EDUCATION 1963 B.A. Social Science, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio
M.A. History, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
1975 Ph.D. History, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
PROFESSIONAL APPOINTMENTS 1975-1981 University of Wisconsin-Madison
History of Medicine, History of Science, and Women's Studies
1981-1986 Associate Professor
History of Medicine, History of Science, and Women's Studies
1981-1993 Chair, History of Medicine Department
1985-Present Affiliate Faculty Member, History Department
History of Medicine, History of Science, and Women's Studies
1990-1995 Evjue-Bascom Professor of Women's Studies
1996-1999 Associate Dean for Faculty, School of Medicine
1997-Present Ruth Bleier WARF Professor
Medical History, History of Science, and Women’s Studies
2004-Present UW Foundation Chair Rupple-Bascom Professor
8/2007-1/2008 Interim Chair, Medical History and Bioethics
PUBLICATIONS Books and Edited Volumes Medicine Without Doctors: Home Health Care in American History (New York: Science History Publications, 1977) Edited with Guenter B. Risse and Ronald L. Numbers
Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978) Edited with Ronald L. Numbers (Second Revised Edition, 1985) (Third Revised Edition, 1997)
Wisconsin Medicine: Historical Perspectives (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981) Edited with Ronald L. Numbers
The Healthiest City: Milwaukee and the Politics of Health Reform (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982; Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, paperback edition with new preface, 1996)
Women and Health in America: Historical Readings (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984) Edited (Second Revised Edition, 1999)
Brought to Bed: Childbearing in America 1750-1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986) (Paperback edition, 1988)
Typhoid Mary: Captive to the Public's Health (Boston: Beacon Press, 1996) (Paperback edition, 1997)
Make Room For Daddy: The Journey from the Waiting Room to the Delivery Room (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009, forthcoming.
Articles and Chapters "Politics and Public Health: Smallpox in Milwaukee, 1894-1895," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 6 (1976): 553-568. Reprinted in Health Care in America: Essays in Social History, eds. Susan Reverby and David Rosner (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979), pp. 84-101; and in Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health, eds. Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978), pp. 403-413; (1985 edition, pp. 372-82).
"Writing Public Health History: The Need for a Social Scaffolding," Reviews in American History, 4 (1976): 150-157.
"Public Health and Preventive Medicine," in Ronald L. Numbers, ed., The Education of American Physicians (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), pp. 250-272.
"Women in the University of Wisconsin Medical School," in Marian J. Swoboda and Audrey J. Roberts, eds., University Women: A Series of Essays, Vol II, Wisconsin Women, Graduate School, and the Professions (Madison: University of Wisconsin Office of Women, 1980), pp. 55-64. With Rima D. Apple.
"The Wasteland: Garbage and Sanitary Reform in the American City," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 35 (1980): 431-452.
"Birthing and Anesthesia: The Debate over Twilight Sleep in America," SIGNS, 6 (1980): 147-164.
"Health in Urban Wisconsin: From Bad to Better," in Ronald L. Numbers and Judith Walzer Leavitt, eds., Wisconsin Medicine: Historical Perspectives (University of Wisconsin Press, 1981), pp. 155-175.
“‘Down to Death’s Door’: Women’s Perceptions of Childbirth in America,”Proceedings of the Symposium Childbirth: The Beginning of Motherhood, University of Wisconsin Women’s Studies Program, April 1981. With Whitney Walton. Reprinted in Women and Health in America: Historical Readings, Ed. Judith Walzer Leavitt (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), pp. 155-165.
"Medicine's Coming of Age," Reviews in American History 10 (1982): 94-98.
“‘Science’ Enters the Birthing Room: Obstetrics in America since the Eighteenth Century," Journal of American History 70 (1983): 281-304. Reprinted and expanded in History of Obstetrics: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine--East & West (Osaka: Taniguchi Foundation, 1983), pp. 13-55. Reprinted in Sickness and Health in America: Historical Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health, eds. Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, Second Revised Edition (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 81-97.
