform around Europe in relation with the other main means of delivery. And, of course, if you see the figures have more than 100% simply because there are some multiple ways of receiving signals in the homes. Here is the coverage now after the penetration today that you will also find. You see that the coverage all around Europe has been quite extensive ranging from I would say 92% for the PSB in Portugal to 100% in the Czech Republic. Okay. Of course, what is important is precise analog switch off roadmap and therefore this has to be done over a number of years going region by region and here in the following slides we have some examples on how it has been made in the UK but also in Italy and in fact, for 16 technical areas and for that, of course, communication is key in order to prevent misunderstanding from the viewers such as what is illustrated on the figure there. And, of course, the example on how this communication plan had been made you will find below what has been done in the UK. And, of course, in I think it is Denmark not sure, but may other way of making communication. And, of course, a key element is availability to ensure that all television sets sold after said date can receive DTV service and you will have example on how it has been made in France and Italy and in the UK and, of course, money. Because you have to have some funding for this ‑‑ for the organization of the analog switchoff and, of course, cost of information campaign and also financial support has proved to be necessary so that in intended recipient of ED include low income households general public of households with community antennas. And here on this slide you will see how the ‑‑ what are the costs for some selected countries for which purpose, which amount and where was the money coming from. Okay. Network cost is, of course, important and you have here the example of France, how to achieve that and also to keep in mind that before in order to help the deployment of DTV network it has also been necessary to rearrange the analog services during the simulcast. Okay. Lessons, I think that's what interesting and it is on some slides which follow you will see some kind of mistakes which had been made by some countries. Filling are the key elements with subtitles. That won't forgotten. The date of the switch off coincided with the week end and the public broadcaster was in the front line. 20% of viewers stopped paying their television license fee. Sweden I will just ‑‑ you will see how it works. I will just concentrate on the last bullet. 40% of viewers waited until last month to purchase their DTV receivers. Netherlands interestingly the Netherlands which has low terrestrial penetration with a rich offering has contributed to increase the penetration. Italy is a special case. Okay. You recognize the book. But you know they had from 7 to 25 layers in Italy. So in fact, how to manage this, not many solution SFN and you see how was the frequency distribution for the MFN switch off in Sardinia which was the first place that Italy started the switch over. But switchover is a thing but should initialize the preparation for evolution and we see that there was a mix on the evolution between the early adopters and the final adopters and the initialization of MPEG 4 DTV for HDTV. Of countries to go start and the process continues. One important thing is that to migrate to use new technologies completely different to introduce and introduce new service is fine. To migrate new services without any benefit such as may happen in Europe where we will have to clear 700, then it is another problem because the analog to Digital Switchover was really win win because for the consumer more channels for the broadcasters and less cost of delivery. That would be another story. Flexibility on France and so on. Mandating already touch a little bit that. Labeling is also critical. Whatever for launching HD services. We have the new process initialized which, of course, the clearance of the 800 megahertz band. You know these by heart. So you will see the pictures and illustration. I would just like to say a word before the conclusion. On the impact of the DTV resulted from LTE in 800 megahertz band. First measure broadband and second to have the downlink around that not be the case for the 700 and then 3, insufficient take additional actions according to recommendation which has been made by digital DigiTAG with a formula EBU broadcast network European Association of broadcast network operators and ACT. We have all been able to do this together. DigiTAG made another one for mitigating interference from uplink. You will see all these details in the annex of the document. Summary, problem came not from interference but from overloading of the receivers and therefore the best medicine is the efficient and cost competitive domestic filters and also an issue with the user equipment. Here you are the nice lady who would like to watch television programme while his husband is creating interferences. While in the same apartment that's fine. But with your neighbor it may be more complicated solution. As I expect I think the impact on ‑‑ sorry on overloading is main one that we have experienced and then as a conclusion, the regional GE06 plan has proved to be a good starting point for evolution. It has indeed already accommodated more Networks and services than for seen in 2006. Broadcasting DTV will need to have enough spectrum secured for the long term to protect infrastructure and to be able to further innovate HDTV for all channel and UHDTV for some. Hence no change for spectrum below 694 megahertz upcoming (inaudible). Thank you very much and we orchestrate the terrestrial infrastructure. Thank you very much for listening.
(Applause.)