“Introduction,” History of Obstetrics: Proceedings of the 7thInternational Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine--East and West (Osaka: Taniguchi Foundation, 1983), pp. 1-11.
"Medical School Remembered: Women's Experiences at the University of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Academy Review 31 (December 1984): 14-17 (with Rima D. Apple).
“‘Under the Shadow of Maternity’: Women's Responses to Death and Debility Fears in American Childbirth," Feminist Studies, (Spring, 1986): 129-54. (Reprinted in Women's America: Refocusing the Past, eds. Jane S. DeHart and Linda K. Kerber, 3rd edition (Oxford University Press, 1991; 4th edition (Oxford University Press, 1994). Also reprinted in Nancy Cott, ed. History of Women in America (Westport, Conn. Meckler Corp., 1994). Also reprinted in Women and Health in America: Historical Readings, ed. Judith Walzer Leavitt, second revised edition (University of Wisconsin Press, 1999).
"The Growth of Medical Authority: Technology and Morals in Turn of the Twentieth Century Obstetrics," Medical Anthropology Quarterly 1 (1987): 230-255. Reprinted in Women and Health in America: Historical Readings, ed. Judith Walzer Leavitt, second revised edition (University of Wisconsin Press, 1999).
"Joseph B. DeLee and the Practice of Preventive Obstetrics," American Journal of Public Health, 78 (1988): 1353-59.
“The Medicalization of Health and Disease,” Health and Human Values Newspaper Supplement, Pennsylvania Humanities Council, Pittsburgh PostGazette, Philadelphia Daily News, Erie Times-News Weekender, Centre DailyTimes and Williamsport Sunday Grit (1988-1989).
“Ten Years of Historical Research on Women and Health,” in A Decade of Research in Women’s Studies: A Colloquium Series (Madison: Women’s Studies Research Center Working Papers, 1987).
"A Decade of Feminist Critiques in the Natural Sciences: An Address by Ruth Bleier," (edited and introduced, with Linda Gordon) Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 14 (1988): 182-195.
"The Medicalization of Childbirth in the Twentieth Century," Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia Series 5, Vol. 11, No. 4 (December 1989), pp. 299-319.
"Medicine in Context: A Review Essay of the History of Medicine," American Historical Review 95 (December 1990): 1471-1484.
“‘Typhoid Mary’ Strikes Back: Bacteriological Theory and Practice in Early Twentieth Century Public Health," Isis 83 (December 1992): 608-629. Reprinted in Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health, eds. Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, third revised edition (University of Wisconsin Press, 1997).
“‘Typhoid Mary’ and the Public's Health," Humanities 15 (1994): 32-33.
“‘Alone Among Strangers’: The Transition from Home to Hospital in American Childbirth History," International Journal of Childbirth Education 9 (August 1994): 5-7.
“‘Be Safe. Be Sure’: New York City's Experience with Epidemic Smallpox," in Hives of Sickness: Public Health and Epidemics in New York City, edited by David Rosner (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995), pp. 95-114. Reprinted in Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health, eds. Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, third revised edition (University of Wisconsin Press, 1997).
“‘A Worrying Profession': The Domestic Environment of Medical Practice in the Mid-Nineteenth Century," Garrison Lecture, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 69 (Spring 1995): 1-29. Reprinted in Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health, eds. Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, third revised edition (University of Wisconsin Press, 1997).
"Gendered Expectations: Women and Early Twentieth Century Public Health," in U.S. History as Women's History: New Feminist Essays, eds. Linda Kerber, Alice Kesslar-Harris, and Kathryn Kish Sklar (University of North Carolina Press, 1995).
“‘Strange Young Women on Errands’, Obstetric Nursing Between Two Worlds”, Nursing History Review, 6 (1998): 3-24. Reprinted in Enduring Issues in American Nursing, eds. Ellen D. Baer, Patricia D’Antonio, Sylvia Rinker, and Joan E. Lynaugh (New York: Springer Publishing Company, 2001).
“Mary Mallon,” American National Biography, ed. John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes, 24 vols (NY: Oxford University Press, 1999), vol 15, pp. 377-378.
“Winds of Change: Results of a Gender Climate Survey from a Midwest Academic Health Center,” by Sharon Foster, Julia E. McMurray, Mark Linzer, Judith W. Leavitt, Marjorie Rosenberg, and Molly Carnes, Academic Medicine, June, 2000.
“A Celebration of Intergenerational Mentoring and ‘Mothering’: Judith Walzer Leavitt,” in Feminist Collections: A Quarterly of Women’s Studies Resources, vol. 23, issue 1 (Fall, 2001).
“What Do Men Have to Do With It? Fathers and mid-20th Century Childbirth,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 77, 2003, pp. 235-262.
"Public Resistance or Cooperation? A Tale of Smallpox in Two Cities," Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, volume 1, number 3, 2003, pp. 1-8. “After SARS: Fear and Its Uses,” (with Lewis A. Leavitt) Dissent, Fall, 2003, pp. 54-58.
“Ruth Bleier,” Notable American Women, Supplement 3, Harvard University Press, 2005.
"Public Resistance or Cooperation? A Tale of Smallpox in Two Cities" in
Controversies in Science and Technology: From Maize to Menopause, eds. Daniel Lee Kleinman, Abby J. Kinchy, and Jo Handelsman (University of Wisconsin Press, 2005).
Book Reviews John Duffy, History of Public Health in New York City, 1866-1966, in Clio Medica, April, 1975, pp. 72-73.
Stuart Galishoff, Safeguarding the Public Health, in JAMA, 235 (1976): 2020.
Alfred W. Crosby, Jr., Epidemic and Peace, 1918, in Wisconsin Magazine of History, 60 (1976-1977): 154-155.
Mary Roth Walsh, "Doctors Wanted, No Women Need Apply:" Sexual Barriers in the Medical Profession, in Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 33 (1978): 104-105.
Sandra Chaff, et al, Women in Medicine, in JAMA, 240 (1978): 149.
Patricia Branca, The Medicine Show, in Isis, 70 (1979): 324-325.
Linda Gordon, Woman's Body Woman's Right: A Social History of Birth Control in America in Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 9 (1979): 579-581.
Dorothy and Richard Wertz, Lying-In: A History of Childbirth in America, in Journal of Social History, 12 (1979): 484-486.
Charles E. Rosenberg, ed., Healing and History: Essays for George Rosen in Journal of the History of Medicine 1 (1980): 90-91.
Gerald Grob, Edward Jarvis and the Medical World of the 19th Century, for Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 10 (1980): 556-558.
James B. Donegan, Women and Men Midwives: Medicine, Morality, and Misogyny in Early America for Bulletin of the History of Medicine 55 (1981): 297-298.
Morris Vogel, The Invention of the Modern Hospital for Science 214 (1981): 1338.
Judith R. Walkowitz, Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State for Sex Roles 8 (1982): 102-105.
Roger Smith, Trial by Medicine: Insanity and Responsibility in Victorian Trials for Isis, 73 (1982): 460-461.
Thomas R. Dunlap, DDT: Scientists, Citizens, and Public Policy, for Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 38 (April 1983): 188-89.
Stephen Nissenbaum, Sex, Diet, and Debility in Jacksonian America: Sylvester Graham and Health Reform, for Clio Medica 16 (1982): 245-246.
James MaHood & Kristine Wenberg, eds., Clelia Duel Mosher, The Mosher Survey: Sexual Attitudes of 45 Victorian Women for the Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 56 (1982): 295-296.
Lillian Schlissel, Women's Diaries of the Westward Journey for the Pennsylvania Magazine of History, (October 1982), pp. 578-79.
Margaret W. Rossiter, Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940 for Science, 218 (December 1982): 1299-1300.
Beryl Rowland, Medieval Woman's Guide to Health for Clio Medica, 17 (March 1983): 256-57.