>> PHAM HAI: Okay. Thank you very much. With the music we know we are going to Brazil. So please roll the tape.



>> THIAGO AGULAR SOAREZ: Hello everyone. My name is Thiago Agular Soarez. I work at Anatel and I am in charge of broadcasting planning and technical regulation. I represent Brazil also in ITU SG6 meetings and I am here to speak about the switch off in Brazil. I would like to congratulate Mr. Christoph Dosch to organize this valuable symposium. Unfortunately I could not attend the event but ITU I would like to thank you to be possible to record this presentation for you and contribute to the discussions. I have a brief presentation about the analog switch off in Brazil and as you know digital TV is implementation in Brazil it is very advanced and now we are challenging the analog switch offs. In the first slide I would like to make a brief background. In 2013 Brazilian administration initiate the planning process to accelerate the transition and shut down the analog transmissions. We just decided to review the deadline for analog transmissions. First it was planned for July 2016 and the Minister of communications established it in 2014 the new switch off plan starting in 2015 and gradually being implemented until November 2018. Instead of one shot method that was planned before now the switch off will be implemented in different stages. So we can go to slide 3, the slide 3 details a little bit the ‑‑ how will be the analog switch off. The pilot analog switch off will take place in a small city in Brazil in November 2015. It is very soon. In April 2016 Brazila the capital city will be the first big city to have the analog switch off and after that the process will be implemented in all until 2018. In November of 2018 all the remaining cities will shut down their analog completing the switch over in Brazil. In slide 4 you can see detailed information about the regions that will be ‑‑ that will be ‑‑ that will have the analog switch off and note that all the nonlisted regions on gray zone will have the analog TV switch off before 2018. The colored one it is following the schedule detailed in the right and as you can see it seems that it is not from much regions but you see in terms of population all these colors have the most population areas in Brazil. To have the analog switch off you can go to slide 5 please. And several parameters will be monitored throughout the transitions process to trigger the decision‑making process. So after the discussions with the interested parties it was decided to ‑‑ that we will only have analog switch off in regions where 93% of population have access to digital television. And this will be measured, I will detail a little bit in further slides. And just when you achieve this 93% of coverage of digital television that will be possible to have the analog shut down. In November 2014 the Minister of communications also defined the conditions by which viewers should be warned of the analog switch off. It was defined at that ‑‑ the channel number that will replace which will start 36 days one year before the switch off and a count down will begin 60 days prior to that date. So you can see the next slide that was defined decided some communication campaigns I will show in the slide 6 and 7 and slide 6 you have a link for website where we have information about all the analog switch off in Brazil. It is in Portuguese but we are just also working to be able to have it in English also but, of course, the focus is Portuguese people and the ‑‑ it is a very easy to see website and the link is like you in digitaltv.com. Of course, in Portuguese. And people are already accessing these website to see all the information of analog shutdown. The next slide is No. 7. You see can the logo that was decided to be in the ‑‑ all the analog transmissions is like I said before, the countdown initiate one year. One year before the shutdown. For example, here in Brazila where I live we already have this logo in the TV box, all the TV transmissions. It is in the right side upper and all the broadcasters are already transmitting this logo to be possible to say that people ‑‑ that they are receiving the analog signal. They must ‑‑ they must buy another TV or a set‑top box that could convert the digital signal. This process of analog switchoff