Harry E. Dowling, City Hospitals: The Undercare of the Underprivileged for American Historical Review, (June 1983): 764-65.
Barbara Melosh, "The Physician's Hand" Work Culture and Conflict in American Nursing for Feminist Collections 4 (Summer 1983): 33-35.
David Rosner, A Once Charitable Enterprise: Hospitals and Health Care in Brooklyn & New York 1885-1915 for Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 14 (Winter 1984): 713-715.
John Ettling, The Germ of Laziness for the Public Historian, 6 (Spring 1984): 116-118.
Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine, for American Historical Review, 89 (April 1984): 532-33.
William Ray Arney, Power and the Profession of Obstetrics for Bulletin of the History of Medicine 58 (Fall 1984): 445-47.
James H. Cassedy, American Medicine and Statistical Thinking 1800-1860 for American Historical Review (February 1985), p. 216.
Barbara Sicherman, Alice Hamilton: A Life in Letters, for New England Quarterly 58 (June 1985): 289-291.
Charlotte Fuhrer, Mysteries of Montreal: Memoirs of a Midwife, ed. Peter Ward for Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 40 (October 1985): 491-492.
Martin S. Pernick, A Calculus of Suffering: Pain, Professionalism, and Anesthesia in Nineteenth Century America for Pennsylvania Magazine of History (October 1985): 589-590.
Regina Markell Morantz-Sanchez, Sympathy and Science: Women Physicians in America for Isis (March 1986): 175-176.
K. Austin Kerr, Organized for Prohibition: A New History of the Anti-Saloon League for New England Journal of Medicine, 1986.
Judy Barrett Litoff, The American Midwife Debate for Journal of American History, 1986.
Jean Towler and Joan Bramall, Midwives in History and Society for Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 42 (July 1987): 387-88.
J. Worth Estes and David M. Goodman, The Changing Humors of Portsmouth for Science, 237 (August 1987): 924-25.
Gloria Moldow, Women Doctors in Gilded-Age Washington: Race, Gender and Professionalization for Isis, 78 (1987): 654-656.
Emily Martin, The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction for the Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 62 (1988): 159-160.
Susan M. Reverby, Ordered to Care: The Dilemma of American Nursing, 1850-1945 for American Historical Review (February 1989), pp. 208-209.
Philippa Mein Smith, Maternity in Dispute: New Zealand, 1920-1939 for American Historical Review (April 1988), pp. 486-7.
Joan Jacobs Brumberg, Fasting Girls: The Emergence of Anorexia Nervosa as a Modern Disease for Journal of Social History, 22 (1988): 581-582.
Sylvia Hoffert, Private Matters: American Attitudes toward Childbearing and Infant Nurture in the Urban North, 1800-1860 for the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, (April 1990): 308-309.
Jessica Mitford, The American Way of Birth for the New Republic, December 28, 1992, pp. 40-42.
Irvine Loudon, Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950 for The Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine, (1994): 150-151.
Jacalyn Duffin, Langstaff: A Nineteenth-Century Medical Life for Medical History 39 (April 1995), pp. 251-52.
Jo Murphy-Lawless, Reading Birth and Death: A History of Obstetric Thinking for Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 74 (2000), pp. 371-3.
Irvine Loudon, The Tragedy of Childbed Fever for New England Journal of Medicine, vol 343, August 24, 2000, p. 587.
Emily K. Abel, Hearts of Wisdom: American Women Caring for Kin 1850-1940 for Journal of the American Medical Association, vol 285. no. 18 (May 9, 2001) pp 2383-2384.
Wendy Mitchinson, Giving Birth in Canada 1900-1950 (University of Toronto Press, 2002) for Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 2003.
Marilyn Chase, The Barbary Plague: The Black Death in Victorian San Francisco for the New York Times Book Review, March, 2003.
Marie Jenkins Schwartz, Birthing a Slave: Motherhood and Medicine in the Antebellum South, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 2007.