was discussed also the refarming of the digital dividend bend. In 2013 public policies had been define for the 700 band in Brazil and Anatel became developing studies for refarming channels. And the results indicated that could be necessary to change the frequentance of about 1,000 TV channels both planned channels and operating stations and this process will be carried right now during the switchover phase and the 700 megahertz band will be released gradually. But you can see a graph in slide 8 and it is indicated in the right side where is the 700 megahertz and the number of stations that are already planned or operating in this band. And so we develop a very difficult studies to be possible to refarm and restack all the TV stations to the other band that the band below the 52 channels. However in some places it was not possible to do this changes because due to the fact that in Brazil we have high density UHF ban spectrum. We will have to have the analog switch off first for them to have the refarming of the TV channels that are operating today. To do this we can go to slide No. 10 I think. Yes. Slide No. 10. We ‑‑ the ‑‑ the Government of Brazil developed some public policies to establish that all the costs of migration the TV channels down to TV channel 7 and 51 should be defrayed. Auction was conducted in December 2014 in Brazil. Four companies won the spectrum license in the auction raising about 3.2 billion American dollars. Cost 10 billion Brazilian revenue and today it is 3.2 billion American dollars. We had three national bands. 10 plus 10 megahertz bands and the Telecom Italia that won the 10 plus plan and one regional band that is only in the middle of Brazil is a small region that will ‑‑ who won was Alga, a company in Brazil. So the next slide 11, you can see that ‑‑ in this auction 6% of the amount collected will be used to migrating channels. But also distribute digital set‑top box and antennas and might great possible interference between IMT services and broadcasting service in the UHF band. It is a very many many difficult challenges. So a specific ‑‑ a specific third party entity was established by the auction winners to manage all the amounts raised by the auction. Right now they are develop many studies to make it possible. Moving forward current discussions is coordinating a steering Committee to drive objectives established for third party entity. The main discussions that we are developing is to define the criterias could reallocate, like changing transmitter and attendance all the logistics and the time frame to do this. The plan that ‑‑ the planned channels that are not operating we are just ‑‑ we are right now to making studies to move already so that the broadcaster as it are planning to operate are already operate in a channel down to 52 channel not using the 700 and another discussion very important is it detail the set‑top box technical specifications. It is decided amount raised by auction will be destinated to give set‑top boxes to allowing incoming viewers like people who are in regions that do not have a big TV screen they will receive a set‑top box to convert the signal to their analog TVs. To do this also ‑‑ that ‑‑ it is a way to be able very simple way to people installing and receiving the digital signal. As I said also we are defining analog shutdown measurements. And developing more comprehensive strategies in order to communicate correctly to all the viewers and they not have ‑‑ do not have cutting their services in one day. So the next slide I have some relevant documents as you can have many more information more detailed information. I pick it up four important documents. One that was submitted in the last ITU meeting. That is a red graph revision of the ITU RBT 2140‑7. The administration presented all this information with the graph and relevant docs and also we presented in last the ITU‑D meeting the question 8.1 of SG1 some three important documents that have this detailed information about the digital dividend refarming and the communication strategies. And if you need more information I am also available to answer the questions. Thank you very much. And thank you ITU to ‑‑ and congratulate for this important event for the analog shutdown and, of course, of the digital implementation. Thank you.

>> PHAM HAI: Thank you. I know you are listening in from Brazil early in the morning. Ladies and Gentlemen, given the time I have proposed that we would firstly ‑‑ we will try to post the presentations from Caribbean on our web and be able to stream it if you want to read it or throughout the day if we still got time we might be able to have the opportunity and reply it when we have a bit of time. Just to finish up the session I'd like to welcome Mr. Mark Richard President on behalf of Larry Olson to present the situation in USA. Thank you Mark.



>> Mark Richard: I'm going to give you a little history of what the DTV transition has been like in the United States and this story starts in analog. In 1987 the Federal Communications Commission regulatory body in the U.S. formed an advisory Committee. And it first looked at 23 systems, 23 different systems were proposed. They are all analog. In 1991 it was down to 6 systems. Again they are analog. And the FCC ‑‑ the advisory Committee decided to evaluate them all. The ‑‑ in 1992 the FCC made a very important decision that each broadcasting station would be paired with a second six megahertz channel during the transition period. At that point we were looking at four digital systems and two analog systems. In 1993 we decided not to look at analog systems any further. That wasn't too long ago but it is interesting to think about the history that when advanced started we are all looking at analog systems.
There was a decision to conduct a supplementary test of the four systems that were still available. And the grand alliance was formed and a single system was tested. ATSC approved what has been known as the DTV standard in 1995. The year later FCC adopted the DTV standards in to its rules. In 1997 the FCC adopted a schedule for broadcasters to implement DTV and adopted a table of allotments assigning existing broadcasters. In 2002 the manufacturers required to include a tuner in TV sets. It was a critical decision. Any TV that had an analog tuner must have an ATSC tuner. Any TV had a cable tuner in it must contain an ATSC tuner. It was very critical decision. Congress established a deadline and created a subsidy programme for DTV converter boxes and table allotments were finalized in 2007, 2008. The transition actually happened on June 12th 2009. Broadcast analog tee vooe ended. We like to say it is one digital only transmission began because that's really what happened. We got rid of the simulcast and went to digital. It was the goal of the U.S. Government to reclaim 108 megahertz of spectrum and auction were used for public safety applications and that pretty much happened on time. In terms of programming for digital television, broadcasters can provide any desired mix of digital offerings. Now the ‑‑ the emphasis on digital television in the United States was on high definition television and most broadcasters chose to broadcast HDTV but no requirement by the Government to do so. They could offer free over the air programme service but if they offered paid service they would have to provide a 5% fee of gross revenue back to the Government. Most provided HDTV and new programming started because of that. Critical things I would like to mention not only did the FCC put a mandate in place that all TV receivers must include ATSC capability but by industry agreement all ATSC receivers can decode and play HDTV content. There has never been an ATSC receiver made that could not process and display HDTV in some way. That turned out to be a wise thing to do in our situation. What do you do with analog sets? You can recycle them and we needed to have a low cost DTV reception on analog TVs. Set‑top boxes for dismay on older televisions became a critical part of the programme. Those devices were ‑‑ that project was managed by the Department of Commerce. And it basically made two coupons available to every household that could be applied toward the purchase of digital‑to‑analog converter sets. The limit were two $40 coupons per household and that was pretty good. First convert cost $50 and they came down after that. They became free. Maximum of one and a half billion dollars for the coupon programme was allotted.
Over 64 million coupons were sent out and more than 2300 retailers participated. It was a huge programme and the U.S. Government for which I do not work did a great job in managing this programme. So the ATV standard in terms of transitioning catalysts was critically important. Channel provided to broadcasters during the transition period. Receiver mandate and the digital analog converter programme and finally promotion and education are key. And I am done Mr. Chairman. I yield back my time.
(Applause.)

>> PHAM HAI: Thank you very much Mr. Richard. Thank you very much. So this is conclude our list of presentations for this session. My apology for the going way over time. We start any longer the interpreter will come back. So thank you very much to all the presenters here and in other part of the world and I give it back to you.

>> CHRISTOPH DOSCH: Okay. Thank you Mr. Hai for having conducted this session 2 which was quite difficult I think because of the order of speakers but the information was worthwhile to be had. Just in order to cope with the situation you can't get your lunch in 20 minutes. So perhaps we can start the next session which is session No. 3, 10 minutes late and then you have half hour for lunch. You can have lunch in the 15th floor of this building or you go to the corridor and the cafeteria on this floor. So enjoy your lunch. See you back at 2:10. Sorry.

>> Yes, could I just mention the video that I offered you is on the table outside.

>> CHRISTOPH DOSCH: And David Wood.

>> DAVID WOOD: Could I see the speakers for the next session here at 2 o'clock here with your presentations?

>> CHRISTOPH DOSCH: And bring your sandwich. Thanks very much.
(Session concluded at 1342 CET)

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This is being provided in rough‑draft format. Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) is provided in order to facilitate communication accessibility and may not be a totally verbatim record of the proceedings.

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